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The Kanji Café’sREADING JAPANESETHE JAPANESE KANA SCRIPTSCONTENTSeBook License二2Introduction三3Procedures四4Lesson 1 (Katakana)五5Lesson 5 (Hiragana)Lesson 2 (Katakana)十九19Lesson 6 (Hiragana)Lesson 3 (Katakana)四十一41Lesson 7 - Not finishedLesson 4 (Katakana)六十三63Lesson 8 - Not finished 2007-2008 KanjiCafe.com八十八88百三 103

READING JAPANESEeBook LicenseAs long as you do not make alterations, feel free to disseminate this eBook.The original text was written by Eleanor Harz Jorden with Hamako Ito Chaplin.All other content was written by James Rose. It is a work in progress.This eBook is published by Rolomail Trading, United States Virgin Islands.The most up-to-date version of the book can always be found at can be reached at [email protected] Trading can be reached at [email protected] eBook was paid for by your support of Rolomail Trading. Thank you and keep it up!二

READING JAPANESEINTRODUCTIONThis adaptation of READING JAPANESE contains four chapters which teach the katakanasyllabary, and four chapters which teach the hiragana syllabary. It has been formatted so that eachPDF page fits entirely on your screen. It is meant to be given freely without charge to promote thestudy of the Japanese language. Reading Japanese was developed under contract with the U.S.Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. This free version has beenrepublished by, and was underwritten by the generous support of people like you,who have purchased their Japanese educational products at the Rolomail Trading Company, and atMangajin Publishing (Wasabi Brothers Trading Company).The Original textbook was prepared over a number of years, field tested in a number ofinstitutions, and was checked, typed, indexed and proofread by an extensive number of people,hundreds of copies being sent out to participating schools for criticism and classroom reaction.These schools, among others, included Bucknell University, Columbia University, the ForeignService Institute, University of Iowa, University of Pennsylvania, Yale University, the JapanNational Language Research Institute, and most especially Cornell University, where the authorswere from. This book is truly the result of an unusual level of cooperation.READING JAPANESE is not a handbook or a dictionary, but was specifically prepared tointroduce adult foreigners, in particular English speakers, to the Japanese language, and enablethem to begin reading. Material is presented in an ordered fashion, and each increment of newmaterial presupposes mastery of what was studied before, but only what was studied before.三

READING JAPANESEPROCEDURESJapanese is normally written with a mixture of two syllabaries (kana) and Chinese characters(kanji). In kana writing, symbols represent syllables without reference to meaning, whereaskanji regularly stand for sound plus meaning. More will be said about both systems later.The first four lesson of this eBook introduce the katakana. Students should go through theselessons, concentrating first on the reading and then the writing of each new symbol and theexamples provided. They should practice until all the Japanese material included (1) can beread in random order, accurately, rapidly, and without any hesitation, and (2) can be writtenaccurately and rapidly, given either oral dictation of the Japanese, or the romanized equivalentof the Japanese.A final note: Those who conscientiously work through this text, following all recommendedprocedures and moving ahead to a new lesson only after the previous lesson is adequatelyinternalized, can expect to acquire a solid basic foundation in Japanese reading. They will bethoroughly familiar with all the katakana that have been introduced, through recurring contactin assorted contexts, and they will be ready to move ahead into materials that add the hiraganaand kañji to their repertoire.四

READING JAPANESELESSON 1INTRODUCTIONThe first four lessons introduce katakana, the syllabary used primarily for writing loanwords(i.e., words borrowed from foreign languages). Katakana is also used to represent nativeJapanese items that are intended to stand out in the context in which they occur. The use ofkatakana in Japanese often corresponds to the use of italics in English: katakana occursfrequently in advertisements; it is also used in writing items that represent something strange orunusual from a linguistic point of view (for example, in quoting foreigners' errors in Japanese);and it is often used in writing onomatopoeic words—i.e., those that are supposed to representtheir meaning by their sound (example: gatagata representing a rattling sound). In addition,katakana is used in writing telegrams and, together with kañzi, in writing legal documents.While most current linguistic borrowings by the Japanese is from English, there are manyloanwords derived from other languages. For example, among place names, Suisu 'Switzerland',Itaria 'Italy', and Doitu 'Germany', all have non-English origins. The emphasis in the lessons thatfollow, however, will be on the reading of Katakana as it is used to represent loanwords ofEnglish origin. In particular, foreign place names and personal names will be used as examplesin the introduction of each new katakana symbol. The writing of kana should, of course, also bemastered. After learning to read a symbol, students should practice writing, working back fromthe romanization of the examples to the original kana.五

READING JAPANESENOTESWhen the Japanese borrow English words and phrases, these loanwords are pronounced in away that approximates the original pronunciation but conforms to the sound system of Japanese.This entails many adjustments, since the sound systems of Japanese and English bear littleresemblance to each other. For example, because the sound system of English is more complex,one Japanese sound often represents several sounds in English: Japanese b may representEnglish 'b' or 'v'; Japanese oo may represent the vowel or dipthong of English 'stalk' or 'stoke';Japanese si may represent English 'she' or 'see', and so on.A further problem is the fact that while most borrowings are based on pronunciation, there areoften a variety of pronunciations for any given item in English, and some borrowings are derivedfrom the original English spellings. For example, Japanese aruminyuumu comes from BritishEnglish 'aluminium'; and English 'margarine' occurs in Japanese as maagariñ (ma-a-ga-ri-ñ)conforming to its spelling rather than its pronunciation in English.In loanwords, Japanese consonants as represented by romanization generally correspond tothe English consonants represented by the same letters in the writing system, although the actualsounds the letters represent in the two languages are far from identical. Thus, r in Japanese isused to represent the markedly different initial consonant of English 'road'. However, there willalso be many divergences from this kind of correspondence, partly because of the vagaries ofEnglish spelling. For example, the 'c' of 'cent' is represented in Japanese as s, while the 'c' aswell as the 'k' of cake are represented by k. Other divergences, that result from the phonologicalstructure of Japanese, will be discussed below.The most commonly occuring vowel correspondences are as follows.六

READING JAPANESEJapaneseiiiuuueee or eioooouoiaaaaiau or aocorresponds to the English vowel or diphthong of:'sit' (or 'seat')'seed''look' (or 'Luke')'mood''let' (or 'late')'laid''cot' (or 'coat')'mode' or 'Maud''mode''boy''pat' or 'pad' or 'putt''ma''my''cow'In spite of all the adjustments required, katakana representing loanwords based on Englishborrowings will, in most instances, be immediately identifiable to speakers of English as to itsorigin. In some cases, however, identification is difficult, particularly for a student with onlylimited experience in reading such items. When problems are encountered, the followingprocedures (the procedures covered here apply to the examples introduced in this lesson) areoften helpful in providing clues that will make recognition possible.七

READING JAPANESE1. Write out the unidentified item in romanization.2. Are there any short u vowels following consonants? Try eliminating them.Examples:misu 'miss'hosutesu 'hostess'3. Are there any r's? Check them out for representation of English 'l' as well as 'r'.Examples:arisu 'Alice'hoteru 'hotel'arasuka 'Alaska'sukuuru 'school'rookaru 'local'terii 'Terry' or 'Telly'rarii 'Larry' or 'rally'4. Are there any s's? Check them out for representation of English 'th' (as in 'thin') as well as 's'.Examples:sumisu 'Smith'ruusu 'ruse' or 'loose' or 'Ruth'And are there any Japanese si syllables? Check the consonant out for representation ofEnglish 'sh' as well as 's'.八

READING JAPANESEExamples:takusii 'taxi'siria 'Syria'rosia 'Russia'5. Are there any occurrences of aa ? Check them out for representation of English vowel 'r' of'far' or 'fir' (note the variety of English spellings that represent these sounds, in words such as'bar', 'her', 'sir', 'fur', 'purr', 'hard', 'herd', 'bird', 'word', 'urban', 'lighter', 'color') as well as of long'a'.Examples:misutaa 'mister'raitaa 'lighter'miraa 'Miller'tawaa 'tower'kuraaku 'Clark' or 'clerk'kaaru 'Karl'karaa 'color'mootaasukuutaa 'motorscooter'Additional procedures will be furnished in subsequent lessons. However, the student mustalways bear in mind that the Japanese word-borrowing system is not completely regular: it isusually possible to predict exactly how an English item will be borrowed into Japanese, but thereare exceptions. Fortunately, even the exceptions usually contain enough evidence of regularity tomake possible the identification of the English source, given the Japanese, and this is sufficient forreading.九

READING JAPANESESYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESKatakana symbol:スミーRomanizationStroke Ordersumi(vowel lengthening)1Examples:スミスミスミス・2 スミス1sumisu 'Smith'misu 'Miss'misu・sumisu 'Miss Smith'suu 'Sue'suu・sumisu 'Sue Smith'misu・suu・sumisu 'Miss Sue Smith'In vertical writing, this symbol is written as a vertical line.The dot represents a boundary between items. It regularly occurs between foreign given names and family name, but in general itsusage tends to be unpredictable.2十

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationアメリカStroke リーリー・スミスアリスamerika 'America'rii 'Lee'merii・rii 'Mary Lee'rii・sumisu 'Lee Smith'arisu ・スミスmisu・amerika 'Miss America'merii 'Mary'suu・rii 'Sue Lee'merii・sumisu 'Mary Smith'arisu・sumisu 'Alice Smith'merii・arisu・rii 'Mary Alice Lee'arisu・merii・sumisu 'Alice Mary Smith'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationホテルStroke カールhoteru 'hotel'hosutesu 'hostess'hooru 'Hall'1ruusu・hooru 'Ruth Hall'terii 'Terry'terii・sumisu 'Terry Smith'kaaru リー・スミス12ruusu・arisu・hooru 'Ruth Alice Hall'kaaru・rii・sumisu 'Karl Lee Smith'Could also represent 'hole' or 'hoar'.Could also represent 'ruse' or リー・ホールhosuteru 'hostel'hoteru・amerika 'Hotel America'ruusu 'Ruth'2merii・hooru 'Mary Hall'rii・terii 'Lee Terry'terii・hooru 'Terry Hall'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationタクシStroke スクール十三takusii 'taxi'siria 'Syria'kurisu 'Chris'misutaa 'Mr.'misutaa・kurisu・rii 'Mr. Chris Lee'misutaa・terii・hooru 'Mr. Terry Hall'sukuuru 'school'terii・rii・sukuuru 'Terry Lee School'merii・hooru・sukuuru 'Mary Hall School'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: 十四Stroke Orderrairaitaa 'lighter'tai 'Thai[land]'iraku 'Iraq'suisu (Non-English origin.) 'Switzerland'arasuka 'Alaska'miraa 'Miller'rarii 'Larry'rarii・miraa 'Larry Miller'kurisu・miraa 'Chris Miller'misutaa・rarii・hooru 'Mr. Larry Hall'kuraaku 'Clark'ruisu 'Lewis'kuraaku・ruisu 'Clark Lewis'ruisu・kuraaku・hoteru 'Lewis Clark Hotel'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationロモワStroke ia 'Russia'kairo 'Cairo'karaa 'color' (as in film, television, etc.)rookaru・karaa 'local color'mosukuwa (Non-English origin.) 'Moscow'mooteru 'motel'tawaa 'tower'kuraaku・tawaa 'Clark Tower'sumisu・mooteru 'Smith Motel'mootaa 'motor'mootaasukuutaa 'motorscooter'

READING JAPANESEADDITIONAL ・ミラー・スクールmisu・arasuka 'Miss Alaska'6.misu・ruusu・ruisu 'Miss Ruth Lewis'7.rii・miraa・sukuuru 'Lee Miller School' 8.misu・suisu 'Miss Switzerland'9.merii・arisu・hooru 'Mary Alice Hall' 10.New Words:11. カメラ12. タイル13. テラス11. kamera 'camera'12. tairu 'tile'13. terasu 'terrace'十六6. ルール15. メーカー16. a・kuraaku・miraa 'Mr. Clark Miller'kairo・hoteru 'Cairo Hotel'sumisu・tawaa 'Smith Tower'mosukuwa・mooteru 'Moscow Motel'kurisu・miraa・sumisu 'Chris Miller Smith'17. ロータリー18. イースター19. ミステーク14. ruuru 'rule'15. meekaa 'maker' (i.e., manufacturer)16. kuuraa 'cooler' (i.e., air conditioner)17. rootarii 'rotary'18. iisutaa 'Easter'19. misuteeku 'mistake'

READING JAPANESELESSON 1 SUMMARYBelow is the traditional order used for charting the kana syllabary. It's a 5 X 10 table of the “FiftySounds”, or 五十音 (gozyuu-oñ). Usually the table runs from right to left and from top to bottom,although other arrangements also occur. The following includes the katakana symbols which havebeen introduced in this lesson within the basic framework of sahoホno


READING JAPANESELESSON 2NOTESThe following are additional procedures to help identify loanwords that occur in this lesson.1. Is there an occurrence of b in the romanized version of the loanword? Check it out forrepresentation of English 'v' as well as of 'b'.Examples:boruga 'Volga'babaria 'Bavaria'2. Are there any occurrences of syllable to or do? Try eliminating the o.Examples:十九toroi 'Troy'siatoru 'Seattle'raito 'right' or 'light'dorai 'dry'sadoru 'saddle'

READING JAPANESE3. Is there an occurrence of z before a vowel? It may represent English 'th' as in 'then' as well as the'z' sound in 'zebra'.Examples:dezaato 'dessert'mazaa 'mother'And is there an occurrence of z before i? In this position, the z may also represent the initial soundof ‘jeep’ or the medial consonantal sound of ‘Asia’, as well as the correspondences noted above.Examples:baazinia 'Virginia'azia 'Asia'iizii 'easy'ziiai 'G.I.'4. Is there an occurrence of the vowel i? Try deleting it. Such deletion is particularly common inword-final position and between voiceless consonants.Examples:二十sutoraiki 'strike'paazi 'purge'tekisasu 'Texas'mekisiko 'Mexico'

READING JAPANESE5. The vowel u, when followed by a vowel, often represents English 'w', and ku before a vowelcorresponds to 'kw' ( 'qu').Examples:kuizu 'quiz'sukuizu 'squeeze'6. Are there any occurrences of oo consonant? Check them out for representation of Englishvowel 'r' of 'horse' as well as of the vowel sounds alone of 'mode' or 'Maud'.Examples:noosu 'north' or 'Norse'noomaru 'normal'pooku 'Pork' or 'Polk'7. A vowel syllable a may correspond to a vowel 'r' sequence in English.1Examples:1doa 'door'hea 'hair'Note that Japanese aa, discussed in Lesson 1, is an example of this same correspondence.二十一

READING JAPANESESYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESKatakana symbol: otawa 'Ottawa'osuro 'Oslo'sutaa 'star'toroi 'Troy'oosutoria 'Austria'raito 'light' or 'right'hawai 'Hawaii'harisu 'Harris'hairaito 'highlight'haikurasu 'high class'Stroke クールraosu 'Laos'aiowa 'Iowa'oorusutaa 'all-star'siatoru 'Seattle'oosutoraria 'Australia'teeruraito 'taillight'ohaio 'Ohio'harii 'Harry'harii・harisu 'Harry Harris'haisukuuru 'high school'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: 三Stroke Ordernosahanoi 'Hanoi'irinoi 'Illinois'honoruru 'Honolulu'noosu 'North' or 'Norse'noa 'Noah'nora 'Nora'sahara 'Sahara'samoa 'Samoa'saa 'Sir'misutaa・noa・noosu 'Mr. Noah North'misu・nora・noosu 'Miss Nora North'saa・ruisu・miraa 'Sir Lewis Miller'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationマニヤStroke マラヤヤールーrima 'Lima'okurahoma 'Oklahoma'samaa 'summer'maraya 'Malaya'yaaruu i 'Miami'toomasu 'Thomas'kurisumasu 'Christmas'yaruta 'Yalta'toomasu・noosu 'Thomas North'samaa・sukuuru 'summer school'merii・rii・toomasu 'Mary Lee Thomas'kaaru・marukusu 'Karl Marx'kurisumasu・karoru 'Christmas carol'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: ルレールモノレール二十五himaraya 'Himalaya'hiiru 'heel'haihiiru 'high heel'roohiiru 'low heel'mareesia 'Malaysia'reesu 'race' or 'lace'ootoreesu 'auto race'reeku 'lake'reeku・hoteru 'Lake Hotel'reeru 'rail'monoreeru 'monorail'Stroke Order

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: 二十六Stroke Orderkokimekisiko 'Mexico'kosutarika 'Costa Rica'kosuto 'cost'rookosuto 'low cost'koosutaa 'coaster'rooraakoosutaa 'roller coaster'kooku 'coke'koora 'cola'kokakoora 'Coca Cola'tekisasu 'Texas'kirosaikuru 'kilocycle'kiromeetoru 'kilometer'

READING JAPANESEADDITIONAL オーライコートサラミnoo 'no'haroo 'hello'aroha 'aloha'oorai 'awri[ght]'(i.e., 'all right')5. kooto 'coat'6. sarami カスretasu 'lettuce'tenisu 'tennis'sukii 'ski[ing]'resuraa 'wrestler'haiku 'hike'saakasu 'circus'13. オート14. トラクター15. ハイヤー16. ヒーター17. タオル18. サラリー13. 'auto'torakutaa 'tractor'haiyaa '[car for] hire'hiitaa 'heater'taoru 'towel'sararii 'salary'

READING 4.resiito 'receipt'tootaru 'total'nooto 'note'saakuru 'circle'sutereo 'stereo'maiku 'mic[rophone]' 'Oscar'koorasu 'chorus'kirisuto 'Christ'hareruya 'halleluja'hiiroo 'hero'haato 'heart' (card suit) 'sweetheart'kisu 'kiss'noomaru 'normal'torasuto 'trust'sutoraiku '(baseball) strike'suto or sutoraiki '(protest) strike'二十八

READING JAPANESEDIACRITICS1(a) Compare the following pairs of symbols:タ and ダテ and デト and ドThe symbols on the left are already familiar. They are equivalent to the romanized syllables ta, te,and to. The corresponding symbols on the right are equivalent to the romanized syllables da, de, anddo. In other words, the addition of a (called nigori1) to a kana symbol which represents a syllablewith an initial t- changes its value to the corresponding syllable beginning with d-.Compare:1トライ torai 'try'ドライ dorai 'dry'The green letter ‘g’ in nigori is a convention used solely in this text to represent a nasal pronunciation of ‘g’, as in the 'ng' of 'singer',produced by holding the tongue in the g position, but allowing the air to escape through the nostrils. This type of 'g' sound neveroccurs in the beginning of a word. The ‘g‘ sound is considered an aspect of the 'Tokyo dialect', though many Tokyo residents use theregular ‘g’ sound instead, and still others alternate between the two forms. Hence, where ‘g’ is written, ‘g’ can always be used, butwhere ‘g’ is written, ‘g’ cannot be used.二十九

READING ダコタdarasu ‘Dallas’aidaho ‘Idaho’noosudakota ‘North Dakota’デdeデリーデトロイトderii 'Delhi'detoroito ・カードdominika 'Dominica[n Republic]'kaado 'card'kurisumasu・kaado 'Christmas card'三十

READING JAPANESEADDITIONAL PRACTICENew トdaiya 'dia[mond]'daiarii 'diary'dairekuto・meeru 'direct mail'demo 'demo[nstration]'deeta 'data'deeto ドルdesuku 'desk'demokurasii 'democracy'mee・dee 'May Day'doru 'doll[ar]'doa 'door'sadoru ドワークサイドスローdorama 'drama'dokutaa 'doctor'doraiyaa 'dryer'doraiaisu 'dry ice'saidowaaku 'side work'(side job)18. saidosuroo 'side throw'(as in baseball)

READING JAPANESE(b) The addition of nigori to kana symbols representing syllables with initial k- changes the value tothe corresponding syllables beginning with g- / or -g-1 /.Compare:コーストゴーストkoosuto 'coast'goosuto 'ghost'Examples:ガグga / or –ga /マダガスカル madagasukaru 'Madagascar'ギイギリスギニア1igirisu 'England'ginia 'Guinea'The -g- alternant is comparatively rare in loanwords.三十二グアテマラ guatemara 'Guatemala'ニカラグア nikaragua 'Nicaragua'ゴgi / or –gi /gu / or –gu /go / or –go /シカゴsikago 'Chicago'グラスゴー gurasugoo 'Glascow'

READING JAPANESEADDITIONAL .2.3.4.gasu 'gas'taigaa 'tiger'gaado 'guard[ing]'gaido 'guide' 'guitar'guriru 'grill'niguro 'Negro'gooru 'goal'9.10.11.gurotesuku 'grotesque'daiaroogu 'dialogue'katarogu 'catalogue'(c) Nigori added to symbols representing syllables with initial s- changes the value to thecorresponding syllables beginning with z-.Compare:三十三ロースローズroosu 'roas[t]'roozu 'rose'

READING JAPANESEExamples:ザzaズzuザールzaaru 'the Saar'ミズーリmizuuri 'Missouri'ジziアジアazia 'Asia'ADDITIONAL PRACTICE1. デザート2. イージー3. ジーアイ4. アジテーター5. クイズ6. スクイズ7. マザー8. マザースデー9. シーザー1. dezaato 'dessert'2. iizii 'easy'3. ziiai 'G.I.'4. aziteetaa 'agitator'5. kuizu 'quiz'6. sukuizu 'squeeze'7. mazaa 'mother'8. mazaasudee 'Mother's Day'9. siizaa 'Caesar'三十四

READING JAPANESE(d) Nigori added to symbols representing syllables with initial h- changes the value to thecorresponding syllables beginning with b-.Compare:ホールボールhooru 'hole'booru 'ball' or ジニアbari 'Bali'arabama 'Alabama'babaria 'Bavaria'baazinia iruma 'Burma'ribia 'Libya'bikini 'Bikini'arabia リーコーストbogota 'Bogota'boruga 'Volga'boribia 'Bolivia'aiboriikoosuto 'Ivory Coast'三十五

READING JAPANESEADDITIONAL . 'bus'biru 'buil[ding]'bosu 'boss'borero baree 'ballet'9. tabako 'tobacco'biiru 'beer'10. hobii 'hobby'booto 'boat'11. boogu 'vogue'boirudo 'boiled' 12. boree ビーボルトバレーボールbasudee 'birthday'daabii 'derby'boruto 'bolt' or 'volt'bareebooru 'volleyball'2. The addition of a small circle (called maru) to any kana symbol which represents a syllablewith initial h- changes the value to the corresponding syllable with initial p-.Compare:三十六ハイパイhai 'high'pai 'pie'

READING ハーバーpari 'Paris'1paraguai 'Paraguay'paaruhaabaa 'Pearl Harbor'ピpiピサパイクス・ピークpisa 'Pisa'paikusu・piiku 'Pike's Peak'ポpoポーポルトガル1poo 'Po' (river)porutogaru 'Portugal'ポートサイドThis is a borrowing from French.三十七pootosaido 'Port Side'

READING JAPANESEADDITIONAL 'papa'pasu 'pass'pazuru 'puzzle'paazi 'purge'paama 'perma[nent wave]'paaraa 'parlor'pasuteru 'pastel' 'depart[ment store]'paradaisu 'paradise'patoroorukaa 'patrol car'piano 'piano'pisutoru 'pistol'pikurusu 'pickles'piiaaru 'P.R.' (public relations) 'Polk' or 'pork'poozu 'pause'posuto 'post'posutaa 'poster'pootaa 'porter'pookaa 'poker'poniiteeru 'pony-tail'三十八



READING JAPANESELESSON 3NOTESThe following additional procedures will help identify Japanese loanwords that occur in this lesson.1.Is there an occurrence of syllabic ñ?1 In word-final position or before a vowel it representsEnglish 'n'; with a following gu (or gu), it represents English 'ng'; elsewhere it assimilates tothe following sound, representing 'm', 'n', or 'ng'.Examples:2.Is there an occurrence of t before i? The t may represent the initial sound of English 'cheap' or'team', or (rarely) 'theme'.Examples:1zooñ 'zone'noosumookiñgu 'no smoking'kañbozia 'Cambodia'roñdoñ 'London'bañkoku 'Bangkok'tiri 'Chile'batikañ 'Vatican'sutiiru 'steel'etiopia 'Ethiopia'We use the diacritical ñ in this text to distinguish syllabic ‘n’ from the ‘n’ used in other romanized kana (na, ni, nu, ne, and no).四十一

READING JAPANESE3.Is there an occurrence of s before e? The s in this environment may represent the initialconsonant of English 'Chet', but more usually, of 'set'.Examples:sero 'cello'seroteepu 'cello[phane] tape'Similarly, z (the voiced equivalent of s) before e may represent the voiced initial consonant ofEnglish 'jet', but more usually, of 'zero'.Examples:4.zerii 'jelly'zero 'zero'Is there an occurrence of h? It may represent the initial sound of English 'hood' or 'food' Thelatter correspondence is particularly common when h is followed by the vowel u.Examples:uuzuhuu 'who's who'hurañsu 'France'serohañ 'cellophane'Is there an occurrence of ho before wa? This combination may represent English 'wh' vowel,as in 'why', 'whine', etc. It approximates the 'hw' pronunciation used by some speakers ofEnglish.Example:四十二howaito 'white'

READING JAPANESE5.Is there an occurrence of t before u? The t may represent the closest English equivalent̶i.e.,'ts' as in 'tsetse'̶but more commonly it corresponds to the initial consonant of English 'too'.Examples:6,The consonant z before i, already identified as corresponding to the initial consonant of English'jeep', 'zebra', and 'these', and the medial consonant of 'Asia', may also represent the initialconsonant of English 'deep'.Example:7.pootumasu 'Portsmouth'tuu 'two'suutu 'suit'omuretu 'omelet'sauziarabia 'Saudi Arabia'Is there an occurrence of a long e vowel? This may represent English 'y' diphthong as wellas the more usual correspondence without the 'y'.Example:eeru 'ale' or 'Yale'Japanese i before e may also correspond to English 'y' preceding the 'e' vowel, as in 'yes', 'yet',etc.Examples:四十三iesu 'yes'iesumañ 'yes-man'

READING JAPANESESYMBOLS AND EXAMPLESKatakana symbol: 四iñdo 'India'koñgo 'Congo'roñdoñ 'London'misigañ 'Michigan'saigoñ 'Saigon'bañkoku 'Bangkok'wasiñtoñ 'Washington'kañbozia 'Cambodia'kiñgu 'king'kooniñgu 'Corning'Stroke Order

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: ジルアルプス四十五hurañsu 'France'ahurika 'Africa'hurorida 'Florida'sañhurañsisuko 'San Francisco'buraziru 'Brazil'arupusu 'Alps'Stroke Order

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: マン四十六eziputo 'Egypt'isuraeru 'Israel'ekuadoru 'Ecuador'sueedeñ 'Sweden'eepuriru 'April'eepuriru・huuru 'April Fool'eeru 'Yale' or 'ale'iesu 'yes'iesumañ 'yes-man'Stroke Order

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationソゾStroke カン・ゾーン四十七sobieto 'Soviet [Union]'erupaso 'El Paso'somaria 'Somalia'sorutoreeku 'Salt Lake'amazoñ 'Amazon'azoresu 'Azores'soro 'solo'sopurano 'soprano'mezosopurano 'mezzosoprano'zooñ 'zone'amerikañ・zooñ 'American Zone'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: エーウーマンリブ四十八Stroke Orderusouru 'Seoul'uruguai 'Uruguay'sausudakota 'South Dakota'sauziarabia 'Saudia Arabia'howaitohausu 'White House'uesuto 'west'uesutopoiñto 'West Point'uesutobaazinia 'West Virginia'ueetaa 'waiter'ueetoresu 'waitress'uee 'way'wañuee 'one way'gooiñgumaiuee 'going my way'uumañribu 'woman lib' (i.e., 'women's lib')

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol:ケゲRomanizationkege /(or バーゲン四十九kenia 'Kenya'keeputaun 'Capetown'keeburu 'cable'keeburukaa 'cablecar'kemikaru 'chemical'kemisutorii 'chemistry'keesu 'case'kaadokeesu 'cardcase'keesubaikeesu 'case-by-case'baageñ 'bargain'Stroke Order

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationチStroke Orderti(ヂ occurs only rarely in modern spelling. It will be discussed in Lesson 8. Insofar as it occurs, itsromanized equivalent is zi, for which the usual katakana equivalent is チーズバーガー五十tiri 'Chile'haiti 'Haiti'karati 'Karachi'batikañ 'Vatican'etiopia 'Ethiopia'tiizu 'cheese'tiizukeeki 'cheese cake'suisutiizu 'Swiss cheeze'sumookutiizu 'smoke[d] cheese'pimeñtotiizu 'pimento cheese'tiizubaagaa 'cheeseburger'

READING JAPANESEKatakana symbol: RomanizationセゼStroke スソーセージseiroñ 'Ceylon'señtoruisu 'St. Louis'señtorooreñsu 'St. Lawrence'añzera 'Angela'señto 'cent'seruhusaabisu 'self-service'sero 'cello'seroteepu 'cello[phane] tape'itariañsooseezi 'Italian sausage'sumookusooseezi 'smoke[d] sausage'suraisusooseezi 'slice[d] ゼラチンゼリーゼロsañhose 'San Jose'señtopooru 'St. Paul'rosañzerusu 'Los Angeles'sooseezi 'sausage'señtimeetoru 'centimeter'seruhutaimaa 'self-timer'serohañ

Japanese si may represent English 'she' or 'see', and so on. A further problem is the fact that while most borrowings are based on pronunciation, there are often a variety of pronunciations for any given item in English, and some bo