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Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterMore informationENGLISH LITERATURE BA /AS Level for AQAStudent BookCarol Atherton, Andrew Green and Gary SnapperSeries editor: Marcello Giovanelli in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterMore informationUniversity Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United KingdomCambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit ofeducation, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.www.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107468023 (Paperback)www.cambridge.org/9781107468030 (Cambridge Elevate-enhanced Edition)www.cambridge.org/9781107467965 (Paperback Cambridge Elevate-enhanced Edition) Cambridge University Press 2015This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place without the writtenpermission of Cambridge University Press.First published 2015Printed in the United Kingdom by Latimer TrendA catalogue record for this publication is available from the British LibraryISBN 978-1-107-46802-3 PaperbackISBN 978-1-107-46803-0 Cambridge Elevate-enhanced EditionISBN 978-1-107-46796-5 Paperback Cambridge Elevate-enhanced EditionAdditional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.org/ukschoolsCambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracyof URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and otherfactual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing butCambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such informationthereafter.notice to teachers in the ukIt is illegal to reproduce any part of this work in material form (includingphotocopying and electronic storage) except under the following circumstances:(i) where you are abiding by a licence granted to your school or institution by theCopyright Licensing Agency;(ii) where no such licence exists, or where you wish to exceed the terms of a licence,and you have gained the written permission of Cambridge University Press;(iii) where you are allowed to reproduce without permission under the provisionsof Chapter 3 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, which covers, forexample, the reproduction of short passages within certain types of educationalanthology and reproduction for the purposes of setting examination questions.This textbook has been approved by AQA for use with our qualification. This means that we havechecked that it broadly covers the specification and we are satisfied with the overall quality. Fulldetails of our approval process can be found on our website.We approve textbooks because we know how important it is for teachers and students to havethe right resources to support their teaching and learning. However, the publisher is ultimatelyresponsible for the editorial control and quality of this book.Please note that when teaching the AS and A Level English Literature B (7716, 7717) course, youmust refer to AQA’s specification as your definitive source of information. While this book hasbeen written to match the specification, it cannot provide complete coverage of every aspect ofthe course.A wide range of other useful resources can be found on the relevant subject pages of ourwebsite: aqa.org.uk in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterMore g1Key concepts for literary studyp.82Poetryp.253Dramap.404The novelp.56Developing5678Tragedyp.699Literary theoryp.2315.1Introduction to tragedyp.699.1What is literary theory?p.2315.2Development of tragedyp.739.2Theoretical perspectivesp.2345.3Aspects of tragedyp.929.3Value and the canonp.2355.4Voices and perspectives in tragedyp.1079.4Narrativep.2395.5Bringing it all p.2466.1Introduction to comedyp.1149.7Eco-critical theoryp.2506.2Development of comedyp.1189.8Post-colonial theoryp.2546.3Aspects of comedyp.1419.9Approaching the non-exam assessmentp.2589.10Bringing it all togetherp.2596.4Voices and perspectives in comedyp.1566.5Bringing it all togetherp.158Crime writing10Critical and creative responses to literaturep.261p.16010.1Introducing criticism and creativityp.2617.1Introduction to crime writingp.16010.2Reading as a writer, writing as a readerp.2617.2Development of crime writingp.16410.3Readingp.2637.3Elements of crime writingp.17710.4Writingp.2637.4Narrative form and plot devices in crime writingp.1837.5Character types in crime writingp.1887.6Representation in crime writingp.1927.7Bringing it all togetherp.195Political and social protest writingp.1978.1Introduction to political and social protestwritingp.1978.2Development of political and social protestwritingp.2008.3Elements of political writingp.2188.4Representation in political writingp.2248.5Bringing it all togetherp.22911Preparing for your examp.26811.1Examined assessment and non-examassessmentp.26811.2Writing critical essaysp.28011.3Writing creative responses to literary textsp.29211.4Bringing it all 4Crime writingp.30515Political and social protest writingp.30916Literary theoryp.31317Critical and creative responses to literaturep.317Indexp.322Acknowledgementsp.3253 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterMore informationA/AS Level English Literature B for AQAIntroductionWelcome to this student book for your AQAA/AS Level English Literature course!The AQA English Literature B AS/A Levelspecifications provide an approach to thestudy of English literature through thecritical lens of genre. At AS Level the genresavailable for study are tragedy and comedy.At A Level the genres are tragedy, comedy,crime writing and political and socialprotest writing.In each unit of this book, we introduceyou to the key concepts by surveying thedevelopment of one of these genres andthe central literary elements of the genre.We take examples and passages from awide range of texts (including all the settexts) to illustrate these ideas and to putthe set texts in illuminating contexts. Themajority of the texts to which we referare taken from British literature. Althoughwe also refer to some key texts anddevelopments in literature from beyondBritain, limitations of space prevent us fromranging more widely in this area.You will be assessed in a number of ways,including passage-based and single textquestions, multiple text questions, openand closed-book approaches and unseenmaterial. This student book supports thespecifications, prepares you for theseassessments and helps you to develop thedifferent skills you will be assessed on – skillswhich will stand you in good stead beyondAS or A Level, whatever you go on to do.Beginning unitBEGINNING2PoetryDeveloping unitDEVELOPING5TragedyIn this unit, you will: find out about the literary genre of tragedy explore how the authors of literary texts usedifferent aspects of tragedy in their works develop your ability to write about tragedy.5.1 Introduction to tragedyWhat does the word ‘tragedy’ mean to you?Nowadays, this term is used in a wide rangeof different circumstances. Take a look at anynewspaper, and you’ll see it being applied to avariety of situations, from unexpected deaths andSet text focusAspects of Tragedy is one of the options in theLiterary Genres components for A Level and AS Level.The set texts for this option are listed here.Enriching unitAt AS Level, if you choose the Aspects of Tragedyoption for Papers 1 and 2 you must study oneShakespeare text, one other drama text, one poetrytext and one prose text. At A Level, if you choose theAspects of Tragedy option (Paper 1 only) you muststudy one Shakespeare text, one other drama textand one other text from any genre. One of these lasttexts must have been written before 1900.ENRICHING14AQA English Literature B Poetry Anthology(Tragedy): Extracts from the Prologue of ‘The Monk’sTale’ and ‘The Monk’s Tale’ by Geoffrey Chaucer;‘Jessie Cameron’ by Christina Rossetti; Extract fromParadise Lost by John Milton; ‘Tithonus’ by Alfred,Lord Tennyson; ‘The Convergence of the Twain’by Thomas Hardy; ‘The Death of Cuchulain’ byW.B. Yeats; ‘Out, out ’ by Robert Frost; ‘Death inLeamington’ by John Betjeman; ‘Miss Gee’ by W.H.AudenAS Level onlyA Level and AS LevelA Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee WilliamsOthello by William ShakespeareKing Lear by William ShakespeareThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott FitzgeraldTess of the D’Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy‘Lamia’ by John Keats‘Isabella; or, The Pot of Basil’, ‘La Belle Dame SansMerci’, and ‘The Eve of Agnes’ by John KeatsDeath of a Salesman by Arthur MillerRichard II by William ShakespeareThe Remains of the Day by Kazuo IshiguroCrime writingSelected poems by Thomas Hardy: ‘A SundayMorning Tragedy’, ‘At An Inn’, ‘Tess’s Lament’, ‘Underthe Waterfall’, ‘Lament’, ‘Rain on a Grave’, ‘Your LastDrive’, ‘The Going’, ‘The Haunter’, ‘At Castle Boterel’,‘A Trampwoman’s Tragedy’, ‘The Frozen Greenhouse’,‘The Forbidden Banns’, ‘The Mock Wife’, ‘The Flower’sTragedy’, ‘After a Journey’, ‘The Newcomer’s Wife’694 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

dealdeCambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterCritical lens: post-colonial theoryMore informationdmanys,n9.8 for more on post-colonial theoryBringing it allSeetogethernice.nce,n’shd foratureism6.5 Bringing it all together6.5.1 How will your studies on Aspects ofComedy be assessed?Aspects of Comedy is one of the two options for ASLevel Papers 1 and 2, and for A Level Paper 1. Yourknowledge will be tested by the exam.For guidance on preparing for the exams,see Unit11 Literature B for AQAA/ASboxLevelEnglishKey termsoutrent6.5.2 How much do you know?Key termsThese questions ask you to bring together theelementshave astudiedthis unit.revenge youtragedy:form ofintragedyparticularlyder.n theedvedf they ofwsh?Post-colonial theory encourages us to consider theways in which colonialism has had lasting effectson both the colonised and the colonisers. As youread Small Island, think about the depiction of theBritish Empire. What attitudes to the Empire do theBritish and the Jamaican characters seem to have?crime and vengeance1concernedWhat can withyou rememberabout these concepts? farcegothic fiction: a form of fiction that frequently romanticcomedydealswith horror,the supernatural and socially theunitiesof time,actionand placeunacceptable andcriminalbehaviour natural and licensed foolscanon:a coreand established body of literary greenworldstexts cross-dressing comedy of manners disguise coincidenceACTIVITY2Icons usedthe bookidentity inmistakenWhatyou already know about crime writing? doslapstickThinkbackover your study of literature todate andCheckyour ewing.Whatresponses comic language.stories,novels,poetry,films,TV seriesand2 Identifyhowplays,any fiveof crossthat dealquestion1areusedinthecomediesyouareKey TermsExplorewithstudying.crime? Dothey all involvea detectiveor isprose.yourSummariseyour findingsin clearexperienceofcrimewritingwiderthanthis?3 If any of the concepts listed in question 1 aren’tusedin the texts you are studying, considerwhyGlossarySet .1.1 What constitutes crime?have. Also consider whether a similar concept orThe answer to the question ‘What is crime?’ mayCritical LensVideoat first seem self-evident, but in fact the notion ofcrime is quite complex. Different social and religioussystems have different ways of understanding whatconstitutes crime and of dealing with it. There arealso significant differences between what is legallycriminal and what might be considered socially ormorally criminal.IntroductionAbout the specificationsThe AS Level specification has two componentscomprising an exploration of texts that are connectedthrough a mainstream literary genre: either Aspects ofTragedy (Option A) or Aspects of Comedy (Option B).Paper 1: Literary genres: dramaHow it is assessed: 1½ hour closed-book exam worth50% of your AS.Paper 2: Literary genres: prose and poetryHow it is assessed: 1½ hour open-book exam worth50% of your AS.Legalandsocial specificationdefinitions of whatconstitutescrimeTheA Levelhas threecomponentsoften vary. Legally, crime can be defined as acts thatcomprising the study of texts within specific genres,contravene the law of the land – although even this iswriting about texts in different ways and engagementopen to challenge, as events in courtrooms all overrange of theoreticalideas.the withworlda demonstrateevery day.In social terms,crimeis harderto tie down.Definitions may:Paper1: Literarygenres bebasedon unwrittensocialculturalWhatis assessed:Studyofandthreetexts:codesone assume shared understanding and mutual respectShakespeare text; a second drama text and one see crime as any action that breaks mutual trustfurther text, of which one must be written pre-1900.within societyHow it isa bodyassessed:2½ hourclosed-book exam worth assumeof ‘normal’or ‘acceptable’40% of your A Level.behaviours.Paper 2: Texts and genresACTIVITYWhat is3assessed: Study of three texts: one post-2000prose text; one poetry and one further text, of whichWhat is social ‘law’?be writtenpre-1900.Theoneideamustof social‘law’ is importantbut oftenHow it is assessed: 3 hour open-book exam worth 40%problematic.ofcrimeyour simplyA Level.a Isan anti-social act? For example,consider the idea of anti-social behaviour ordersNon-exam Assessment:Theory and independence(or ASBOs).What is assessed: Two essays of 1,250 – 1,500 words,b Is crime a violation of ‘normal’ and ‘acceptable’one on a prosetext and oneonthisa poetrybehaviour?Who establisheswhatmeans?text, eachrespondingdifferent textand eachwill be linkedc Iscrime socialtoor abehaviouraldeviance?Doesto a differentaspectthe CriticalAnthology.Onedeviancehave levelsofofseverity?At whatpointdoesbecome crime?essaydeviancecan be re-creativeand the re-creative piece willd Isa threat to socialorder or morality? Wherebecrimeaccompaniedby a commentary.doesthe rightchallengesto theHow thatit is leaveassessed:Twoforpiecesof courseworkworthstatus quo, tradition and authority?20% of your A Level.There are more details about the specifications in therelevant Developing units, including the assessmentobjectives you will be measured against in the exampapers and – at A Level – in the non-exam assessment.5 in this web service Cambridge University Press‘ she looked upon herself as awww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterMore informationA/AS Level English Literature B for AQAAbout this student bookThis book follows an innovative three-part structure.c Look at photographs of stage productions or ‘stills’Part 1: Beginningunitsfrom filmedlive productions. In what ways dotheseimagesreflect thecontentthe text? WhatThese set out the key gnerbroughtto thetext?that underpin the course and support you as youmoveHow are these likely to affect audience response?from GCSE to AS and A Level work. Each Beginningd Listen to the incidental music to a play (forunit contains activities to check understanding andexample, Felix Mendelssohn’s for A Midsummerprogress, andprovidesa strongfoundationfrom extractNight’sDream)and thenread the relevantwhich to buildupwards.TheBeginningunitscanalsoof the source text. How is such musiclikelytobe used as ashapestand-alonepointontothewhichthe wayreferencea play appearsstage?e whenLook atstudyinga variety ofcostumesfor particularyou’ll returncontentin loping units, and for revision purposes asyou thesedifferentcostumesmakeonanaudience?Whatprepare for your exams.different information would they give us about thecharacter?Part 2: Developing unitsThese longer units are based around the main content3.2.5 Doing dramain the AS and A Level specifications. They are designedYoucansee thatstudyingindramatexts involvesto build ontheideasintroducedthe Beginninglayersanddimensionsnotsharedby prose fictionunits, extending knowledge and understandingand poetry. A really useful way to develop yourwhere appropriate. These units follow the order ofunderstanding of these extra dimensions and yourtopics in the AQA specifications and contain a widerengagement with them is to approach selectedrange of activitiesdevelopextracts oftoyourdramaskillstextsandas if encourageyou were going toindependence.ThestartofeachDevelopingunit tellsstage them. Maybe you could actually stagethem. Byyou whetherthecontentissuitableforAS,ALevelusing a variety of drama approaches to text – eitheror both. with or without your teachers – you can explore: how different dramatic techniques can be used toEach Developing unit is built on the most up-toconvey action, character, atmosphere and tensiondate contentand research,presentedan and differentways inwhichwhich iswords,actions,insoundaccessible andengagingway.the activitiesstagingcombineto Manycreateofdramain these unitsareenhancedbycommentariesthat how actors work with texts to build meaningandwill support yourlearningand help you to developeffectiveproductions.an analytical framework, with which you can consider3.2.6 Going to the theatretopic areas more critically and broadly.In order to familiarise yourself with the differentThese unitsalso contain‘Bringingtogether’potentialsof theatheatreand itofalldramaas a form,section, designed to support you in preparing forexam questions, and a ‘How much do you know’section that allows you to review key learning for aparticular topic and to plan your revision priorities.In addition, practice questions and discussion of theassessment objectives allow you to apply your learningand to think about the demands of individual sectionswithin the exam papers.Think about how the dramatexts you’re studying couldbe represented in differenttheatre spaces.Critical lens3 Beginning: DramaCriticallens:feministtheoryit’s worthgoing tothe theatreas oftenas possibleand seeing a wide variety of staged productions.In the extract from the Newgate Calendar in Text 7H,Don’t restrict yourself to seeing productions of thethe perpetrator of the crime is a woman. Thinkplays you’re studying – the chances of there beingabout the way in which her crime is presented.any production of these in a live theatre near you areIs there anything more terrible about her crimeprobably pretty small. But there are lots of benefits ofbecause she is a woman? What expectations doesseeing any play. You:society have of women? How does the idea of broaden your experience of dramacrime relate to these views? How does the writer become familiar with a range of ways in whichuse language in relation to the female criminal?theatre can work and its effects learn to become more critical in comparingdifferent productions of your set playsSee 9.5 for more on feminist theory see the possibilities and limitations of differentExploring a literary concepttheatre spaces.7.2.8 The rise of crime writingThe developingformof the novelcontinued toExploringtheatrespacedemonstrate a peculiar fascination with crime. One ofthemostseemnotoriouscriminalsof to18th-centuryIt mayan obviouspointmake, but London,JonathanWild,the subjectof a fictionbearinginhisrememberthatisplaysare generallyperformednameby Henryother narrativessuch astheatres.Look Fielding,at imagesandof differenttheatre with(many available online), such as:theunderground criminalShakespeare’sGlobe of the rapidly expanding18th-centuryurban society. the Sam WanamakerPlayhouse the amphitheatre at Epidaurus the Minack Theatre in Cornwall a 19th-century proscenium arch theatre (forexample, the Theatre Royal in York) a theatre-in-the-round (for example, the RoyalTable 7AExchange Theatre in DateForceThink aboutthe different kind ofDetailsrelationship1749StreetthatRunners Foundedwith the Bowaudiencethese particularkindsbyof novelist and Justic(London) Investigationstage may encourage, and then think about howof crime and writidifferentlythe drama1812Sûreté(Paris) texts you’re studyingFoundedcouldby criminal and criminbe represented in each space. A body of plainclothes police o Followed in 1833 by Le bureau Vidocq believed the best peopknew the criminal world from lice (London), alsoknown as ‘Peelers’ or‘Bobbies’ 1842Detective division(London) Small elite plainclothes detectiv Formed to investigate murders1850Pinkertons DetectiveAgency (US) Founded by Allan Pinkerton Formed to track down counterf During American Civil War his aFounded by Robert Peel3500 uniformed officers in LondA brief to capture criminals, buFollowed by forces in other areby 1851456 in this web service Cambridge University PressHecoEn–wInprFowww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46802-3 – A/AS Level English Literature B for AQA Student BookCarol Atherton Andrew Green Gary Snapper Edited by Marcello GiovanelliFrontmatterMore informationIntroductionTutorial Video available on Cambridge ElevatePart 3: Enriching unitsDesigned specifically for A Level students but withcontent that AS Level students will also find useful,these units support your work on the specification andextend your thinking beyond the topics covered inthe Developing units in Part 2. These Enriching unitscontain extension activities on Developing unit topics,as well as ideas for extended independent study,details of wider reading that you will find useful andsummaries of recent and relevant research from highereducation.Enriching Interview Video available on Cambridge ElevateThe Enriching units also feature short articlesexclusively written for this series by leading academicsand professionals, with follow-up questions that offeran expert insight into certain aspects of the subject.About Cambridge ElevateLinks to video content on Cambridge ElevateWatch tutorial video, Tragic Inevitability, viaCambridge ElevateWatch Dan Rebellato, Professor of Dramaand Theatre at Royal Holloway, University ofLondon, talk about comedy on CambridgeElevateCambridge Elevate is the platform that hosts a digitalversion of this student book. If you have access to thisdigital version you can annotate different parts of thebook, send and receive messages to and from yourteacher and insert weblinks, among other things. Youwill also find video content on Cambridge Elevate,specifically: tutorial-style videos, designed to complementmaterial covered in the Developing units and torefresh your knowledge while broadening yourunderstanding of certain tricky concepts interviews with leading thinkers and researchersin their fields, which provide a unique resource forstimulating discussion.I hope you enjoy your AS orA Level Literature course, aswell as this book, and wishyou well for the journeyahead.Marcello GiovanelliSeries editor7 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Welcome to this student book for your AQA A/AS Level English Literature course! The AQA English Literature B AS/A Level specifi cations provide an approach to the study of English literature through the critical lens of genre. At AS Level the genres available for study are trage