Out In The Field

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Out in the FieldSanjay M. JohriWith a Foreword byRatan Mani LalSenior JournalistM

Author & PublisherFirst Edition 2005Published byMCRF Society7/3 Dalibagh ColonyLucknow (U.P.)Printed bydhdks sbsakasjhsjhsasjkLucknowIllustrations byAvnish KumarDesigned byMohit SharmaI dedicate this book to all my students of Journalismand Mass Communication who gave me an opportunityto understand the nuances of teaching and sharing withthem my experiences in Reporting. It was their affectionthat forced me to quit action in the field and look aroundthat academics demand patience and creativity to proveyour point. I am thankful to Avnish Kumar and MohitSharma for providing me invaluable support.

Contents1. Forewordvii2. Prefaceix3. The Stepping Stones134. Organisational Structure of a Newspaper195. News256. Reporter357. News Agencies458. Development Journalism559. Parliamentary Reporting6510. Elections8911. Specialized Reporting103(a) Sports reporter104(b) Investigative reporting108(c) Interpretative Journalism111(d) Freelancers113(e) The Foreign Reporter115(f) The Fashion Reporter117(g) The Crime Reporter119(h) The Science Reporter122(i) The Court Reporting128(j) Photo Journalism134(k) Cartoons13612. Feature Writing14513. News Releases, Statements & Speeches151

14. Challenges Ahead159(a) Newspeak: Killing me softly with big words161(b) Does the Press need a code of ethics?164(c) Is Journalism just a job or a mission?167(d) Science writing and the art of handling criticism173(e) Lack of professionalism bane of Hindi Journalism177(f) Hooking scribes with liquor and gifts18015. Annexure ICommercialism: How does it affect the contents?18516. Annexure IIGlossary19717. Annexure IIIMedia Glossary19918. Annexure IVThe Icons203FForewordor about 600 years, print has been the basic medium ofmass communication, education, storing of information andtransfer of knowledge. In spite of the advent of the electronicmedia and a flood of news channels around the second halfof the last century, the printed word and images have not losttheir power of conveying the desired meaning and newspaperscontinue to hold an important place because of their socialrelevance.The reasons for this are not far to seek. Printed words andimages can be read and assimilated by a reader at his ownpace. Though radio and television have their own importanceand they play an important role in reaching out to the mindsof the people, still readers can recall any information throughnewspapers, keep it as reference material to be read at his owntime or check up the facts and figures whenever required. Theirarchival value is undisputed. Further, printing and printedcommunication is cheaper than electronic communication andalso we have not been able to reach every nook and corner ofIndia through television because of many reasons. Besides, radioand television still do not transmit in many Indian languages.Journalism is practiced in India in its own way but its approachvaries when it comes to understanding different castes, creedand religions. There have been new dimensions to Indianjournalism and many a time we forget the values, ethics andcode of conduct so importantly required while writing a story.The irony is that modern day journalist neither receives propertraining at professional institutes nor he is taught properly byhis seniors which otherwise had been the basic tenet of startingcareer in the media.‘Out in the Field’ is an unorthodox, unconventional book bythe author who has practiced journalism for more than 20 yearsas a reporter with India’s premier news agency, the Press Trust ofIndia. PTI is still regarded as one of the best training institutionsin India in imparting the right approach of journalism to buddingjournalists. The book deals with some interesting chapters of

Reporting wherein the author has dealt with the basic rules ofJournalism. While the author in his career has followed all theserules, he wants his students and juniors to follow them with aview to maintain highest standards in journalism.Ratan Mani LalFPrefacerom a Researcher to a Journalist and then to mediaacademics it indeed has been a topsy-turvy journey!Having spent first two years in experimental research onhamsters, mice and primates to test the efficacy of an antiparasitic drug at Asia’s biggest drug research laboratory, theCentral Drug Research Institute (CDRI) at Lucknow, my entryto Journalism has been quite by chance.Feeling a little tired of the monotonous research routine fromlab to animal house, my creative instinct prodded me to quitresearch. Soon, I joined India’s premier news-agency, the PressTrust of India in 1982 to take up Science Journalism, an area whichwas not very popular in those days. The agency managementalways thought that science background would always helpa Journalist to serve the organization better, to highlight theresearch in the scientific institutions. The experiment in factmarked the advent of Science Journalism in a big way as PTIbecame the leader following The Hindu to write about sciencefor layman and popularized science throughout the countrywith newspapers giving prominent display to such news items.But as luck would have it, the shortage of staff forced me totake up Political Reporting from Popular Science and my next15 years were devoted to General Reporting. I, however, nevermissed an opportunity to write about science whenever such astory was there.From Union Carbide’s MIC leak to the high fish mortalityin Gomti river and exclusive stories like strange fungus whichkilled thousands of army mules in the high altitude areas andthe leak of radio isotopes in the river Gomti, I still cherish thosedays which gave lot of credibility to the factual and courageousagency journalism and brought me fame as a credible ScienceCorrespondent. Nevertheless, coverage of general and assemblyelections, the Ayodhya movement, the nationwide postDecember 6, 1984 riots, the earthquake in Uttarkashi were someof the assignments which I still remember having covered as ageneralist.In the year 2002, a chance opportunity came for me to move tomedia academics, The sudden shift, though a conscious choice,was rather unexpected. Once I made up my mind to stay here,

I thought why not utilize all these years of experiences with theyoung friends!While in academics I found that there was hardly anyliterature which can help a budding Journalist, especially aReporter, understand the nuances of basics. And then I thoughtabout writing something that was handy and useful to them.This book does not deal with each and every detail ofpractising Journalism but is an attempt to help a Journalismstudent understand the basics of reporting. The effort throughthis unorthodox publication is to make aware and understandthe budding Journalists about the basics of Reporting andsituation they might come across while being ‘Out in the Field’.Quotes have been taken from different reference booksin media and also from other sources and have been dulyacknowledged.Sanjay Mohan Johri

ChapterILanguage is something one has todevelop with good vocabulary. Ifyou were good in essay writing inschools, this does not guarantee thatyou will make a good journalist.Journalism is much, much more thana catchy turn of phrase.Here are some tips The steppingstones

14Out in the FieldVarious universitiesand institutions haverecently come up witha number of courses inmass media and suchcourses are definitelyattracting a lot of studentswith a desire to become amedia professional -- beit the field of print media,electronic media, publicrelations & advertisingor developmentcommunication.At the same time one who writes an occasional article orcontributes small news items, proclaims to be journalist. Is hereally a journalist? If this is the case, how shall we differentiatesuch people from the professionals who after doing a mediarelated course, work regularly for many newspapers or otherperiodicals? What, in fact, makes a journalist?A professional journalist is easily identified: he is on thepay roll of a journal; he reports for his paper, or he may writefeatures or editorials or edit copy. He is known by differentnames: reporter, feature writer, special correspondent, subeditor, assistant editor, sports editor, science editor, city editor,economic editor, news editor, editor, etc.The range of work he does is as wide as the world around him.He reports on crime, law and order, political developments, thecourts, the executive, the legislature, people, fashion, art, music,drama, literature everything, that makes news.A journalist does more than that; he edits what others write,he comments and criticizes and he puts together the news.Therefore primarily, it is a profession for the man trained todo his particular job in the complex business of bringing out ajournal. It is definitely not for amateurs.The Stepping Stones15We must admit that to be a good journalist in the modern eraof information technology it is important to receive adequateand obviously the right kind of training.But does it mean that mere receiving a diploma would qualifyyou to become a journalist. Perhaps not, but then you must know‘what makes a journalist’?Vitality, hustling and ferreting out the truth may be fewof the many qualities one requires to become a journalist. Ajournalist has to be full of energy, must be able to get at the truth,if necessary by hustling. There is much sense in what JamesReston of New York Times once said in a talk to the ColumbiaSchool of Journalism:“I am a strong advocate of education and specialized trainingfor newspapermen. Yet on the Washington staff of the New YorkTimes we have men with multiple degrees from universities andother men who did not complete their higher education for onereason or other both do well. In going over their records, I amstruck by the fact that all of them have this one great quality—vitality, drive, aliveness; call it what you will.”It occurs to me, therefore, that the most thorough educationand the finest training in some speciality are of no avail to makea newspaperman outstanding unless he also had the necessaryvitality to get on the job.So while a degree or diploma is an important thing forsomeone aspiring to be a journalist, he is expected to have thebasic instinct of vitality, hustling and ferreting out the truthand act as a pure professional. Language is something one hasto develop with good vocabulary. If you were good in essaywriting in schools, this does not guarantee that you will makea good journalist. Journalism is much, much more than a catchyturn of phrase.Five Steps to Good Journalism:1.Home Work: There is no substitute for doing one’s homework. If you are writing about an event or a development,

16Out in the Fieldyou must gather as much information about it as you canbefore sitting down to write your story. The demands of adaily newspaper in particular imply that your search forknowledge or information cannot be endless.2.Objectivity: Objectivity is the hallmark of any good journalist.All of us have a subjective strain in our writing, but a goodreporter makes a conscious effort each time he writes a storyto ensure that his own prejudices and views do not intrudeinto the report. A columnist gives his opinion of events, buta reporter should report objectively.3.Investigation: With the so-called investigative journalismhaving become a fashion in India, it is of utmost importanceto give a balanced picture of the facts. In other words, if youare investigating a case of alleged corruption or forgery, theperson or persons you are investigating must be given fullopportunity to state their case. They might not wish to talkor they might mislead you, but they must get a chance toanswer your allegations and, therefore, the story has to bepresented in a balanced manner.4.Simplicity and Clarity: Good journalists mean simplicity andclarity. You must take trouble to acquaint yourself with goodlanguage, you are going to opt for the profession. All of usare not ‘born writers’, but we can, all of us, put in that extraeffort to learn the rules of good language by improving ourvocabulary.5.Exaggeration: And finally, never try to have an exaggeratedopinion of yourself. Humility is an essential quality ina good journalist. By the nature of his work, a journalistenjoys special privileges in society. He must thus be doublycareful not to abuse the advantages he has by virtue of hisprofession.“It is much easier to produce a clever copy without botheringabout accuracy or fairness than the sit down to the painstakingThe Stepping Stones17job of finding out facts.” Good journalism is not easy, but itis rewarding if you do your job well.

ChapterIIIn common parlance a Presswalais considered to be one who worksin a media house or a newspaperoffice but the fact is that there arespecific positions and designationsand a hierarchy of journalists andnon-journalists in an organizationdealing with media .organisationalStructure ofa Newspaper

20Out in the FieldThe newspaper proprietors structure their organizationin a particular manner so that the essential functions of thenewspaper are performed most efficiently. In a modern set-upthe structure is divided into five distinct sections/divisions.These are: Editorial Business (Advertisement, Circulation) Computers, Engineering and Equipments Printing and Production PersonnelThe functioning in a media house especially Print, revolvesaround the above-said units as each division has its own roleto perform, which ultimately helps and ensures the production.If advertisements are important to bring revenue, there is nopurpose of a newspaper being printed but not sold in the market.Hence, both advertisement and circulation remain key functionalareas of business division, which is managed by professionals.Most of the media houses are fully computerized and addingvalue to the product is the introduction of newer technology byemploying high-tech machines and latest software.Printing too has become highly technical and all this managedby trained and highly competent professionals managingeach unit to the best of their capabilities. Though not directlyrelated with the newspaper but Personnel is taken care of byHR professionals who take care of the welfare of employees.The Editorial section has been dealt with slightly in detailbecause it is the nerve center of a media house. Withoutgenerating content, the final product cannot come out.EditorialThe editorial department of a newspaper organization isits heart and soul. In fact, the entire business of a successfulnewspaper depends on the effective, efficient and promptOrganisational Structure of a Newspaper21

22Out in the Fieldoperations in this department. The functions of editorialdepartment are extremely crucial and significant. Thedepartment collects, receives, processes and finalizes the newsand all other writings relating to news for publication. Forcollecting the news efficiently and promptly and making itfit for presentation to the readers in a readable, attractive anddigestible form, the editorial department of a newspaper has totake the entire responsibility. It is the life sustaining force andbe-all and end-all of a newspaper establishment.The department has three main operations1.Newsroom: Editing and processing the news is done on theediting desk.2.News-gathering: Making arrangements for gathering newsfrom the city, other parts of the country, foreign countries(through their own correspondents or the news agencies).There are beat reporters in areas like political, crime, health,science, educational institutions etc who also file theirreports on a routine basis.3.Views and Opinion: Every newspaper/magazine has oneor more editorial pages which reflect the policy of theorganizations. Opinions have to be in conformity with thenewspaper’s policy which is determined by the proprietor/owner. The editor as head of the department has to ensurethat opinions expressed in editorials are in line with thepublication’s policy. The editorial page or section carriesmaterial such as editorials, special articles, middles, lettersto the editor, special columns and sometimes cartoons.Remember: ‘All News Items Received On The Editorial Deskare Collectively Called Copy, Not Copies’.Desk duty in shifts: Generally three shifts: 11-5 p.m.; 2-8 or4-10 p.m.; 6-12 or 8-2 a.m.The morning shift has to take care of the Dak Editions whichare generally circulated in the districts and released by theafternoon.Organisational Structure of a Newspaper23News-gathering: City Reporters are assigned different beatsand are headed by chief reporter. Their primary job is to arrangematerial for the city pages which may number from 2-4.Chief of News Bureau heads the team of Special Correspondentswho have a seniority of 10-15 years. They cover important beatslike ministries, political parties, embassies and states.Reporters and other journalists who are at the desk take careof the sports, business, feature and foreign pages with maximuminput being from the national and international news agencies.These pages are generally looked after by a team of assistanteditors who specialize in this discipline.Various Editorial and Reporting positions in modernday newspaper world:Editor/Chief Editor/Managing Editor, Assistant Editor,Associate Editor, Deputy Editor, Senior Editor, Chief NewsEditor, News Editor, Deputy News Editor, Chief SubEditor, Chief of Bureau,Diplomatic/Political Correspondent;Special Correspondent.

ChapterIIIIt is believed that the instinct for‘Nose for News’ in a journalist isin-born but this can be developedfurther by training and practice.If a dog bites a man, it is no newsbut if a man bites a dog, it would hitthe news headline .News

26Out in the FieldIn common parlance, news is what is new. News is whateveryone wants to know about. A newspaper office’s mainconcern is to gather and report news -- local, state, regional,national and international. The basic understanding about newsis essential for any editorial and reporting work in a media -- beit newspaper, news-agency or electronic media.Think of several definitions about news: North, East, West, South . What comes from there makes news News is something revealed News is something which somebody wants suppressed News is anything which you did not know yesterday News is any event, idea or opinion that is timely, that interestsor affects a large number of people in a community News is what the newspaper prints and radio broadcasts News is a compilation of facts and events of current interest orimportance to the readers of the newspaper printing in it News is anything and everything interesting about life andmaterial in all their manifestationPeople listen to radio and read newspapers and watchtelevision to get the latest update of what is happening aroundthe world. Any unusual happening falls under the purview ofnews. Without information, one may not be able to relate withthe society.News is reporting of facts. News is anything out of theordinary. ‘News is what newspaper man makes it’. An essentialfeature of news is that it is new. New is a relative thing. Theunusual thing will always interest people and therefore anythingunusual is news.News values are determined by public interest. News valuesdiffer from person to person and from society to society.Anything which is strange or disgusting is news. There are noNews27rigid rules to define news. News is what we do not know. Newsis unpredictable.A newspaper story in a modern society has to meet therequirement of everyday life, as lived by a reader.It relies on the elements of novelty, directness, pace and varietyand it tries to convey its information in the form keeping with thetempo of our times. It aims to state its facts quickly and clearly.In a nutshell, news is a report of a recent or current eventspublished in a periodical.In news strangeness, abnormality, unexpectedness andnearness of an event, all add to the interest in the story. Similarlyfreshness, enormity and departure from the normal also addgreatly to the value of news.News can come to you in the form of simple information, aboutan event, some developmental plans, movement of importantpersons, announcement of government plans etc.But it is also a fact that news does not interest all people.Without consciously realizing it, most people read only part ofthe newspaper they buy. In other words, their reading is highlyselective. They read what they consider is news. Too often theaverage reader’s interest does not go beyond scandal, murder,crime of all sorts.Nose for NewsIt is believed that the instinct for ‘Nose for News’ in a journalistis in-born but this can be developed further by training andpractice.If a dog bites a man, it is no news but if a man bites a dog, itwould hit the headline. If we agree with this definition, it shouldnot be difficult for anyone to train himself by developing thenose for news.

28Out in the FieldNews29Factors determining news:information to the readers. type of news focusing of analysis, reasons,background and interpretation is becoming a very importantsegment of daily newspaper as mere accounts of events do notsatisfy the readers. They would like to enter beneath the uppercrust of hard news. This type of news is called soft e reader wants his news to be new. That is why he buys hisnewspaper or listens to radio or TV bulletins. A newspaper thatpublishes stale news soon ceases to have meaningful circulation.News coming out of the press must be really ‘hot’, in the senseof being not only exciting but new, not known till then.ProximityThe reader finds more interest in a minor event close at handthan in more important events miles away. ‘A dead dog lyingon the streets of Lucknow’ is of more interest than ‘Floods inChina’. Proximity is both geographical and emotional.SizeThe very small and the very big, both draw attention to thereaders. A small event in your city and a big political rally, bothare equally important for the readers and attract the attentionof the readers.ImportanceEvery news item is important but it all depends on the newseditor how much importance he gives to a particular item andplans to display.The news may be divided into two main categories:Hard and soft newsHard News: Immediate, or “breaking” story that can’t waitfor publication. The hard news is mostly event centered. It is anarration of an event. The hard news are centered on ”what,when, where and why”. The thrust of a daily newspaper isthe hard news as the main task of the dailies is to provideWhat makes news?News comes to you from different sources and several formslike:Novelty: Man bites a dog. Cripple scores a goal. somethingthat could happen but had never happened before.Personal Impact: Something personal which makes news andpeople start identifying with them. Think of news like ‘Sachinreturning home due to tennis elbow injury’ or ‘Hrithik is gettingmarried’; such stories about people with whom a reader gets achance to identify (with him or herself).Local News: A local bus accident involving casualties or afilm star coming to the town for the launch of a product or acampaign is of much interest to the readers in a city.Money: The budget presentation is news so are impositionof taxes, relief in the income tax, fall or hike in essentialcommodities prices or petrol-diesel prices, salary incrementsor economic crisis.Crime: Murders, kidnappings or more recently incidence ofterrorism.Sex: Such news is of perennial interests to the readers.Conflict: Conflict between man and wife resulting in divorce,between nations resulting in war, between man and naturecausing ecological imbalance.Religion: Communal and caste tensions and attacks ondifferent communities.

30Out in the FieldNews31Disaster and Tragedy: The Titanic sinks with all aboard,Nehru, Gandhi dead, a volcano erupts or a city rocked bydevastating earthquake. Such news make a reader feel ‘it couldhave happened to me’.Humour: Laloo-Rabri do something that attracts mediaattention or eunuch turned politician goes for ‘Jajmani’ at amarriage sounds interesting and give humour touch to the story.Human Interest: Happiness, tragedy and emotions alwaystouch your heart.Mystery: Mystery man like Muhnuchwa creates panic amongresidents and evokes lot of curiosity and suspense.Health: Miracle drug, miracle cure, spread of a strange disease,death of Iranian twin sisters after 54-hour marathon surgery inSingapore or general guidance on health issues.Science: GSLV launch, Pokhran test and a scientific discoveryadd a lot of interest.Entertainment: Action or appearance of showbiz like Amitabh,Vivek Oberoi and Aishwarya makes interesting readings. Whois making which film and whether the film would be a flop orhit adds interest to the reading. What is coming up in the newtele-serial or what comes up next in Ekta Kapoor’s next episodeof the serial always holds fascination.Famous People: Whether a film star, a sports person, politicianor scientist--any news about them are always added attractionfor readers.Weather: If it is of neurotic interest in Britain, in India there isa sense of impending doom if monsoon is delayed.Food: The latest low fat food, adulterated food or milk,opening of a new cafeteria in the city, all make crisp stories andinterest readers.Above: Hard News and Below: Soft NewsWriting the news story

32Out in the FieldNews33A news story consists of three parts: The headline The first paragraph (Intro) The remainder of the story (Body)THE HEADLINE is the first to attract the reader. Giving anappropriate headline is an art in itself. The headline’s messageis terse, abrupt and often startling. The whole idea is to makethe reader stop and look. The headline seeks to hold attentionand compel the reader to read the story.But an effective headline is not sufficient unto itself. A greatdeal depends on the FIRST PARAGRAPH (INTRO). It is calledLEAD because it leads the rest of the story. It is also called ‘intro’because it introduces the rest to the reader. If the lead or intro isnot sufficiently arresting, interest will lag and the reader’s eyemay wander on to another headline and another story.Convention requires that in the lead, the reporter must answerthe 5 Ws and the one H: Who What When Where Why How The intro based on these should be appropriate for the story. The intro should make the reader read the rest of the story. The intro should be kept short wherever possible. It should normally be based on the key point of the story.5W 1HIntroThe intro is the essence of the news story in condensed form.It is described as window of the story and gives an idea of whatthe story is about and help the desk pick up the suitable headlineof the story. It should be precise and crisp and made up of short,simple sentences.

34Out in the FieldChapterIVIt should generally explain (the 5 Ws and one H) like whathappened, who was involved, when it did happen, where andhow it happened and why.The body (text/remainder) should sustain it with expansionof each of the point mentioned in the Intro (Lead). The bodyshould also be as complete and as tight as possible. It shouldhave a flow, readability and provide all the relevant informationwithin the shortest possible space.According to one definition, ‘spill the whole story in the firstparagraph and maintain the interest for the rest of the copy’.It is said that a Reporter is both eyesand ears of a news organization. Heis the most interesting and familiarperson in a media house and herepresents the invisible power of thepress. A Reporter is press itself The Reporter

36Out in the FieldThe Reporter37The staff of a big newspaper or for that matter any mediahouse consists of many persons, who work on the frontdesks, like the employees in the advertising and circulationdepartments, and those who work behind the scenes, like theeditor, sub-editor, manager or those in the production wing etc.There is no doubt that no other member of the media staff hasa greater influence than the reporter. The reporter is in touchwith life every day under all sorts of conditions. It is his duty togo out to see, find, hear and know about the latest events andhappenings, and then write about the same in his newspaperor news channel.It is said that a reporter is both eyes and ears of a newsorganization. He is the most interesting and familiar person in amedia house and he represents the invisible power of the press.A reporter is press itself.He is the gatherer of news and required to be on the movemost of the time to keep abreast with the latest developmentsin the area assigned to him. His nature of job being such, an‘up-and–doing’ type of person proves successful in this line.Those who prefer fixed working hours and regular routine areunsuitable for this job. A reporter’s work changes daily and assuch should be prepared to handle any type of situation.A person of snobbish, uppish and patronizing temperamenthas little or no chance of success in this line of journalism. Ashy and reserved type young person is totally unfit to becomea successful reporter.He must possess abundant self-confidence so as not to beover-awed by the rank or position of an individual he is meeting.A man of initiative: He should be a man of initiative andshould not be easily disheartened or discouraged. He shouldhave the capacity to grasp the situation quickly and write hisstory in the shortest possible time.He must be temperamentally so framed that he should notget irritated, even at times he has to wait for hours to meet animportant and newsy person or come across an event.As a reporter, he should have a bent of mind for research andshould be a perfect talker or speaker.The sole aim of good news reporting should be writing witha certain amount of responsibility to oneself, to an organization,to the society and to the humanity at large. One must

9. Parliamentary Reporting 65 10. Elections 89 11. Specialized Reporting 103 (a) Sports reporter 104 (b) Investigative reporting 108 (c) Interpretative Journalism 111 (d) Freelancers 113 (e) The Foreign Reporter 115 (f) The Fashion Reporter 117 (g) The Crime Reporter 119 (h) The Science

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