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(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.PRINC IPLES AND FUNCT IONS OF POLITICAL MANAGEMENTNikola Vojvodić, PhD,PIM University of Banja Luka, 78000 Banja Luka, 38765-549-858, nikola62@teol.netMladen M. Ivić, PhD,PIM University of Banja Luka, 78000 Banja Luka, 38765-494-581, ivic.mladen@gmail.comNataša Tofil, BScin Economics, PIM University of Banja Luka, 78000 Banja Luka, 38765-723-924,natasa90 t@hotmail.comVeljko Vuković, PhD,PIM University of Banja Luka, 78000 Banja Luka, 38765-518-335, v.velja@gmail.comMomo Komljenović, PhD,Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 78000 Banja Luka, 38765-625-220Abstract: In the modern democratic society thepolitics is considered to be a skill of governing, thatis, conquering and maintaining the politicalgovernance and the inevitable activity in all spheresof human activities. In the sense of negotiations thecontemporary politics is "the maximal in the sphereof the possible", when, in a terrible struggle usingarguments and other democratic means, one comesfrom the maximalistic request to the solutionacceptable for both sides. Political activities wouldmean putting every political subject in the functionof the efficient and economical satisfaction of thepolitical needs and desires, aspirations and volitionsof the political public. If the political scene isrepresented by the free market of political ideas,then there could be established the strategy ofsensible and responsible managing in the politicalstructures of the community, which is based on thepreviously researched and familiar expectations ofthe political public.Key words: Politics, political parties, politicalmanagement, political managers, voters, elections,social responsibility.INTRODUCTIONPolitical management is a skill ofmanaging the information as a significantresource on the political market where thereare voters, current and potential members ofpolitical parties etc., whose confidence for acertain political idea and a politicalprogramme should be gained by a politicalparty or a political person, and in that waythere should be acquired the possibility forthe political party to perform the politicalgovernance, i.e. to implement its politicalprogramme in the best interest of all, basedon pre-election promises.Political management is a special scientificdiscipline which implies the system ofprocedures previously specified for allcampaigns or for all political candidates.It derived from the relation of voters, as atarget political segment – political partiesand their political programmes, as a meansof their better communication andunderstanding. Considering that thepoliticology, as a separate scientificdiscipline, is also concerned with the sameproblems, and the politics is nothing but thecommunication, management with itsfunctions of planning, organising, deciding,leading and control improves thatcommunication and unites these twoscientific disciplines into one, the politicalmanagement.So,the political management is based onthe principles of the classical managementwhich could be used in leading the politicalparties, private or public companies and stateadministration.1. Principles of political managementPrinciples are the basic form ofknowledge which is helpful for betterunderstanding of the scientific field whichis under

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.Political management, as a scientific field,must have its principles because theprinciples, when the management complieswith them consistently, enforce theorganisation of any legal subject, as well asany political party and they increase itsefficiency.their reputation in front of thesubordinates,6. using the efficient system of controlfor discovering mistakes andnominating the responsible ones forthe mistakes they have made.There are principles in all scientific fieldsand so are in the political management.Taylor has also presented his principles ofmanagement, and their target is increasingthe production efficiency. He has definedfour crucial principles:The political manager must be familiar withall scientific principles, and above all, withthose which he considers to be the mostuseful ones for leading the political partyand political system.1. management must consolidate andanalyse the general scientificprinciples related to doing business,2. workers must be carefully chosen,studied and selected so they givetheir maximum in the workingprocess,3. the worker must be inspired andqualified to use scientific methodsof work,4. management must be organised tobe able to manage and perform theassignments successfully.Different theorists have defined differentlythe principles of the classical managementwhich could be also used in the politicalmanagement, but as modified.For the political management the mostsignificant principles would be: principle of interpersonal relations,principle of the quality of thepolitical programme,principleofthepoliticaladministration efficiency.For the political management the basicadministrative principles are the mostimportant, and those are:1The first comprehensive list of the practicalprinciples of management has been definedby Mc Callum. He has searched for theefficient system of organising for the sakeof the increased efficiency of operations,and therefore he has defined six basicprinciples of management, and those are:1. Maintaining the position on thepolitical scene is the foundation ofsurvival and development of thepolitical party. It is provided byimprovement of the existingprogramme and by launching thenew ones. The reliability for theposition must be taken over by themanagers and employees, that is, theparty should adopt the marketingoperational philosophy.2. Division of functions is related tothe need of specialisation offunctions by the management andworking activities according to theformal education and vocation, forthe sake of increasing the workingand management efficiency,1. principle of the division of work andresponsibilities,2. grantingauthorizationwhichenables performance of duties andassignments,3. defining the system which providesthe information whether the dutiesand assignments are performed,4. prompt report on violations of dutieswhich enables the troubleshooting,5. information must not compromisethe chief executives, nor decrease1Adapted by the authors according to Henri

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.3. The political manager's authority,as the right and reliability to issueand implement the directives forperforming assignments or the formof directing the subordinates by themanagers,4. Discipline represents the requestaimed at the employees in the party,members and political manager toperform the assignment consistentlyand to cooperate with each other ondemandoftheworkingorganisation,5. Unity in giving orders – accordingto this principle employees shouldhave just one superior with whomthey communicate directly andwhereas higher political managersdon't give orders to the employees,instead a lower level politicalmanager does it,6. Unity in leadership- based on thisprinciple all activities with the samegoal are united and these activitiesare managed by one politicalmanager. This principle enables theefficient coordination.7. Subordination of the individualinterests to the general ones – itimplies that the interest of thepolitical party is above the interestof an individual or a group and thatthe individual interest must besacrificed for the general interest,8. Development of human resources– human resources are the maincarriers of political functions and ithas a goal to ensure the appropriatenumber and structure of politicalmanagers, to increase knowledge,abilities and motivations of humanresources, to work with youth and toinclude them actively in therealisation of the goals andassignments of the political party.9. Rewarding – the basics of thisprinciple is rightful and stimulativerewardingwhichenablessatisfaction of the employees andmanagement,10. Centralisation – this principledemands the balance betweencentralisation and decentralisation,provided that planning and controlare centralised and other functionsdecentralised.11. Hierarchy – this principle consistsof the system of giving orders, and itincludes superiors and subordinates(the highest political managerdoesnt give orders to the performerof the working process),12. Order - as a principle it demands:the right people on the rightpositions and knowing the abilitiesand knowledge of the candidates forthe functions,13. Equity is a principle whichdemands a humane and fair relationto the employees and membersbecause that is the way to increasethe motivation and efficiency,14. Personnel stability – this principleenhances the feeling of safety atwork. A layoff must be carried outexceptionally carefully,15. Initiative – by using this principleone stimulates the creativity,innovation and self-initiative of theemployees and members of theparty,16. Spirit of togetherness – thisprinciple ensures harmony and teamwork of the employees andmembers of the party, whichenhances the organisation and workefficiency.2. Placement of the efficient politicalmanagementThe efficiency of the managementfunction directly affects the work andoperational efficiency of the political party.The requests for the efficient managementorganisation can relate to: introducing a new managementfunction, orimprovement of the existingmanagement

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.The new management function isintroduced in the case of forming a newbranch of the party (a new local, municipalor city committee, a new association, etc.).Prior to introducing the new or improvingthe existing political management functionone should: For introducing a new managementfunction in the organisational structure ofthe party one needs to: choose an efficient managementsystem,define the span of the management,define the required workingcharacteristics of the politicalmanager,affirm the level of the authority andreliability of the political manager,define the system of monitoring ofthe political manager's work.In order to realise the above mentioned oneshould affirm: the strategy of the development ofthe political party in which thegoals, which are wanted to beachieved, are defined,goals for the individual functions orgroup of functions,organisational structure of thepolitical party.Efficiency improvement of the existingfunction of the political management iscarried out because of the inefficiency ofthe existing management function and thatis carried out in the whole party or some ofits parts.The reason for improvement of the politicalmanagement function could be: perform the analysis of the realisedand planned development of thepolitical party,perform the efficiency analysis ofthe existing political managementfunction.These analysis are the foundation for thefuture organisation of the politicalmanagement.3. Span of political managementEvery political manager in the lineof the management coordination has acertain number of subordinates. Thisnumber of subordinates, within onemanagement level, is called the span ofmanagement.The span of management can be differentif: the number of subordinates is larger,then the span of management iswider,the number of subordinates is fewer,then the span of management isnarrower,Span of management should be affirmed forthe whole political party and its individualparts.Span of management also depends on the:a new strategy of the political party,turning point in the former strategy,ora completely new and radicalchange of the organisation of thepolitical form of the organisation of thepolitical party,specificitiesofthepoliticalprogramme,way of operating,level of qualifications of thesubordinates andnumber of subordinates or lowerlevel managers.

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.4. Functions of political managementThe basic functionsmanagement are:ofContemporarypoliticalpartiesandeconomic companies leave the traditionalplanning and approach :political1. Political planning,2. Organisation of the political partyand political processes,3. Leading or managing the politicalparty and political processes, or4. Coordinationbetweentheparticipants in the political process,from the political party to the stateadministration and5. Control of work and results of thepolitical party and members of thepolitical party on the positions of theexecutive and legislative power(natural,human,financial,information and other resources). Contemporary political management inplanning must comply with the followingrules:1. Insisting on the classical plannedperformance should be replaced byleading daily battles: The priority is a plannedperformance on the politicalmarket, the plan is important, buteveryday political struggles aremore important, traditional plans are created inthe bureaucratic structures withoutdated information, the priorities are daily needs ofthe inhabitants, the future votersand solving their problems.2. Intensity of the political activitiesmustn't dictate the planning sectorof the political party, instead theactivities are adapted to theeveryday obligations which arederived from the election results andfunctions taken from the executiveand legislative power.5. Political planningIn the classical organisation of thepolitical party it was considered thatsuccessful managing was only possible witha well-elaborated plan.Planning was reserved for the political andeconomic elite. Planning was then regardedto have a magic power.Classical planning is associated with: centralism,giantism,massive propaganda anduniversality.Classical - traditional planning relates tothe: long-term,medium-term, andshort-term planning.strategic,operating andtactical planning.Political top management performs theinversion of the priorities order, thepolitical market used to be the last, but nowit gains an advantage, because in the bipolarpolitical system the opposition closelyfollows each and every move of theposition and it uses each of the wrongmoves to turn the public opinion to its ownadvantage.3. Profit of the political partiesincludes increasing the number

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.voters and increasing the number ofthe party members which is gainedby an ethical and moral relation ofthe political top management and allcarriers of the lower politicalfunctions toward the voters andpromises made in the pre-electioncampaign. The price of that all is aneveryday tiring and exhaustingwork, at work field and at workplace, which is the result of the goodelection results.4. Planning does not eliminate the risk,instead it takes it over: it implies that planning isfocused on the research of thefuture events and trends,strategic management ensuresthe future of the political partythrough planning,by planning, one eliminates theuncertainty andwithout a strategy it is not evenpossible to work at present, letalone in the future.Every pre-election campaign must becarefully prepared. It is certainly moredifficult if the elections are not held in theregular time. In that case, the political partyhas an assignment to carry out a short, butengaged pre-election campaign.It is still more important that the party has agood structure. That means that the partymust, also between elections, take intoaccount the organisation and readiness forleading a campaign.From the very beginning the campaign mustbe well structured and planned.Thecorrections often cannot be made at all.It is also planned in which season thecampaign should be held. In summer it ispossible to organise activities different thanthose in winter which affects theequipment, advertising media, planning ofmanifestations and expenses.Therefore, already at the beginning of theelection year the following should beplanned: Finance: How much money is thereat your disposal? What should befinanced? Topics: Which topics are especiallyimportant in a certain place? Advertising media: How to conveythe topics and candidates in anoptimal way? Manifestations:Whichmanifestations are the best way toaddress certain target groups? (Theseason should be taken intoaccount!)Only the optimal implementation of theplan provides the optimal success.6. Abilities of the political managerThere are different levels of thepolitical management. The first level of thepolitical management is called the first-linepolitical management. On this level themanager monitors the employees, carriersof the lower political functions andmembers of the party.The second level of the politicalmanagement is called the middle-linepolitical management. On this level thepolitical manager operates the part of thepolitical party, for example, the municipalor city committee.The third level of the political managementiscalledtheexecutivepoliticalmanagement or the highest level of thepolitical management. On this level thepolitical manager coordinates the overallpolitical process in the political party andpolitical system, he implements theestablished policy up to the realisation ofthe

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.Every level of the political management hasa different role in managing. From thepresident (as the highest level) toward thelower levels of the political managementthe extent of obligations decreases.The extent of responsibilities determinesthe level on which the political managerperforms. The higher level, the biggerresponsbilities.That means that the abilities which must bepossessed by the political manager dependon the level on which he is to be engaged.The abilities of the political manager aredivided into: technical,management andcreative ones.Technical abilities imply that everypolitical manager must have the knowledgeof what he does. The political manager cantake the role of a director or a head of theoffices for some functions.Management abilities talk about therequired knowledge for performing thefunction of the political manager.Therefore, every political manager musthave knowledge of all managementfunctions (planning, organisation, leading,coordination and control).Creativity talks about the ability of thepolitical manager to separate the parts of asituation (e.g. changes in the surrounding ofthe political party) which affect the politicalparty and to create and furthemore toimplement a convenient defensive strategy.The more is the creative ability required,the higher is the management level. So thepolitical manager on the highest level mustestablish a relation between what happensin and out of the political party.On the other hand, the political manager ofthe middle level, and especially of thelower level, follows the events in hissurrounding, and his surrounding within thepolitical party is internal.The technical and management abilities arelearned. The creative ability is partially atalent and partially experience.Therefore, in order to be professional andsuccessful, the political manager must havethe required (high) knowledge and abilities.It is a dignified vocation for all those whodedicate themselves to organising andsuccessful functioning of the organisedventures, such as the political party.Who can be a political manager?The one who wants an untroubled life, afree weekend and everyday boredom anduniformity.The position of the political managerdemands much energy, sacrifice, much time(working after regular working hours),meeting deadlines, frequent travelling,reconciliation of the opposing opinions andattitudes, making difficult and riskydecisions etc.ConclusionPolitics represents an ability tomanage the country, that is, it is anestablished way of the social performancewhich should enable the realisation of thegoal defined by the state, and that iscreating the democratic environment forestablishing the political and legal system inwhich citizens can adapt their needs andinterests to the defined principles.Being aware that they need a form whichcan enable more balanced and stablefunctioning of the society, the politicalparties must constantly develop and adaptto the new challenges of the contemporaryinformation society.Through the political activity, awareness,responsibility and personal performance,

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies, InternationalVol. 4, No.1, 2016.every individual can provide, satisfy andprotect their needs, desires and preferencesof the comfortable life in the community.Anyhow, it is sure that the new knowledgeof the area of the political managementwould help them significantly in doing so.When they make decisions, politicalmanagers must take into account differentsocial values and norms, such as: freedomof the individual, individual responsibility,human dignity, unity and justice.All political decisions are assessed, not onlyfor the political efficiency, but also for thepolitical ethics.24www.japmnt.comREFERENCES1. B., Kolumbič A., Poslovna etika,Sinergija, Zagreb, 2000.Beyme Klaus Von, Transformacijapolitičkih stranaka, FPN, Zagreb, 2002.Goati Vladimir, Savremene političkepartije, Partizanska knjiga, Beograd, 1984.Sartori Đovani, Stranke i stranački sustavi(Analitički okvir), Politička kultura, Zagreb,2002.Slavujević Zoran, Politički marketing,Fakultet političkih nauka, Beograd, 1999.Šumpeter Jozef, (1998),Kapitalizam,socijalizam i demokratija, Plato, Beograd,1998.

The basic functions of political management are: 1. Political planning, 2. Organisation of the political party and political processes, 3. Leading or managing the political party and political processes, or 4. Coordination between the participants in the pol

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