Workshop ManualEngineB2(0)AQD40, AQAD40,MD40, TMD40, TAMD40
Workshop ManualEngineAQD40, AQAD40, MD40, TMD40, TAMD40ContensSafety precautions . 2General information . 5Repair instructions . 6Circulation pump . 20Heat exchanger . 21Oil cooler . 22Component guide . 8Turbo-CompressorChecking the supercharging pressure . 23Measures to be carried out when thesupercharging pressure is too low . 24Cleaning . 24Disassembling . 25Measuring, inspection . 26Assembling . 27Fitting the turbo-compressor . 28DismantlingCylinder head . 9Fuel pipe, electrical equipment . 11Circulation pump . 11Auxiliary drive gears . 12Camshaft . 12Pistons, connecting rods . 12Flywheel . 13Crankshaft . 13OverhaulDisassembling the cylinder head . 14Cleaning, inspection . 14Valve guides . 15Valves . 15Valve seats . 15Valve springs . 16Rocker arm mechanism . 16Injectors . 16Assembling the cylinder head . 16Cleaning and inspecting the cylinder block . 17Pistons, cylinder liners . 17Connecting rods . 18Crankshaft . 18Camshaft . 18Oil pump . 18Sea-water pump . 19AssemblingCrankshaft . 29Pistons, liners . 29Oil pump . 31Flywheel . 31Auxiliary drive gears . 31Circulation pump . 33Oil cooler . 34Cylinder Head . 34Adjustment of valve clearance . 34Adjustment of injection angle . 35Exterior details . 35Venting the fuel system . 37Adjusting the speed . 38Wiring diagram . 39Fault Finding Table . 44Special Tools . 44Technical Data . 471
Safety PrecautionsIntroductionThis Workshop Manual contains technical data,descriptions and repair instructions for Volvo Pentaproducts or product versions contained in the contents list. Ensure that the correct workshop literatureis being used.Read the safety information and the WorkshopManual “General Information” and “Repair Instructions” carefully before starting work.ImportantIn this book and on the engine you will find the following special warning symbols.WARNING! If these instructions are not followed there is a danger of personal injury, extensive damage to the product or serious mechanical malfunction.IMPORTANT! Used to draw your attention tosomething that can cause damage, productmalfunction or damage to property.NOTE! Used to draw your attention to important information that will facilitate work or operations.Below is a summary of the risks and safety precautions you should always observe or carry out whenoperating or servicing the engine.Immobilize the engine by turning off the powersupply to the engine at the main switch (switches) and lock it (them) in the OFF position beforestarting work. Set up a warning notice at the engine control point or helm.Generally, all servicing should be carried outwith the engine switched off. Some work (carrying out certain adjustments for example) requires the engine to be running. Approaching arunning engine is dangerous. Loose clothing orlong hair can fasten in rotating parts and causeserious personal injury.If working in proximity to a running engine, careless movements or a dropped tool can result inpersonal injury. Avoid burns. Take precautionsto avoid hot surfaces (exhausts, turbochargers,charge air pipes and starter elements etc.) andliquids in supply lines and hoses when the engine is running or has been turned off immediately prior to starting work on it. Reinstall allprotective parts removed during service operations before starting the engine.2Check that the warning or information decals onthe product are always clearly visible. Replacedecals that have been damaged or painted over.Engine with turbocharger: Never start the enginewithout installing the air cleaner (ACL). The rotating compressor in the Turbo can cause serious personal injury. Foreign objects entering theintake ducts can also cause mechanical damage.Never use start spray or similar to start the engine. The starter element may cause an explosion in the inlet manifold. Danger of personal injury.Avoid opening the filler cap for engine coolantsystem (freshwater cooled engines) when theengine is still hot. Steam or hot coolant canspray out. Open the coolant filler cap carefullyand slowly to release pressure before removingthe cap completely. Take great care if a cock,plug or engine coolant line must be removedfrom a hot engine. It is difficult to anticipate inwhich direction steam or hot coolant can sprayout.Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid skin contact withhot oil. Ensure that the lubrication system is notunder pressure before commencing work on it.Never start or operate the engine with the oil filler cap removed, otherwise oil could be ejected.Stop the engine and close the sea cock beforecarrying out operations on the engine coolingsystem.Only start the engine in a well-ventilated area. Ifoperating the engine in an enclosed space, ensure that exhaust gases and crankcase ventilation emissions are ventilated out of the workingarea.
Always use protective goggles where there isa danger of pieces of metal, sparks from grinding, acid or other chemicals being thrown intoyour eyes. Your eyes are very sensitive, injurycan lead to loss of sight!Avoid skin contact with oil. Long-term or repeated contact with oil can remove the naturaloils from your skin. The result can be irritation,dry skin, eczema and other skin problems.Used oil is more dangerous to health than newoil. Use protective gloves and avoid using oilsoaked clothes and rags. Wash regularly, especially before meals. Use the correct barriercream to prevent dry skin and to make cleaning your skin easier.Most chemicals used in products (engine andtransmission oils, glycol, petrol and diesel oil)and workshop chemicals (solvents and paints)are hazardous to health Read the instructionson the product packaging carefully! Always follow safety instructions (using breathing apparatus, protective goggles and gloves for example). Ensure that other personnel are notunwittingly exposed to hazardous substances(by breathing them in for example). Ensurethat ventilation is good. Handle used andexcess chemicals according to instructions.Be extremely careful when tracing leaks in thefuel system and testing fuel injection nozzles.Use protective goggles! The jet ejected from afuel injection nozzle is under very high pressure, it can penetrate body tissue and causeserious injury There is a danger of blood poisoning.All fuels and many chemicals are inflammable.Ensure that a naked flame or sparks cannot ignite fuel or chemicals. Combined with air incertain ratios, petrol, some solvents and hydrogen from batteries are easily inflammableand explosive. Smoking is prohibited! Ensurethat ventilation is good and that the necessarysafety precautions have been taken beforecarrying out welding or grinding work. Alwayshave a fire extinguisher to hand in the workplace.Store oil and fuel-soaked rags and fuel and oilfilters safely. In certain conditions oil-soakedrags can spontaneously ignite. Used fuel andoil filters are environmentally dangerous wasteand must be deposited at an approved site fordestruction together with used lubricating oil,contaminated fuel, paint remnants, solvent, degreasing agents and waste from washingparts.Never allow a naked flame or electric sparksnear the batteries. Never smoke in proximity tothe batteries. The batteries give off hydrogengas during charging which when mixed with aircan form an explosive gas – oxyhydrogen.This gas is easily ignited and highly volatile.Incorrect connection of the battery can causea spark which is sufficient to cause an explosion with resulting damage. Do not disturb battery connections when starting the engine(spark risk) and do not lean over batteries.Never mix up the positive and negative batteryterminals when installing. Incorrect installationcan result in serious damage to electricalequipment. Refer to wiring diagrams.Always use protective goggles when chargingand handling batteries. The battery electrolytecontains extremely corrosive sulfuric acid. Ifthis comes into contact with the skin, wash immediately with soap and plenty of water. If battery acid comes into contact with the eyes, immediately flush with copious amounts of waterand obtain medical assistance.Turn off the engine and turn off power at mainswitch(es) before carrying out work on theelectrical system.Clutch adjustments must be carried out withthe engine turned off.3
Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine/reverse gear when lifting the drive unit.Always check that lifting equipment is in goodcondition and has sufficient load capacity to liftthe engine (engine weight including reversegear and any extra equipment installed).To ensure safe handling and to avoid damagingengine components on top of the engine, use alifting beam to raise the engine. All chains andcables should run parallel to each other and asperpendicular as possible in relation to the topof the engine.If extra equipment is installed on the engine altering its center of gravity, a special lifting device is required to achieve the correct balancefor safe handling.Never carry out work on an engine suspendedon a hoist.Never remove heavy components alone, evenwhere secure lifting equipment such as secured blocks are being used. Even where lifting equipment is being used it is best to carryout the work with two people; one to operatethe lifting equipment and the other to ensurethat components are not trapped and damagedwhen being lifted.When working on-board ensure that there issufficient space to remove components withoutdanger of injury or damage.4Components in the electrical system, ignitionsystem (gasoline engines) and fuel system onVolvo Penta products are designed and constructed to minimize the risk of fire and explosion. The engine must not be run in areaswhere there are explosive materials.Always use fuels recommended by Volvo Penta. Refer to the Instruction Book. The use oflower quality fuels can damage the engine. Ona diesel engine poor quality fuel can cause thecontrol rod to seize and the engine to overrevwith the resulting risk of damage to the engineand personal injury. Poor fuel quality can alsolead to higher maintenance costs.
General informationAbout the workshop manualReplacement partsThis workshop manual contains technical specification, descriptions and instructions for repairing thestandard versions of the following engines AQD40,AQAD40, MD40, TMD40, TAMD40. The productdesignation and number should be given in allcorrespondence about the product.This Workshop Manual has been developed primarilyfor Volvo Penta service workshops and qualifiedpersonnel. Persons using this book are assumed tohave a grounding in marine drive systems and beable to carry out related mechanical and electricalwork.Volvo Penta is continuously developing their products. We therefore reserve the right to makechanges. All the information contained in this book isbased on product data available at the time of goingto print. Any essential changes or modificationsintroduced into production or updated or revisedservice methods introduced after the date of publication will be provided in the form of Service Bulletins.Replacement parts for electrical and fuel systemsare subject to statutory requirements (US CoastGuard Safety Regulations for example). Volvo PentaGenuine parts meet these requirements. Any type ofdamage which results from the use of non-originalVolvo Penta replacement parts for the product willnot be covered under any warranty provided byVolvo Penta.5
Repair instructionsThe working methods described in the ServiceManual apply to work carried out in a workshop. Theengine has been removed from the boat and isinstalled in an engine fixture. Unless otherwisestated reconditioning work which can be carried outwith the engine in place follows the same workingmethod.Warning symbols occurring in the Workshop Manual(for their meaning see Safety information)WARNING!IMPORTANT!NOTE!are not in any way comprehensive since it is impossible to predict every circumstance under whichservice work or repairs may be carried out. For thisreason we can only highlight the risks that can arisewhen work is carried out incorrectly in a wellequipped workshop using working methods and toolsdeveloped by us.All procedures for which there are Volvo Pentaspecial tools in this Workshop Manual are carriedout using these. Special tools are developed torationalize working methods and make proceduresas safe as possible. It is therefore the responsibilityof any person using tools or working methods otherthan the ones recommended by us to ensure thatthere is no danger of injury, damage or malfunctionresulting from these.In some cases there may be special safety precautions and instructions for the use of tools and chemicals contained in this Workshop Manual. Thesespecial instructions should always be followed ifthere are no separate instructions in the WorkshopManual.Certain elementary precautions and common sensecan prevent most risks arising. A clean workplaceand engine eliminates much of the danger of injuryand malfunction.It is of the greatest importance that no dirt or foreignparticles get into the fuel system, lubrication system, intake system, turbocharger, bearings andseals when they are being worked on. The result canbe malfunction or a shorter operational life.6Our joint responsibilityEach engine consists of many connected systemsand components. If a component deviates from itstechnical specification the environmental impact of anotherwise good engine may be increased significantly.It is therefore vital that wear tolerances are maintained, that systems that can be adjusted are adjustedproperly and that Volvo Penta Genuine Parts as used.The engine Maintenance Schedule must be followed.Some systems, such as the components in the fuelsystem, require special expertise and special testingequipment for service and maintenance. Some components are sealed at the factory for environmentalreasons. No work should be carried out on sealedcomponents except by authorized personnel.Bear in mind that most chemicals used on boats areharmful to the environment if used incorrectly. VolvoPenta recommends the use of biodegradable degreasing agents for cleaning engine components, unlessotherwise stated in a workshop manual. Take specialcare when working on-board, that oil and waste istaken for destruction and is not accidentally pumpedinto the environment with bilge water.Tightening torquesTightening torques for vital joints that must be tightened with a torque wrench are listed in workshopmanual “Technical Data”: “Tightening Torques” and arecontained in work descriptions in this Manual. Alltorques apply for cleaned threads, screw heads andmating surfaces. Torques apply for lightly oiled or drythreads. If lubricants, locking fluid or sealing compound are required for a screwed joint this informationwill be contained in the work description and in “Tightening Torques” Where no tightening torque is stated fora joint use the general tightening torques according tothe tables below. The tightening torques stated are aguide and the joint does not have to be tightened usinga torque wrench.DimensionM5M6M8M10M12M14Tightening TorquesNm610255080140lbt.ft4.47.418.436.959.0103.3
Tightening torques-protractor(angle) tighteningTightening using both a torquesetting and a protractor angle requires that first the recommendedtorque is applied using a torquewrench and then the recommendedangle is added according to theprotractor scale. Example: a 90 protractor tightening means that thejoint is tightened a further 1/4 turn inone operation after the stated tightening torque has been applied.LocknutsDo not re-use lock nuts that have been removedduring dismantling as they have reduced service lifewhen re-used – use new nuts when assembling orreinstalling. For lock nuts with a plastic insert suchas Nylock the tightening torque stated in the tableis reduced if the Nylock nut has the same headheight as a standard hexagonal nut without plasticinsert. Reduce the tightening torque by 25% for boltsize 8 mm or larger. Where Nylock nuts are higher,or of the same height as a standard hexagonal nut,the tightening torques given in the table apply.Tolerance classesScrews and nuts are divided into different strengthclasses, the class is indicated by the number on thebolt head. A high number indicates stronger material,for example a bolt marked 10-9 indicates a highertolerance than one marked 8-8. It is therefore important that bolts removed during the disassembly of abolted joint must be reinstalled in their originalposition when assembling the joint. If a bolt must bereplaced check in the replacement parts catalogueto make sure the correct bolt is used.SealantsA number of sealants and locking liquids are used onthe engines. The agents have varying properties andare used for different types of jointing strengths,operating temperature ranges, resistance to oil andother chemicals and for the different materials and gapsizes in the engines.To ensure service work is correctly carried out it isimportant that the correct sealant and locking fluidtype is used on the joint where the agents are required.In this Volvo Penta Service Manual the user will findthat each section where these agents are applied inproduction states which type was used on the engine.During service operations use the same agent or analternative from a different manufacturer.Make sure that mating surfaces are dry and free fromoil, grease, pain
Volvo Penta products are designed and con-structed to minimize the risk of fire and explo-sion. The engine must not be run in areas where there are explosive materials. Always use fuels recommended by Volvo Pen-ta. Refer to the Instruction Book. The use of lower quality fuels can damage the engine. On a diesel engine poor quality fuel can cause the