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Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsStudy Material for Students1

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsCAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN MEDIA WORLDMass communication and Journalism is institutionalized and source specific. Itfunctions through well-organized professionals and has an ever increasinginterlace. Mass media has a global availability and it has converted the wholeworld in to a global village. A qualified journalism professional can take up ajob of educating, entertaining, informing, persuading, interpreting, andguiding. Working in print media offers the opportunities to be a news reporter,news presenter, an editor, a feature writer, a photojournalist, etc. Electronicmedia offers great opportunities of being a news reporter, news editor,newsreader, programme host, interviewer, cameraman, producer, director, etc.Other titles of Mass Communication and Journalism professionals are scriptwriter, production assistant, technical director, floor manager, lighting director,scenic director, coordinator, creative director, advertiser, media planner, mediaconsultant, public relation officer, counselor, front office executive, eventmanager and others.2

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping: Reporting Techniques & SkillsINTRODUCTIONThe book deals with techniques of reporting. The students will learn the skills ofgathering news and reporter’s art of writing the news. The book explains the basicformula of writing the news and the kinds of leads. Students will also learn differenttypes of reporting and the importance of clarity and accuracy in writing news. Thebook also deals with the art of writing Articles, Editorials, Middle, Profiles, andLetters to the Editor, Book Reviews, Film Review and Sports Reviews. At the end ofthe book, students will learn about Photojournalism.3

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsINDEXReporting Techniques & Skills1. The Business of Mass Media & Reporter.10-142. Gathering the News:14- 242.1 Reporting & Reporters2.2 Training & Qualifications to be a reporter2.3 Where reporter works2.4 Reporting for Newspapers 14.2.5 Taking Notes2.6. Interviews2.7 Types of interviews 232.8. News Reporting2.8.1 Investigative or Interpretative Reporting2.9 A nose for News. 292.10. Organizing the information2.10.1 Writing and Editing2.10.2. The main elements of News2.10.3. Functions of News2.10.4. News Sources3. Skills for Writing News:25-603.1 The basic formula3.2. Structure for news story3.2.1. The Inverted Pyramid3.3 Writing the Lead3.4 Types of Leads3.5 Headlines3.5.1. The Types of leads –3.5.2.Four functions of a headline:3.6 Types of News Writing3.7 Organization of Topic of Newspaper3.8 Types of Reporting3.9 Writing the Story4. Types of Reporting:4.1. Crime Reporting4.2. Court Reporting4.3. Health Reporting4.4. Civic Reporting4.5. Political Reporting4.6. Business Reporting4.7. Science & Technology Reporting4.8. Sport Reporting4.9. Culture Reporting4.10. Civil Administration Reporting4.11.Education Reporting460-79

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & Skills4.12.Development Reporting5. Writing the Story:80- 965.1 Magazine Writing5.2. How to write an Obituary?5.2.1. Article Writing5.3. Editorial Writing guidelines5.4. Writing Letter to Editor5.5. Writing Film Review5.6.Writing Book Review5.7. New paradigm features6. Photo Journalism:97- 1176.1 . Photojournalism6.2. What is a photojournalist?6.3 photojournalist different from a photographer6.4. Uses of Photography6.4.1 Elements of Photography6.4.2. Point of Interest6.5. Role of Visualizations6.6. Photo Editing in newspaper6.7. India's Top Cartoonists6.8. CartooningGlossary of journalism terms118-124Summery125Questions for practice127Suggested reading1285

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsSYLLABUSReporting Techniques & SkillsUNIT 1. The Business of Mass Media & Reporter.UNIT 2. Gathering the News:Reporting & Reporters - Training & Qualifications to be a reporter - Wherereporter works- Reporting for Newspapers - Reporting the expected & unexpected - Made news –What reporters do - Reporting skills - A nose for News. Observation listening &seeing, Taking notes, finding, checking, verifying, analyzing & interpretinginformation - Interviewing -Asking questions - Types of interviews - Interviewingtechniques.UNIT 3. Skills for Writing News:The basic formula - The Inverted Pyramid: advantages & disadvantages. Writingthe Lead- Kinds of Leads - The summary Lead - Thinking through the Lead - Finding theappropriate verb - No news Lead - Organizing the facts - Time elements Variations on the summary Lead - Some other aspects of the Lead - Datelines,Credit Lines, Bylines -Checklist for the standard of the news story.UNIT 4. Types of Reporting:Objective, Interpretative, Investigative, Legal, Developmental. Political. Sports,Crime, Economic & Commercial, Technical & Science Reporting & the rest.UNIT 5. Writing the Story:Single - Incident Story - Attribution - Identification - Time and Timeliness – TheStylebook.UNIT 6. Photo Journalism:How is News Photography different from the rest - Analyzing the camera angleAction photography - Choosing the right - pix - India's Top Photo Journalists.Cartooning: The Craftsmanship, India's Top CartoonistsUNIT 7. Glossary of Newspaper terminology6

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsREPORTING TECHNIQUES & SKILLSOBJECTIVES To understand the techniques of reportingTo know the skills of gathering news and art of writing the newsTo understand the importance of clarity and accuracy in writing newsTo study the types of reportingTo learn the art of writing Articles, Editorials, Middle, Profiles, and Letters tothe Editor, Book Reviews, Film Review and Sports Reviews The know about photojournalismINTRODUCTIONPart – IMassMedia is a term used to denote a section of the media specificallyenvisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of anation state. It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radionetworks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines, although mass media waspresent centuries before the term became common. The term public media has asimilar meaning: it is the sum of the public mass distributors of news andentertainment across mediums such as newspapers, television, radio, broadcasting,which require union membership in large markets such as Newspaper Guild and &text publishers. The concept of mass media is complicated in some internet mediaas now individuals have a means of potential exposure on a scale comparable towhat was previously restricted to select group of mass media producers. Theseinternet media can include personal web pages and blogs.UNIT 1. THE BUSINESS OF MASS MEDIA & REPORTERJournalism is not a profession that is founded on starry-eyed optimism. It scornsthe up lifter as much as it suspects the reformers, having had grievous experiencewith both in the course of its daily dealings with human affairs. In fact, it cries woeknows full well that such an automatic reflex action has a better chance of beingright or wrong.7

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsToday, Progressive Journalists have realized that there are both civic and nationalresponsibilities that come ahead of their normal professional duties. Merely tellingand printing the news is not enough, nor is it sufficient to keep chanting a litanyabout interpreting the news without finding better people, better ways, more space,and more time to do it before a crisis makes it imperative. The reporter or thejournalist is no longer justifies in wrapping himself in the guise of a philosophicalanarchist and pretending that he is someone set apart with a mission beyond that ofordinary men. For the fact is that he no longer is mere news gatherer, often, in theact of gathering news, he makes it and even influences the course of events. Surely,the time has come for him to recognize it. He is not part of the gigantic shadowplay, he is one of the principal actors, and what he says and does can have asubstantial influence on its outcome. He must face up to his responsibilities as agood citizen first, a good reporter second.The Press is independent of government. Governments are composed of humanbeings, and human beings can and do commit wrongs. The press and governmentshould not become institutional partners. They are natural adversaries withdifferent functions, and each must respect the role of the other. Sometimes a freepress can be a distinct annoyance and an embarrassment to a particulargovernment, but that is one of the prices of liberty. A free press is responsible toits readers and to them alone.Independence is at the very heart of any statement of ethical principles respectingthe conduct of the press. The proprietors of a newspaper may choose to ally it witha particular political party or interest, but an increasing number of newspapers andjournals are politically independent as well as independent of government. Thismeans not that they refrain from endorsing a certain political party or a candidatefor public office, but rather that they owe no prior allegiance and that they makethe endorsement voluntarily, as an exercise of their independence.From this it follows that an independent press must cherish that role by resistingpressures of all kinds - from local as well as national government, from specialinterest groups in the community, from powerful individuals, from advertisers.This is a noble standard that is sometimes more difficult to follow in a smallcommunity than in a large one. It may be relatively easy for a large, well-financednewspaper to risk the displeasure of a particular interest group or advertiser. But ona small paper, where the support of such an advertiser or interest has a directbearing on the ability of management to meet the payroll, it takes courage to resistpressure.8

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsFrom this also flows the point that the newspaper and its staff should exemplifyindependence in their actions. Not only should they be independent in fact, but alsothey must be seen to be independent. A newspaper that rewards its friends withunwarranted, flattering stories or fawning editorials will not long be respected. Anewspaper whose reporters also are on the payroll of a special interest group orwho accept free trips or lavish gifts will find it hard to be convincing in itscriticisms of corruption or other unethical practices in government.Occasionally, newspapers attempt to justify the acceptance of gifts or services. Areliable reporter will hardly be corrupt. Admittedly, in small communities,journalists sometimes may encounter problems in maintaining an independent role.There are pressures to participate in volunteer services, in clubs and businessassociations, and even in local government. Conflicts of interest may arisefrequently.Journalists cannot expect to be walled apart from the community in which theylive. But neither can they serve two masters with opposing interests. A diligenteditor or reporter will at least be aware of the conflicts and keep his or herprofessional responsibilities foremost in mind.A newspaper has the right to be captious, or partisan, or untruthful, or bigoted, orwhatever else its conscience allows it to be. And although newspapers areanswerable to the laws of libel, within a very large compass they continue to settheir own responsibilities. The underlying idea is that, from the clash of opinionsand ideas presented by a free press, ultimately something resembling truthemerges.In practice, however, truth does not always emerge unless someone digs it out.And there is no single patented version of what constitutes truth. In a communitywhere only one newspaper exists, a reader may not encounter differing opinionsunless the newspaper chooses to present them. Radio and television are not alwayseffective substitutes.Recognition, of the importance of fair and balanced reporting, in which opinionsthat differ from those of the writer, or the newspaper, or a government official arenevertheless accurately portrayed. News stories and analysis are presented on thenews pages, with their origins and sources identified wherever possible. Thenewspaper's own opinions are presented on the editorial page, which may alsocarry signed columns from syndicated writers or staff members of the newspaperitself.9

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsNews Reporting needs to guard against undue intrusions on the privacy of personsabout whom they are reporting. A photograph of a person jumping off a building orplunging into a fire may be dramatic, but editors ought to debate long and hardover whether they are violating someone's rights or dignity by publishing it. Doesthe publication serve a defensible purpose, one that will be understood by readers?Or is it using an indignity to pander to curiosity?Reporters enjoy no special rights beyond those of other citizens. They must beaggressive in pursuing facts. Indeed, one of the most important functions of a freepress is to serve as a watchdog. But its staff members have no dispensation to berude or discourteous. Television has many sins of its own, but one thing it purveysvery quickly to viewers is whether reporters at a news conference are behavingarrogantly or with unnecessary brusqueness.A Reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information incertain types of mass media.Reporters gather their information in a variety of ways, including tips, pressreleases, and witnessing events. They perform research through interviews, publicrecords, and other sources. The information-gathering part of the job is sometimescalled "reporting" as distinct from the production part of the job, such as writingarticles. Reporters generally split their time between working in a newsroom andgoing out to witness events or interview people.10

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsMost reporters working for major news media outlets are assigned an area to focuson called a beat or patch. They are encouraged to cultivate sources to improvetheir information gathering.Reporters working for major Western news media usually have a university orcollege degree. The degree is sometimes in journalism, but in most countries, thatis generally not a requirement. When hiring reporters, editors tend to give muchweight to the reporter's previous work such as newspaper clippings, even whenwritten for a student newspaper or as part of an internship.Reporting skills can be learned, just like any other skill. The entire reportingprocess involves setting objectives, through data gathering and analysis tools, toplanning, drafting, editing and designing the report.Set evaluation goals- know what you are doing from the startSelect data gathering methods - select the best way to get breadth and depth ofinformationAnalyze quantitative and qualitative data - really understand what your data istelling youPlan the report-put your ideas into a structure that works. Write more clearly andorganize your ideas and analysis effectively - getting to the point in a powerful,persuasive styleUNIT 2. GATHERING THE NEWS2.1. Training & Qualifications to be a ReporterNews reporters, correspondents, and analysts gather and prepare useful informationfor local and nationwide audiences. They inform society on current events and theactions of public, corporate, and special interest figures.News analysts, or newscasters or news anchors, harness and interpret news to bebroadcast. They present on-air videotapes, stories, or live transmissions fromcorrespondents outside of the studio. Some newscasters specialize in either weatheror sports, and hence receive the titles of weathercasters and sportscaster. Theygather and deliver information relating to these areas of interest. Someweathercasters are actual meteorologists who make their own weather forecasts.Reporters are heavily involved with all phases of news gathering, organizing,shooting, and delivering. They often interview individuals with cameras and later11

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & Skillsedit the material for presentation. Often this information will be sent via electronictransmission to news writers who write about the material. Television and radioreporters may submit material live from a news source. They usually record anintroduction to their story to be presented. Commentators and columnists arejournalists who provide readers and listeners with their own personal opinions.Reports write on assigned topics of relative importance, such as political orcompany events, accidents, or celebrity visits. Some reporters will be assignedspecial interest stories such as “police beats.” Still others specialize in unique fieldsof interest, such as sports, politics, health, consumer affairs, science, religion,entertainment, and others. Investigative journalists may spend days to weeks at atime working on stories. Teams that include reporters, photographers, graphicartists, and editors are often gathered to report on particular events or stories.News correspondents cover news stories in regional stationed areas. Reporters thatwork with smaller publications involve themselves with all phases of gathering andpresenting news, from taking photographs to laying out pages and editing finaltranscriptions. They may also sell advertising and do some office work.News reporters, correspondents, and analysts should anticipate busy schedules andpressure deadlines. They may have to rush to broadcast a story by a certain time.Work environments vary from comfortable offices to rooms full of technicalequipment and other workers. Outside field reporters may find the environment ofan event to be extremely hectic and even dangerous.Work schedules vary. While print reporters typically work in the late hours of theday until midnight, television, radio, and magazine reporters usually have dayschedules with some evening work.In order to meet a deadline, reporters may have to adjust their schedule or workovertime. This is especially so as many stations have 24 hour broadcast schedules.Travel may also be necessary for breaking news events.2.3. Where Reporters work?Reporters gather information and write news stories. These stories appear innewspapers and magazines. Some reporters appear on television and radio. To getinformation, reporters look at documents. They also observe the scene andinterview people. Reporters write about events. These include things such as anaccident, a rally, or a company going out of business.12

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsRadio and television reporters often report "live" from the scene. Newscorrespondents mostly work in large cities. Some report from foreign citiescovering the events in the city.Reporters must meet deadlines. Some work in private offices, while others oftenwork in large rooms with other reporters. Television and radio reporters mayencounter curious onlookers, police, or other emergency workers.Reporters work long hours and sometimes have odd schedules. They may have totravel. At morning newspapers, reporters might work from late afternoon untilmidnight. At evening or afternoon papers, they may work from early morning untilafternoon. Radio and television reporters work day or evening shifts. Magazinereporters generally work during the day. Reporters may have to work extra hoursto meet deadlines. They may have to change their work hours to follow a story.A college degree in journalism is preferred. Some employers hire graduates withother majors. Working at school newspapers or broadcasting stations is goodexperience. Internships with news organizations may also help when seeking a jobas a reporter.Reporters must write clearly and effectively. They also need word processing,computer graphics, and desktop publishing skills. Speaking a second language isnecessary for some jobs. In high school; you should take courses in English,journalism, and social studies, with an emphasis on writing.Employment of news analysts, reporters, and correspondents is expected to declinemoderately. Still, some job openings will occur in newer media areas, such asmagazines and newspapers on the Internet. It is difficult to get a job at newspapersand broadcast stations in large cities. The best chances for a first job are on smalltown and suburban newspapers.2.4.Reporting for NewspapersOur newspapers must present a balanced view of the community, state, nation andthe world beyond our borders. To do so it requires a certain amount of skill,patience and understanding. Therefore, a reporter must have a nose for news. Wetalk of news of reader interest.13

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsGenerally the following will interest the reader:1. Unusual events2. Mysteries and the unknown3. Prominent people, places and the things4. Whatever people are talking about5. Statements by persons in authority6. All events that affects readers’ lives7. Trends or continuing events that grasp the imagination of readers over aperiod of time8. New ideas-anything that is likely to be new to the general reader9. Conflict between man and man; between man and nature10.Natural phenomenon; violence, calamities and disaster11.Tragedies and comedies that appeal to the human emotion12.The why of news; why things happen, what makes them happen, who pullsthe strings13.Topics of health14.The environment15.Fashion and entertainment2.5. Taking notes in Reporting is very important!You must be able to provide evidence of everything you include in an article ornews report. Therefore, it is vital that you keep adequate notes, and includeeverything you can, including for example) transcripts of interviews and e -mails.When taking notes, you might try making your own shorthand. Evidence which isof unknown source is not evidence.How to Take Notes?1. In preparation for writing a piece of work, your notes might come from anumber of different sources: course materials, set texts, secondary reading,interviews, or government sources and common people. You might gatherinformation from radio or television broadcasts, or from experiments and researchprojects.2. The notes you gather in preparation for writing will normally provide detailedevidence to back up any arguments you wish to make. They might also be used asillustrative material. They might include such things as the quotations and page14

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & Skillsreferences you plan to use in an essay. Your ultimate objective in planning will beto produce a one or two page outline of the topics you intend to cover.3. Be prepared for the fact that you might take many more notes than you will everuse. This is perfectly normal. At the note-taking stage you might not be sureexactly what evidence you will need. In addition, the information-gathering stageshould also be one of digesting and refining your ideas.4. Don't feel disappointed if you only use a quarter or even a tenth of yourmaterials. The proportion you finally use might vary from one subject to another,as well as depending on your own particular writing strategy. Just because somematerial is not used, don't imagine that your efforts have been wasted.5. When taking notes from any source, keep in mind that you are attempting tomake a compressed and accurate record of information, other people's opinions,and possibly your own observations on the subject in question.6. Your objective whilst taking the notes is to distinguish the more important fromthe less important points being made. Record the main issues, not the details. Youmight write down a few words of the original if you think they may be used in aquotation. Keep these extracts as short as possible unless you will be discussing alonger passage in some detail.7. Don't try to write down every word of a lecture - or copy out long extracts frombooks. One of the important features of note taking is that you are making a digestof the originals, and translating the information into your own words.8. Some people take so many notes that they don't know which to use when it'stime to do the writing. They feel that they are drowning in a sea of information.9. This problem is usually caused by two common weaknesses in note-takingtechnique: Transcribing too much of the originalBeing unselective in the choice of topics10. There are two possible solutions to this problem: Select only those few words of the source material, which will be of use.Avoid being descriptive. Think more, and write less. Be rigorously selective.15

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & Skills Keep the project topic or the essay question more clearly in mind. Takenotes only on those issues which are directly relevant to the subject inquestion.11. Even though the notes you take are only for your own use, they will be moreeffective if they are recorded clearly and neatly. Good layout of the notes will helpyou to recall and assess the material more readily. If in doubt use the followinggeneral guidelines. Before you even start, make a note of your source(s. If this is a book, anarticle, or a journal, write the following information at the head of yournotes: Author, title, publisher, publication date, and edition of book.Use loose-leaf A4 paper. This is now the international standard for almost allprinted matter. Don't use small notepads. You will find it easier to keep trackof your notes if they fit easily alongside your other study materials.Write clearly and leave a space between each note. Don't try to cram asmuch as possible onto one page. Keeping the items separate will make themeasier to recall. The act of laying out information in this way will cause youto assess the importance of each detail.Use some system of tabulation as being done in these notes. This will helpto keep the items separate from each other. Even if the progression ofnumbers doesn't mean a great deal, it will help you to keep the items distinct.Don't attempt to write continuous prose. Notes should be abbreviated andcompressed. Full grammatical sentences are not necessary. Useabbreviations, initials, and shortened forms of commonly used terms.Don't string the points together continuously, one after the other on the page.You will find it very difficult to untangle these items from each other aftersome time has passed.Devise a logical and a memorable layout. Use lettering, numbering, andindentation for sections and for sub-sections. Use headings andsubheadings. Good layout will help you to absorb and recall information.Some people use colored inks and highlighters to assist thisprocess of identification.Use a new page for each set of notes. This will help you to store and identifythem later. Keep topics separate, and have them clearly titled and labeled tofacilitate easy recall.Write on one side of the page only. Number these pages. Leave the blanksides free for possible future additions, and for any details, which may beneeded later.16

Edited with the trial version ofFoxit Advanced PDF EditorTo remove this notice, visit:www.foxitsoftware.com/shoppingReporting Techniques & SkillsNotebook of a ReporterEvery interview has a common problem; how is it to be recorded? The sight of anotebook on the knee of a reporter sometimes has a paralyzing and tongue-tyingeffect on the person whose views are being sought, unless such happenings are acommon occurrence for him and he is perfectly used to them, the best way is tomake your entrance apparently devoid of all the tools of your trade and to listenintently for a minute or two. Then you can quietly produce your pen and a piece offolded paper and make a few notes, if possible, while still watching the speaker.Never look away from him for longer than you can help, make him feel that he,and not your note-taking has more attention.Another way is to wait until the speaker has made a point or half given a string offigures, then, producing your paper and pen, ask: may I quote that? And as youmake your note, allow him to prompt you on the words to be used, if he wishes.Then look up at him again, put a question, or allow him to continue talking. Lateryou can make another note or two, perhaps with increasing frequency as the sightof your slip of paper becomes familiar, but watch him as much as you can andappear interested.Checking, verifying, analyzing & interpreting information is extremelyimportant for a reporter.Fairness is the foundation of good

2.8. News Reporting 2.8.1 Investigative or Interpretative Reporting 2.9 A nose for News. 29 2.10. Organizing the information 2.10.1 Writing and Editing 2.10.2. The main elements of News 2.10.3. Functions of News 2.10.4. News Sources 3. Skills for Writing News: 25-60 3.1 The basic formula 3.2.

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