Chapter 1a - Hebrew Alphabet - NTSLibrary

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Chapter 1a - Hebrew Alphabettwenty-three consonantsLetter א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ל מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר שׂ שׁ ת nTransliterationsilentb as in boyg as in Godd as in dayh as in hayw as in wayz as in Zionch as in Bacht as in toyy as in yesk as in kingl as in lionm as in mothern as in nows as in sinsilentp as in pastorts as in bootsk as in kingr as in runs as in sinsh as in shipt as in toy bgdhwz †yklmns pßqr ¡t

Chapter 1b - Hebrew Alphabetfive final formsFive Hebrew letters have “final” forms. When one of theseletters occurs at the end of a word, it is written differentlythan when it appears at the beginning or in the middle ofa word. The changing of a letter’s form, however, does notchange its pronunciation or transliteration.RegularForm כ מ נ פ צ א FinalFormExample ך ם ן ף ץ דרך עם זקן כסף ארץ Basics of Biblical HebrewTranslit.Translationdrkroad, way mnation, peoplezqnold man, elderkspmoney, silver rßearth, land

Chapter 1c - Hebrew Alphabetsix begadkephat consonantsSix consonants have two possible pronunciations and are known asbegadkephat consonants. To distinguish between the two pronunciations, adot called Daghesh Lene was inserted into the consonant. The presence ofDaghesh Lene indicates a hard pronunciation and its absence denotes a softpronunciation.BegadkephatLetter בּ ב גּ ג דּ ד כּ כ פּ פ תּ ת א PronunciationTransliterationb as in boyb v as in vineg as in Godgh as in aghastd as in daydh as in thek as in kingch as in Bachp as in pastorph as in alphabett as in toyth as in thinBasics of Biblical Hebrewg dƒk pºt

Chapter 1d - Hebrew Alphabeteasily confused lettersHebrew consonants that look alike1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10. ( ב Bet) ( ג Gimel) ( ה He) ( שׂ Sin) ( ם final Mem) ( ד Dalet) ( צ Tsade) ( ו Waw) ( ו Waw) ( ך final Kaf) ( כ Kaf) ( נ Nun) ( ח Óet) ( ת Taw) ( שׁ Shin) ( ס Samek) ( ר Resh) ( ע Ayin) ( ז Zayin) ( ן final Nun) ( ן final Nun)Hebrew consonants that sound alike1.2.3. א ט ק ס (Tet)(Qof)(Samek)Basics of Biblical Hebrew ( תּ Taw with Daghesh Lene) ( כּ Kaf with Daghesh Lene) ( שׂ Sin)

Chapter 1e - Hebrew Alphabetmodern pronunciationThe pronunciation of modern Hebrew differs in a numberof ways from ancient pronunciation. With the threebegadkephat consonants listed below, the forms withoutDaghesh Lene are pronounced like the forms withDaghesh Lene in modern Hebrew.Consonant ג ד ת ו א TraditionalPronunciationModernPronunciationgh as in aghastg as in Goddh as in thed as in dayth as in thint as in toyw as in wayv as in vineBasics of Biblical Hebrew

Chapter 2a - Hebrew Vowelsvowels with consonantsDeuteronomy 6:5no vowel pointing ואהבת את יהוה אלהיך בכל לבבך ָ וְאָהַבְ ָּת אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיך ָ בְּכָל לְבָבְך with vowel pointing א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 2b - Hebrew Vowelsshort vowels2.3a-typee-typei-typeo-typeu-type א Vowel Chart 1: Short Vowels.ַּ ב ֶּב ִּב ָּב ֻּב Vowel NamePronunciationPathacha as in bataSeghole as in bettereHireqi as in bitteriQamets Hatufo as in bottleoQibbutsu as in ruleruBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltTransliteration

Chapter 2c - Hebrew Vowelschangable long vowels2.4a-typee-typeo-type א Vowel Chart 2: Changeable Long Vowelsָּ ב ֵּב ֹּב Vowel NamePronunciationQametsa as in fatheråTseree as in they Holemo as in roleøBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltTransliteration

Chapter 2d - Hebrew Vowelsunchangable long vowels2.5a-typee-typei-typeo-typeu-type א Vowel Chart 3: Unchangeable Long Vowels בָּי בֵּי בֶּי בִּי בּוֹ בּוּ Vowel NamePronunciationQamets Yodou as in boughtâTsere Yode as in theyêSeghol Yode as in betterêHireq Yodi as in machineªHolem Wawo as in roleôShurequ as in rulerûBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltTransliteration

Chapter 2e - Hebrew Vowelsreduced (hateph) vowels2.6a-typee-typeo-type א Vowel Chart 4: Reduced (Hateph) Vowelsֲּ ב ֱּב ֳּב Vowel NamePronunciationHateph Pathacha as in amuseáHateph Seghola as in amuseéHateph Qametsa as in amuseóBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltTransliteration

Chapter 2f - Hebrew Vowelssummary vowel chartShortChangeableLongUnchangeableLongReduced א aeiouַּ ב ֶּ ב ִּ ב ָּ ב ֻּ ב PathachSegholHireqQametsHatufQibbutsָּ ב ֵּ ב ֹּ ב QametsTsereHolem בֵּי בָּי / בִּי בֶּי בּוֹ בּוּ HolemWawShureqQametsYodTsere Yod/Seghol Yodֲּ ב ֱּ ב ֳּ ב HatephPathachHatephSegholHatephQametsBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltHireqYod

Chapter 2g - Hebrew Vowelsshewaְּ ב This vowel symbol is called Shewa.It is not listed in the vowel charts because it is not like anyother vowel. It does not belong to any phonetic class.There are two types of Shewa in Hebrew:Silent Shewa and Vocal Shewa. א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 2h - Hebrew Vowelsdaghesh forteּ ב This pointing symbol is called Daghesh Forte.It looks exactly like the Daghesh Lene but it is used todouble the consonant in which it occurs. For example, theHebrew word ( הַשָּׁמַיִם the heavens) has a Daghesh Forte inthe Shin (ּ )שׁ . It should be rendered, therefore, with twoShins ( ) שׁשׁ , ha¡¡åmayim. The Daghesh Forte can occur inany consonant except the gutturals ( א , ע , ה , ) ח and ר . א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 2i - Hebrew Vowelsdefective writingFullWritingExampleExampleExample א בּוֹ שׁוֹפָר בּוּ ַ מַדּוּע בִּי דָּוִיד DefectiveWriting ֹבּ שֹׁפָר ֻ בּ ַ מַדֻּע ִ בּ דָּוִד Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltHolem Waw to Holemram’s hornShureq to Qibbutswhy?Hireq Yod to HireqDavid

Chapter 3a - Syllabificationtwo rules1. Every syllable must begin with one consonantand have only one vowel. The followingexample has two syllables, each beginningwith a consonant and each having only onevowel. דָּבָר דָּ בָר då- år2. There are only two types of syllables: open andclosed. Open syllables end with a vowel andclosed syllables end with a consonant. Inthe above example, ָ ( דּ då), is open becauseit ends in a vowel and ( בָר år), is closedbecause it ends in a consonant. דָּ בָר ClosedSyllable א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltOpenSyllable

Chapter 3b - Syllabificationhebrew accentMost Hebrew words are accented or stressedon the last syllable. Some are not. The stressin words not accented on the last syllablewill be indicated by an accent markover the stressed syllable asin the following example. פֶר .ֵ ס א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 3c - Syllabificationsyllable classificationsyllables may be classified according totheir proximity to the accent ְדּ בָ ִרים tonicpretonicpropretonicsyllables may be classified withoutreference to accent ְדּ בָ ִרים ultima א penultimaBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltantepenultima

Chapter 4a - Hebrew Nounsinflectional endings4.2 Endings on Masculine and Feminine Nouns.MasculineSingularPluralDual סוּס סוּסִים יִם .ַ סוּס horsehorsestwo horsesFeminine תּוָֹרה תּוֹרוֹת יִם .ַ תּוָֹרת lawlawstwo laws4.4 Summary of Noun Endings.SingularPluralDual א MasculineFeminineendingless בָה / בַת / בֶת וֹת יִם .ַ רָת / יִם .ַ ב בִים יִם .ַ ב Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 4b- Hebrew Nounsexceptions to rules1.Endingless Feminine Nouns. Not all endingless nounsare masculine singular. In a few instances, femininesingular nouns are also endingless as in ֶרץ .ֶ ( א land), עִיר (city) and בֶן .ֶ ( א stone).2. Exception to Normal Pluralization. Some singularnouns of one gender take the plural endings of the othergender. For example, the masculine singular noun אָב (father) takes the feminine plural ending וֹת as in אָבוֹת .3. Special Dual Nouns. There are three special Hebrewwords that are always dual in form but normally singularin translation: יִם .ַ ( שָׁמ heaven, heavens), יִם . ( מִצְַר Egypt)and יִם .ַ ( מ water).4. Irregular Stem Change. Some Hebrew nouns will altertheir actual (consonantal) stem when they add theirplural endings. For example, the plural of ( יוֹם day) is ( יָמִים days), the plural of ( אִישׁ man) is ( אֲנָשִׁים men) andthe plural of ( אִשָּׁה woman) is ( נָשִׁים women).5. Defective Spelling of וֹת . Occasionally, the feminineplural ending וֹת will be spelled ( ֹת with Holem ratherthan Holem Waw). For example, the plural of עֵדָה (congregation) may appear either as עֵדוֹת or עֵֹדת . Theshorter spelling is called “defective spelling” and thelonger spelling is called “full spelling.” א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 4c - Hebrew Nounspatterns of noun pluralization1. Pluralization with No Change שִׁיר song חֲלוֹם dream שִׁיִרים songs חֲלוֹמוֹת dreams2. Pluralization with Propretonic Reduction דָּבָר עָנָן word cloud דְּבִָרים words עֲנָנִים clouds3. Pluralization of Segholate Nouns לְֶך . ֶמ פֶר . ֵס king book מְלָכִים סְפִָרים kingsbooks4. Pluralization of Geminate Nouns עַם חֹק people statute עַ ּמִים חֻקִּים peoples5. Irregular Pluralization בֵּן son אִישׁ man א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt בָּנִים אֲנָשִׁים sonsmen

Chapter 5a - Introductionchapter summary1. DEFINITE ARTICLEBasic formּ הַב Translation“the”2. CONJUNCTION WAW א Basic formְ ו Translation“and”Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5b - Introductiondistributional significanceTotal VersesTotal WordsArticle23,213471,09624,0585.1%1.04 per verseConjunction10.7%2.2 per verse א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt50,524

Chapter 5c - Definite Articlebasic formIn Hebrew, a noun is made definiteby prefixing the definite article which consists of ַ ה plus aDaghesh Forte in the first consonant of the noun. לְֶך .ֶ ֶלְֶך הַמּ . מ הַ ּב Definite Article מלְֶך .ֶּ ַ ה א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5d - Definite Articlebasic form: top 10 examples1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10. א לְֶך .ֶ מ יוֹם יִם . שָׁ ַמ נָבִיא ַ מִזְבֵּח יָם ֹקֶדשׁ מָקוֹם שֶָׂדה יִם . ַמ Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5e - Definite Articlewith begadkephat consonantsWhen adding the definite article to wordswith an initial begadkephat consonant,the Daghesh Lene is replaced by a Daghesh Forte.Indefinite Noun יִת .ַ בּ ֶֶרְך . דּ גִּבּוֹר א Definite Nouna house a road a warrior Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt יִת .ּ הַ ַב ֶֶרְך .ּ הַ ד הַג ִּבּוֹר the housethe roadthe warrior

Chapter 5f - Definite Articlewith guttural consonantsCompensatory LengtheningWith initial א , ר and ע , the guttural rejects the DageshForte and Pathach lengthens to Qamets. אִישׁ a man הָאִישׁ the manVirtual DoublingWith initial ה or ח , the guttural rejects the Daghesh Fortebut the Pathach does not lengthen to Qamets. הֵיכָל a palace הַהֵיכָל the palaceIrregular SegholBefore unnaccentedָ ע , ָ ה or ָ חָ( ח may also be accented), the definite articleappears with the Seghol vowel and without the Daghesh Forte. חָכָם א a wise man Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt הֶחָכָם the wise man

Chapter 5g - Definite Articlewith initialְ י and ְ מ Words that begin with ְ י or ְ מ usually give upthe Daghesh Forte that is associatedwith the definite article. יְלִָדים מְַרגְּלִים א boys spies Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt הַיְלִָדים הַמְַרגְּלִים the boysthe spies

Chapter 5h - Definite Article alternate forms: top examples יְ / מְ ה / ח א / ע / ר בּגּדּכּפּתּ יְלִָדים חוֹמָה עִיר כֹּהֵן 1. יְתִָרים חַטָּאת אִישׁ דָּבָר 2. מְַרגְּלִים חֵלֶב אֱֹלהִים בַּ . יִת 3. מְשְָׁרתִים הֵיכָל עֵדָה גּוֹי 4. מְבְַקשִׁים הַר ֹראשׁ כֶּ סֶף 5. חָצֵר עָנָן הָמוֹן עָפָר Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt א

Chapter 5i - Definite Articlesummary of formsּ הַב ּ הַב ַמלְֶך .ֶּ ה יִת .ּ הַ ַב Gutturals ָ ע /ָ ח /ָ ה ָ ה ַה ֶה הָאִישׁ הַהֵיכָל הֶעָנָן Miscellaneous ְ מ /ְ י ַ ה הַיְלִָדים Basic FormBegadkephatGutturals ר / ע / א Gutturals ח / ה א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5j - Conjunctionbasic formBefore most consonantsthe conjunction will appear as–Waw with Vocal Shewa– בֶד .ֶ וְע וְאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה וְאִישׁ וְהָאִישׁ א and a servantand a womanand the womanand a manand the manBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltְ ו ְ ו

Chapter 5k - Conjunctionbasic form: top 10 examples1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10. א אִישׁ שֵׁם יִשְָׂראֵל יֶ תֶר אַהֲרוֹן יַ יִן זָהָב אִישָׁה כֹּל כָּבוֹד Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltְ ו

Chapter 5l - Conjunctionspelled with shureqְ ו Before ב , מ or פ it is spelled with Shureq לְֶך .ֶ מ ְ ו פְַּרעֹה ְ ו לְֶך . וּ ֶמ וּפְַרעֹה and a kingand PharaohBefore Vocal Shewa it is spelled with Shureq סְפִָרים ְ ו שְׁמוּאֵל ְ ו א וּסְפִָרים וּשְׁמוּאֵל Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltand booksand Samuel

Chapter 5m - Conjunctionwith short vowels and qametsBefore Hateph vowels it is spelled withthe corresponding short vowel אֲנָשִׁים ְ ו אֱמֶת ְ ו וַאֲנָשִׁים וֶאֱמֶת and menand truthBefore some monosyllabic words or words withinitial accent it may be spelled with Qamets צֹאן ְ ו חֶם .ֶ ל ְ ו א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt וָצֹאן חֶם .ֶ וָל and sheepand breadְ ו

Chapter 5n - Conjunctionalternate forms: examples פ / מ / ב Vocal ShewaHateph Vowelsְ ו Monosyllabic/Initial Accent1. בֵּית שְׁאַר אֲנָשִׁים יְלִָדים 2. בָּנוֹת כְּלֵי עֲבִָדים יְתִָרים 3. לְֶך .ֶ מ ְד ּבָשׁ אֲבוֹת מְַרגְּלִים 4. מִשְׁפָּט שְׁלָמִים אֱוִילִים מְשְָׁרתִים 5. פִּי לְבָב אֱמֶת מְבְַקשִׁים א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5o - Conjunctionsummary of formsBasic FormBefore פ / מ / ב Before Vocal ShewaBefore Hateph VowelsBefore MonosyllabicInitinal Accent א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltְ ו וְהָאִישׁ וּ וּ לְֶך . וּ ֶמ וּסְפִָרים ֶ ו /ַ ו ָ ו וַאֲנָשִׁים וָצֹאן ְ ו

Chapter 6a - Prepositionsthree typesIndependent PrepositionsThese prepositions stand alone. לְֶך . לִפְנֵי הַ ֶמּ ַחַת הָעֵץ . תּ before the kingunder the treeMaqqef PrepositionsThese prepositions are joined to their objects by Maqqef. אֶל–הַהֵיכָל ֶָרץ . מִן–הָא to the templefrom the landInseparable PrepositionsThese prepositions are prefixed directly to their objects. בְּשֶָׂדה לְֶך .ֶ כְּמ א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltin a fieldlike a king

Chapter 6b - Prepositionsthree inseparable prepositionsְ בּ ְ ל ְ כּ א in, by, with (15,559)to, for (20,320)like, as, according to (3,053)Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 6c - Prepositionsspelling inseparable prepositionsBefore most consonants: Shewa בְּשֶָׂדה לְנַ עַר in a fieldfor a young manBefore Hateph vowels: corresponding short vowel כַּאֲנָשִׁים בֶּאֱמֶת like menin truthBefore consonants with Vocal Shewa: Hireq לִנְבִיאִים לִבְִרית א for prophetsfor a covenantBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 6d - Prepositionsinseparable prepositionswith the definite articleThe vowel and Daghesh Forte of the definite article isretained but the consonant of the preposition replaces the ה of the definite article. הַשּׂ ָ דֶה מלְֶך .ֶּ ַ ה הָאֵשׁ א the field the king the fire Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt בַּשּׂ ָ דֶה מלְֶך .ֶּ ַ כּ בָּ אֵשׁ in the fieldlike the kingin the fire

Chapter 6e - Prepositionsthe preposition מִן The preposition מִן occurs both as a Maqqef prepositionand as an inseparable preposition.Maqqef Preposition לְֶך .ֶ מִן–מ from a kingInseparable Preposition לְֶך .ֶ מִן–מ יִת .ַ מִן–בּ מִן–אִישׁ ֶרץ .ָ מִן–הָא מִן–חוּץ א ֶמלְֶך .ּ ִ מ יִת .ַּ מִב מֵאִישׁ ֶרץ .ָ מֵהָא מִחוּץ Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt נ (assimilated ) נ (assimilated )(compensatory lengthening)(compensatory lengthening)(virtual doubling)

Chapter 6f - Prepositionsdefinite direct object markerIn Hebrew prose, definite direct objectsare usually marked with – אֶת / אֵת . יִם .ַ בָָּרא אֱֹלהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמ לְֶך . פֶר לַ ֶמּ .ֵ נָתַן הַנָּבִיא אֶת–הַסּ אָהַב דָּוִד אֶת–יְהוֹנָתָן לְֶך אֶת–תּוֹרוֹתָיו לָעָם . נָתַן הַ ֶמּ א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 7a - Hebrew Adjectivesinflection (form)Inflected AdjectiveMasculineSingularPlural טוֹב טוֹבִים Feminine טוֹבָה טוֹבוֹת Inflectional EndingsMasculineSingularPlural א בִים Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van PeltFeminine בָה וֹת

Chapter 7b - Hebrew Adjectivesthe use of adjectives1. Attributive Use. Directly modifies a noun and agreeswith that noun in gender, number and definiteness. אִישׁ טוֹב הָאִישׁ הַטּוֹב good man or a good manthe good man2. Predicative Use. Asserts something about the nounand agrees with that noun in gender and number, butnot definiteness. A predicate adjective will never takethe definite article. הָאִישׁ טוֹב טוֹבָה הָאִשָּׁה The man is good.The woman is good.3. Substantival Use. Adjectives may be usedindependently as nouns with no noun for the adjectiveto modify. הֶחָכָם הַטּוֹבוֹת א the wise man.the good womenBasics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 7c - Hebrew Adjectivesthe directional endingIn Hebrew, a special ending may be added to aword in order to express the idea of motion towardsomeone or something. This special ending is thedirectional ending (בָה it is always unaccented). יִת .ַ בּ עִיר יִם .ַ שָׁמ יִם . מִצְַר שָׁם יָם א house city heaven Egypt there sea יְתָה .ַ הַבּ ירָ ה .ִ הָע יְמָה .ַ הַשָּׁמ יְמָה . מִצְַר מָּה .ָ שׁ יָ מָּה Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Peltto the housetoward the cityheavenwardto Egyptto theretoward the sea

Chapter 7d - Hebrew Adjectivesbasic patterns of inflection1. Inflection with No Change טוֹב טוֹ בִים טוֹבָה טוֹבוֹת 2. Inflection with Propretonic Reduction גָּדוֹל גּ ְדוֹל ִים גּ ְדוֹלָה גּ ְדוֹלוֹת 3. Inflection of Adjectives Ending in בֶה קָשֶׁה קָשִׁים קָשָׁה קָשׁוֹת 4. Inflection of Geminate Adjectives ַרב ַרבּ ִים א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt ַרבָּה ַרבּוֹת

Chapter 8a - Hebrew Pronounsindependent personal pronounsSingular1 com2 masc2 fem3 masc3 fem אָנֹכִי , אֲנִי אַתָּה ְ אַתּ הוּא הִוא , הִיא PluralIyouyouhe/itshe/it אֲנ ַחְנוּ אַתֶּם נָה .ֵ אַתּ מָּה .ֵ ה , הֵם נָּה .ֵ ה , הֵן weyouyoutheytheyNotes1. The independent personal pronoun is labelledindependent because it stands alone and is notprefixed or suffixed to another word.2. Independent personal pronouns are subjective,meaning they are used as the subject of a verb, neveras the object of the verb.3. Independent personal pronouns may also appear asthe subject of a verbless clause. For this reason, theyare sometimes called subject pronouns. א Basics of Biblical Hebrew Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 8b - Hebrew Pronounsindependent personal pronounsThe following examples illustrate how independentpersonal pronouns are used with other nouns or adjectivesin a predicative relationship. The pronoun may precedeor follow the noun or adjective. A form of the verb “to be”is required in translation. אֲנִי יְהוָה הוּא נָבִיא צִַדּיק לְֶך טוֹב .ֶ אַתָּה מ אַחִים אֲנַ חְנוּ הִיא אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה אַתֶּם בָּעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה א I am Yahweh (the Lord).He is a righteous prophet.You (2ms) are a good king.We are brothersShe is a wise woman.You (2mp) are in the great city.

Chapter 1a - Hebrew Alphabet twenty-three consonants Letter Name Pronunciation Transliteration א Alef silent ב Bet b as in boy b ג Gimel g as in God g ד Dalet d as in day d ה He h as in hay h ו Waw w as in way w ז Zayin z as in Zion z ח Óet ch as in Bach ט Tet t as in toy † י Yod y as in yes y כ Kaf k as in king k ל Lamed l as in lion l מ Mem m as in mother m נ Nun n as .