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Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & FittingsTECHNICAL DOSSIERGRP PIPES & FITTINGSShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd.CHENNAI - INDIA.Ph: 91-44-5218 7877Fax: 91-44-2445 3287e-mail: info@shriramsepl.comShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India1

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & FittingsGLASSFIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS (GRP) PIPES1.FEATURES & ADVANTAGES OF GRP AS PIPING MATERIALBy virtue of its superior material characteristics, GRP pipes have become theultimate choice replacing steel, DI and Concrete pipes for transporting differentprocess fluids, sea water, raw water and potable water for different undergroundand aboveground applications.The single most reason why people go for GRP is the total corrosion resistance thatthis material offers. Well-engineered GRP pipelines can be totally forgotten afterinstallation for its life period without catholic protection or periodic maintenanceand for this reason, GRP pipelines are called as “ZERO-MAINTENANCEPIPING”.International Codes and specifications are available for GRP pipe design,construction, testing and installation. All service requirements are met by the GRPpipes in total by suitable and appropriate design.On the cost front, with optimum engineering and productivity matching the best ofindustries worldwide, we are able to compete with steel, ductile iron and otherconventional piping material.The prime advantages of GRP pipes are:a) ABSOLUTELY CORROSION FREE: The material is inert to any type ofwater(sea water, raw water, potable water etc.) and for handling differentprocess fluids, chemicals, acids , bases etc. With suitable GRP materialsystem(resin), pipes can be designed for handling all fluids. M/s StrategicEngineering will advise customers on this based on their requirement. Nocoating, gunniting, mortar lining or cathodic protection required with GRPpiping.b) SMOOTH INNER SURFACE: The inner surface of GRP pipe is the bestamong piping materials, due to which the friction loss is minimum with GRPpipes. Again, unlike steel and other materials, the smooth surface willremain the same throughout its intended service life, as the corrosion isabsent in GRP. This gives less power consumption and low pumping costthroughout the pipeline life.Hazen Williams Coefficient (“C” Value) for GRP is 150 for the purpose ofdesign as per standards; however the tested values are in the range of 160-165.Because of higher 'C' Value, frictional losses in GRP Pipes are much lesscompared to that of conventional pipes. Hence, recurring energy charges andpump cost is lower in GRP Pipes compared to same diameter of otherconventional pipes. Alternatively, we can reduce the diameter of GRP Pipeskeeping frictional losses same as in case of conventional pipes.Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India2

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittingsc) LONGER LIFE: GRP pipes are designed for 50 years of life for normalapplications. For Offshore applications, the design life is 20 years.d) HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO: The high-strength to weightratio of this material offers the advantage of weight reduction and due to this, itis easy to handle & transport and this aids faster installation. It is light inweight, 1/5th of Steel, 1 /8th of CI and 1/10th of PSC for the same pressurerating and strength criterion.e) EXCELLENT JOINT TIGHTNESS: Different joints like bell & spigot withrubber seal, coupler, butt & wrap flanged joints are available. Engineered jointstotally eliminate ex-filtration / infiltration.f) RESISTANCE TO SURGE PRESSURE: The water hammer in GRP pipe isless due to elasticity of GRP pipe. GRP pipes can withstand pressure up to 1.4times of its pressure class in case of surge, which is higher than conventionalpipes.g) FREE OF MAINTENANCE: GRP pipelines are virtually maintenance freeafter installation. In case of repair, it can be repaired at site easily without anynecessity of heavy equipments.2.GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS: GRP PIPES & FITTINGSThis section gives the overview of the Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes andfittings for different industrial, chemical and water conveying applications. The pipingsystem shall be furnished and installed complete with all fittings, joining materials,supports, and other necessary accessories.2.1.CLASSIFICATION OF PIPES AND FITTINGS2.1.1Based on Nominal DiameterNominal size of pipe and fitting is based on internal diameter. The complete list of theavailable size produced by Strategic Engineering is in the table given hereunder. Thenominal diameters (in mm) are: 25, 40, 50, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450,500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200,2400,2600,2800,3000.2.1.2 Based on Nominal Pressure ClassesPipes and fittings are classified according to nominal pressure. Standard pressureclasses (in bar) are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 32 and 40. Intermediate or higher-pressureclasses are considered depending on the design conditions.2.1.3Specific Pipe Stiffness ClassesShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India3

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & FittingsPipes are also classified according to pipe stiffness. Stiffness is the prime design criteriain the case of underground pipes. GRP pipe stiffness is classified into four classes, viz.A, B, C, D. and expressed as “pipe stiffness” as per ASTM, AWWA and IS standardsin kPa. It is also expressed as “Specific Tangential Initial Stiffness” as per BS 5480 &European norms, EN. Different stiffness classes are given below.GRP Pipe Stiffness ClassesPipe ClassPipe Stiffness,psi(kPa)Specific Tangential InitialStiffness, N/m22.3ABCD9 (62)18 (124)36 (248)72 (496)12502500500010000GOVERNING STANDARDSThe governing documents commonly used in specifying, testing and applying GRPpiping are the following:Product SpecificationsAWWA C950ASTM D2310ASTM D2996ASTM D3262ASTM D3517ASTM D3754ASTM D2517BS 5480BS 7159IS 12709IS 14402American Water Works Association Standard for Fiberglass pressurepipeStandard Classification for Machine-Made Reinforced ThermosettingResin PipeStandard Specification for Filament-Wound "Fiberglass" (Glass-FiberReinforced Thermosetting-Resin) PipeStandard Specification for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-ReinforcedThermosetting-Resin) Sewer PipeStandard Specification for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-ReinforcedThermosetting-Resin) Pressure PipeStandard Specification for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-ReinforcedThermosetting- Resin) Sewer and Industrial Pressure PipeStandard Specification for Reinforced Epoxy Resin Gas Pressure Pipeand FittingsBritish Standard Specification for Glass reinforced plastics (GRP)pipes, joints and fittings for use for water supply or sewerage.Design and construction of glass reinforced plastics (GRP) pipingsystems for individual plants or sitesIndian Standard for Glass fiber Reinforced Plastics(GRP) Pipes, Jointsand Fittings for use for Potable Water SupplyIndian Standard for Glass fiber Reinforced Plastics(GRP) Pipes, Jointsand Fittings for use for Sewerage, Industrial Waste and Water( OtherThan Potable)Testing StandardsASTM D2992Standard Practice for Obtaining Hydrostatic or Pressure Design BasisShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India4

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & FittingsASTM D3681ASTM D3567ASTM D2412ASTM D2290ASTM D6382.4for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipeand Fittings Procedure B - Steady pressureStandard Test Method for Chemical Resistance of "Fiberglass"(GlassFiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe in a Deflected ConditionStandard Practice for Determining Dimensions of ReinforcedThermosetting Resin Pipe (RTRP) and FittingsStandard Test Method for Determination of External LoadingCharacteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate LoadingStandard Test Method for Apparent Tensile Strength of Ring orTubular Plastics and Reinforced Plastics by Split Disk MethodStandard Test Method for Tensile Properties of PlasticsQUALITY ASSURANCEOur internal quality assurance program is in compliance with international GRP pipestandards.2.5MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTIONPipes are manufactured by the filament winding process using appropriate resin systemto impregnate the strands of continuous glass filaments, which are wound around amandrel at a predetermined angle of winding. The resin controls the corrosionresistance properties of the composite material system and hence the type of resin for agiven application is selected for the service fluid. All pipes have a resin-rich corrosionbarrier(liner) reinforced with C-Glass surface mat. The corrosion barrier has high resincontent of at least 70%. Liner shall be at least 0.5 mm thick. The structural glassfiberreinforcement for pipes and fittings shall be of E-Glass. GRP pipes exposed to sunlight(aboveground applications) are given a top resin coat that contains additives for UVprotection.2.6FLANGES AND FITTINGSAll fittings are manufactured using the same type materials as the pipe. Fittings aremanufactured by contact moulding process. Fittings shall be adhesive bonded matchedtapered bell and spigot or flanged. Flanges shall have ANSI B16.5 Class 150 bolt holepatterns.2.7PIPE INSTALLATIONThe piping system shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s currentpublished installation procedures. All joints installed or constructed in the field shall beassembled only by trained technicians. After the completion of pipe installation at site,the pipeline in full or in sections will be tested for 1.5 times the working pressure orworking pressure plus five bar; whichever is lower for 30 minutes with water. All pipejoints shall be water-tight. All joints that are found to leak by observation or duringtesting shall be repaired and retested.Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India5

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & FittingsCOMPARISON OF GRP PIPES WITH OTHER PIPING MATERIALSDescriptionGRP PipesCorrosionresistanceGoodInside smoothnessHazen WilliamCo-efficient (C”Value ) 150.Hence lesspumping costWeightLight in weightLifeDIVery poorcorrosionresistance. Henceinside cementlining and outsidewrapping/ coatingis required“C” value 120Hence pumpingcost is higherMS EpoxycoatedVery poorcorrosionresistanceCathodicprotection isrequiredHDPEGoodC” value 120Hence pumpingcost is higherC” value 1504 times higherthan GRP4 times higherthan GRPGRP pipes aredesigned for 50Years of lifeDue to corrosionthe life of pipe is15 – 20 yearsDue to corrosionthe life of the pipeis 10 – 15 yearsHandlingHandling is veryeasy since verylight in weightDifficult, due toheavy weightDifficult, due toheavy weightWeight is higherthan GRP due tohigher wallthicknessLife of HDPEpipe is 10 – 15years depend uponthe serviceconditionHandling is veryeasyUndergroundApplicationBest designoptimizationpossible with 50years life.The life of theunder ground pipeis reduced due toexternal corrosionUneconomicaldesign calling forvery highthickness.MaintenanceLess Maintenanceis required1.8 – 1.9External coatingmay peel off indue course oftime. Periodicalmaintenance isrequired.7.85Repair is notpossibleSpecific GravityThe life of theunder ground DIpipe is reduceddue to externalcorrosionExternal coatingmay peel off indue course oftime. Periodicalmaintenance isrequired.7.05Tensile Strength375 MPa (Hoop)420 MPa400 MPa35 MPaModulus ofElasticityCost30 GPa (Hoop)150 – 170 GPa210 – 240 GPa5 GPaInitial &life–cycle costbenefits10% - 20% higherthan GRP10% - 20% higherthan GRPHigher for 150NB and abovesizesShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India0.956

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings3.DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF GRP PIPESRational and experimental methods are used in designing GRP piping design. Most ofperformance limits are determined from long-term strength characteristics. Design factorsare used to ensure adequate system over the intended system life of the pipe by providing forunforeseen variations in materials properties and loads.The structural design procedure involves establishing of the design conditions, selection ofthe pipe classes and corresponding pipe properties, selection of installation parameters, andperforming pertinent calculations to satisfy the design requirements.3.1DESIGN CONDITIONSThe following design conditions should be established: Nominal pipe diameter Working pressure Internal vacuum pressure Installation conditions: aboveground or underground Average service temperature Other special conditions such as ground water-table, seismic loading, sub-aqueouslaying etc.3.2ALLOWABLE STRESSESThe allowable stresses are calculated based on the long-term hydrostatic test performed inaccordance with ASTM D2992 Procedure B. GRP pipes are designed for 50 years of life.The design stress value used in the calculations to establish the thickness of GRP pipescorresponds to the 50 years life of the glassfiber reinforced plastic material system.The design stress value for GRP pipes is evaluated based on long-term test in accordancewith ASTM D2992. Long-term hydrostatic strength is known as Hydrostatic DesignBasis(HDB) and this is evaluated by testing a minimum of 18 samples at various pressuresfor different failure time over 10,000 hours and extrapolating for 50 years life by least squareregression curve fitting. The assumption is that aging depends on resin, curing agent, glasstype and sizing and geometry of the reinforcement, but does not depend on the diameter andpressure rating and hence, this testing is required only for family representatives. Hydrostaticdesign stress (HDS) is the value obtained by dividing the HDB by a safety factor of1.8(minimum).Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India7

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings4.TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS –DESIGN DATAITEM DESCRIPTIONSPECIFICATIONSASTM D2996, 2992, 3517AWWA C950,BS 5480, 7159IS 12709, 14402Design StandardPropertyLong- Term Hydrostatic Strength:Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB)-StaticShort - term Hydrostatic StrengthUnitStandardValueMPaASTM D 2992Procedure “B”ASTM D 1599225 – 275Hoop Tensile ModulusMPaASTM D 241220500-28000Axial Tensile StressMPaASTM D 63845 -60Axial Tensile ModulusMPaASTM D 6389000-11000Hoop Bending ModulusMPaASTM D 241220500-28000Poisson’s ratio : axial to hoop-ASTM D 22900.65Poisson’s ratio : hoop to axial-ASTM D 22900.38Coefficient of linear expansionm/m. CASTM D 6962 x 10-5Thermal ConductivityW/m. K-0.29Electrical Resistively (standard pipe)Ohm/mASTM D 257109Electrical Resistively (conductive pipe)Ohm/mASTM D 257 105-ASTM D 258470 5Kg / m3-1750 50Barcol Hardness-ASTM D258330 - 50Hazen – William co-efficient (C value)--150MPa140Mechanical PropertiesOTHER PROPERTIESGlass Content (by Weight)DensityShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India8

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings5.TESTING & QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES.No.1.2.S.No.Raw Material InspectionC-Veil, CSM & W/R Mat: Moisture Content Loss on Ignition Tensile Strength Mass per unit length Visual InspectionResin Specific Gravity Viscosity Volatile Content Gel Time Acid ValueProduct Inspection100% Testing on Product1.Visual Inspection2.Dimensional Control3.Hydraulic Pressure Test4.Barcol HardnessTest MethodSamplingIS 11320IS 11551IS 11271Every Batch of GlassdeliveryIS 6746Every Batch of ResindeliveryTest MethodSamplingAWWA C 950/ M45ASTM D 3567BS 5480ASTM D 2583100% of the item100% of the item100% of the pipes100% of the pipesBatch Test on Product5.Pipe Stiffness(Destructive Test)ASTM D 2412/BS 5480Minimum One in 100pipes6.Axial Tensile Strength(Destructive Test)ASTM D 638/BS 5480Minimum One in 100pipes7.Hoop Tensile Strength(Destructive Test)ASTM D 2290/BS 5480Minimum One in 100pipes8.Loss on Ignition Test of Pipe(Destructive Test)ASTM D 2584Minimum One in 100pipesSEPL’s ManualFrequency as perManualEquipment Calibration9.Testing Equipment CalibrationProduct Marking & Identification10.Product marking /IdentificationSEPL’s ManualFrequency as perManual11.Final Inspection Activities andReview of DocumentsSEPL’s ManualBefore DeliveryShriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India9

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings6.JOINTS FOR GRP PIPES6.1CATEGORIESGRP pipe joints include two general categories:6.1.1 Restrained Joints: Pipe joints capable of withstanding internal pressure and axial loaddue to internal pressure.a)b)c)d)Flanged JointButt & Wrap JointAdhesive Bonded Joint(Bell & Spigot with Adhesive)Rubber Seal Lock Joint (Bell & Spigot with Rubber Sealing Rings and aLocking Key)6.1.2 Unrestrained Joints: Pipe joints capable of withstanding only hoop loading due tointernal pressure. In this type, the axial forces in the system have to be taken by externalprovisions on the pipeline.a)b)6.2Bell & Spigot with Rubber Sealing RingsCoupler with Rubber Sealing RingsRESTRAINED JOINTS6.2.1 FLANGED JOINTTo enable connections and to allow for easy assembling and disassembling of process lines.Pipes and fittings are supplied with flanges, drilled in accordance with ANSI, DIN or otherspecifications.Glassfibre reinforced flanges are always flat faced and in view of this, matching flangesshould also be flat faced. The flanged joint is completed by using a gasket. Standard gasketis a flat gasket.Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India10

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & FittingsFor severe application and in any case for diameter 1200 mm and NP 10 bar, it issuggested to use O-ring gasket that are accommodated in a groove realized on the face of theflange. GRP Flanges are normally made as fixed flanges; however GRP stub flanges are alsoused in some applications. For GRP stub ends, the loose backing rings can be made either inGRP or in steel.6.2.2 BUTT & WRAP JOINT (LAMINATED OVERLAY)The Butt & Wrap joint consists of plain-ended pipes and fittings, prepared, aligned andlaminated with reinforcing fibers and adhesives. The pipe ends are abutted end to end,aligned on the same centerline, and the joint over wrapped with layers of resin impregnatedglassfiber materials.Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India11

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings6.2.3 ADHESIVE BONDED JOINT (Bell & Spigot with Adhesive)The adhesive bonded joint is a rigid type of joining. Three types of adhesive bonded jointsare available. A joint using a tapered bell and a tapered spigotA straight bell and a straight spigot jointA joint using a tapered bell and a straight spigot.Adhesive bonded joints are generally used for pipes upto 400mm diameter.6.2.4RUBBER SEAL LOCK JOINTThe joint is a bell and spigot with rubber sealing rings and a locking key. The locking keycan be inserted through a bell opening into a groove and this provides the axial restraint forthe pipes. This joint is a non-destructive, separable joining system which accommodateslongitudinal; forces. Both metallic and shear resistant plastic materials are used for lockingkey.Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India12

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings6.3UNRESTRAINT JOINTS6.3.1 BELL & SPIGOT WITH RUBBER SEALING RINGSIt has a groove either on the spigot or in the bell to retain an elastomeric gasket that shall bethe sole element of the joint to provide the water-tightness. The socket end of this joint is anintegral filament wound part of the pipe. The spigot end is a machined part on which therubber seal is positioned. This flexible joint allows for axial movement of the spigot in thesocket and some angular deflection.6.3.2 COUPLER WITH RUBBER SEALING RINGSDouble bell coupler is employed to connect two GRP pipes, which are mainly used forunderground application. Double bell coupler has grooves inside the coupler to retainelastomeric seals that shall be the sole element of the joint to provide the water-tightness.This flexible joint allows for axial movement of the pipe in the coupler and some angulardeflection. The both ends of GRP pipe will have spigot, which will match with the coupler.Shriram SEPL Composites (P) Ltd, Chennai, India13

Technical Dossier: GRP Pipes & Fittings7. Supports for Aboveground GRP PipelinesGRP Pipe supports can be either of a hanger type, guide

ASTM D2996 Standard Specification for Filament-Wound "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe . ASTM D2290 Standard Test Method for Apparent Tensile Strength of Ring or Tubular Plastics and Reinforced Plastics by Split Disk Method ASTM D638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics 2.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE Our internal quality assurance program is in .

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