Tutorial Guide To AutoCAD 2016 - SDC Publications

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Tutorial Guide toAutoCAD 2016 2D Drawing, 3D ModelingShawna LockhartSDCP U B L I C AT I O N SBetter Textbooks. Lower Prices.www.SDCpublications.comFor Microsoft Windows

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INTRODUCTION 59Basic Construction TechniquesIntroductionYou usually create drawings by combining and modifying several different basic primitive shapes, such as lines, circles, and arcs, to create morecomplex shapes. This tutorial will help you learn how to draw shapes.Keep in mind that one of the advantages of using CAD over drawingon paper is that you are creating an accurate model of the drawinggeometry. In Tutorial 3, you will learn to list information from the drawing database. Information extracted from the drawing is accurate only ifyou create the drawing accurately in the first place.2ObjectivesWhen you have completed this tutorial, youwill be able to1. Open existingdrawings.2. Work with new andexisting layers.StartingBefore you begin, launch AutoCAD 2016.Opening an Existing DrawingThis tutorial shows you how to add arcs and circles to the subdivisiondrawing provided with the datafiles that came with this guide. In Tutorial 3 you will finish the subdivision drawing so that the final drawingwill look like Figure 2.1.3. Draw, using the Arcand Circle commands.4. Set and use runningObject snaps.5. Change the display,using Zoom and Pan.6. Use Dynamic View.7. Draw ellipses.A SUBDIVISION LOCATED IN THE NE1/4 OF THE NE 1/4 OF SEC. 14,T.1S, R.5E, M.P.MA 15’ UTILITY EASEMENT ISRESERVED ALONG ALL EXTERIORLOT LINES.BRONWYNECSNROADGAPONDET2RRADY ROTAS110CIRCLE3456789Wannabe Heights EstatesFigure 2.1To open an existing drawing, use the Application icon, Open selectionor click the button that looks like an open folder from the Quick Accesstoolbar.Click: Open buttonThe Select File dialog box appears on your screen. Use the centerpor tion, which shows the default directory and drive, to select the location where your datafiles have been stored. You should have alreadycreated a directory called c:\datafile2016, and copied all the datafiles forthis book into it. If you have not done so, you may want to review theGetting Started chapters. If the correct directory is not showing in theTip: It is easy to download thedatafiles. Use your browser tonavigate to www.sdcpublications.com/Authors/ShawnaLockhart. From there select thetext you are using. Find andclick the Download button onthe page for your text.

60 Tutorial 2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUESLook In box, use the Up One Level icon or expand the choices by clicking on the downward arrow for the Look In box. Use the scroll bars ifnecessary to scroll down the list of directories and open the appropriateone so the files appear in the dialog box as in Figure 2.2. Scroll downthe list of files until you see the file named subdivis.dwg. When youselect a file, a preview of the file appears in the box to the right. (Olderfiles may not show a preview.)Tip: Use the buttons at the leftof the dialog box to show theHistory (recently used files), MyDocuments folder contents, orFavorites you have added. Toadd a favorite, find the folderand then right-click the Favorites button. Pick Add CurrentFolder from the pop-up menuthat appears. To add a folderas a button, pick Tools, AddCurrent Folder to Places.You can also use Autodesk 360to display documents you havestored on a remote internetserver sometimes called “thecloud”. This allows you to viewyour files from anyplace youcan connect to the internet. Youcan also browse your computer’s desktop and Autodesk’sBuzzsaw area from these sidebar icons.Figure 2.2Menu choices at the top right of the Select File dialog box let you selectdifferent views to be displayed in the file list and other useful tools, suchas a Find selection to search for files.Click: Tools, FindType: subdivis (in the Named area)Click: Find Now button (from upper right of dialog box)The Find dialog box displays the location for the file named Subdivis.dwg, as shown in Figure 2.3. You can type in a portion of the name tomatch if you cannot remember the entire name or click the Date Modified tab if you want to search by date and time the file was created.Figure 2.3

SAVING AS A NEW FILE 61Double-click: Subdivis.dwg ( to select it from the list at the bottom)You return to the Select File dialog box.Click: OpenDouble-click: in the center of the screen to zoom to the drawingextentsWhen you have opened the file, it appears on your screen, as shown inFigure 2.4. Note that it opens with its own defaults for Grid, Snap, andother features. These settings are saved in the drawing file. When youopen a drawing, its own settings are used.Figure 2.4Saving as a New FileThe Save As command allows you to save your drawing to a new filename and/or different drive or directory. You can select this commandfrom the Application icon or from the Quick Access toolbar.Don’t use the Save command, because that will save your changes intothe original datafile.Click: Save As buttonThe Save Drawing As dialog box appears on your screen similarto Figure 2.5.

62 Tutorial 2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUESTip: Notice that if you have setup an account, you can use theA360 selection to save yourfiles to storage in the “cloud”.Figure 2.5Warning: If you save a file withthe same name as one alreadyin the directory, you will see amessage the file “already exists. Do you want to replace it?”Choose No unless you want toreplace the file.In this case, the new file name is the same as the previous file name, butthe directory is different. This creates a new copy of drawing subdivis.dwg saved in the directory c:\work.On your own, select the drive and directory c:\work and specify the name for yourdrawing, subdivis.dwg.The original file c:\datafile2016\subdivis.dwg remains unchanged onyour drive. When you use the Save As command and specify a new filename, the software sets the newly saved file as current.Using LayersYou can organize drawing information on different layers. Think of alayer as a transparent drawing sheet that you place over the drawingand that you can remove at will. The coordinate system remains thesame from one layer to another, so graphical objects on separate layersremain aligned. You can create a virtually unlimited number of layerswithin the same drawing. The Layer command allows control of thecolor and linetype associated with a given layer. Using layers allows youto overlay a base drawing with several different levels of detail (such aswiring or plumbing schematics over the base plan for a building).By using layers, you can also control which portions of a drawing areplotted, or remove dimensions or text from a drawing to make it easierto add or change objects. You can also lock layers, making them inaccessible but still visible on the screen. You can’t change anything on alocked layer until you unlock it.Current LayerThe current layer is the layer you are working on. Any new objects youdraw are added to the current layer. The default current layer is layer 0.If you do not create and use other layers, your drawing will be createdon layer 0. You used this layer when drawing the plot plan in Tutorial 1.Layer 0 is a special layer provided in the AutoCAD program.

CONTROLLING LAYERS 63You cannot rename or delete layer 0 from the list of layers. Layer 0has special properties when used with the Block and Insert commands,which are covered in Tutorial 10.Layer POINTS is the current layer in mysubdivis.dwg. There can beonly one current layer at a time. The name of the current layer appearson the Layer toolbar.Controlling LayersThe Layer Control feature on the Layers panel on the Home tab of theribbon is an easy way to control the visibility of existing layers in yourdrawing. You will learn more about creating and using layers in thistutorial. For now, you will use layers that have already been created foryou.Click: on layer name POINTS from the Layers panelThe list of available layers pulls down, as shown in Figure 2.6. Noticethe special layer 0 displayed near the top of the list.Figure 2.6Click: on the layer name CENTERLINE from the Layer Control listIt becomes the current layer shown on the toolbar. Any new objects willbe created on this layer until you select a different current layer. TheLayer Control now should look like Figure 2.7, showing the layer nameCENTERLINE.Figure 2.7Use the Line command you learned in Tutorial 1 to draw a line off to the side ofthe subdivision drawing.Note that it is green and has a centerline linetype (long dash, shortdash, long dash). The line you drew is on Layer CENTERLINE.Erase or Undo the line on your own.

64 Tutorial 2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUESControlling ColorsEach layer has a color associated with it. Using different colors for different layers helps you visually distinguish different information in thedrawing. An object’s color also may control appearance during printing.There are two different ways of selecting the color for objects onyour screen. The best way is usually to set the layer color and drawthe objects on the appropriate layer. This method keeps your drawingorganized. The other method is to use the Color Control feature on theProperties panel. To select the Color Control pull-down feature,Click: ByLayer from the Properties panel to pull down the ColorControlTip: If your panelsare minimized, youmay need to click toexpand the options.Click to expandcolor choicesFigure 2.8Note that the standard colors (yellow, red, green, blue, etc.) are shown.You can also choose More Colors to view the full color palette.Click: More ColorsThe Select Color dialog box shown in Figure 2.9 appears on yourscreen, giving you a full range of colors from which to choose.Tip: On a black background,color 7 used for layer 0 appearsas white; on a white background it appears black.Figure 2.9The three tabs of the Select Color dialog box allow you to chooseamong different methods to determine the color for your drawingentities. The True Color tab allows you to set color to either RGB, whichstands for Red, Green, Blue, the primary colors of light, or HSL, whichstands for the Hue, Saturation, and Luminance of the color. The Color

LAYER VISIBILITY 65Books tab lets you select from among different standard ink manufacturer’s predefined colors so that you can match print colors very closelyto the colors you choose on your screen. In this text you will use IndexColor (AutoCAD Color Index) as the method for selecting color.Make sure the Index Color tab is selected.The default option for the Color (and also for the Linetype) commandis BYLAYER. It’s the best selection because, when you draw a line,the color and linetype will be those of the current layer. Otherwise, thecolor in your drawing can become very confusing. You will click Cancelto exit the Select Color dialog box without making any changes. Thecolors for your new objects will continue to be determined by the layeron which they are created. Layers can have associated linetypes, as wellas colors, as Layer CENTERLINE does.Click: CancelLayer VisibilityOne of the advantages of using layers in the drawing is that you canchoose not to display selected layers. That way, if you want to createprojection lines or even notes about the drawing, you can draw them ona layer that you will later turn off, so that it isn’t displayed or printed.Or you may want to create a complex drawing with many layers, suchas a building plan that contains the electrical plan on one layer and themechanical plan on another, along with separate layers for the walls,windows, and so on. You can store all the information in a single drawing, and then plot different combinations of layers to create the electrical layout, first-floor plan, and any other combination you want.Next you will use the Layer Control to lock, freeze, and turn off some ofthe layers in this drawing.Click: on CENTERLINE to show the list of layersThe list of layers pulls down. Refer to Figure 2.10 as you make thefollowing selections.Click: the On/Off icon, which looks like a lightbulb, to the left ofLayer EXISTING ROADClick: any blank area of the screen away from the Layer list toreturn to the drawingNote that the blue roadway lines have been turned off so that theyno longer appear. Invisible (off) layers are not printed or plotted, butobjects on these layers are still part of the drawing.Figure 2.10Layer Control

66 Tutorial 2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUESFreezing LayersFreezing a layer is similar to turning it off. You use the freeze option notonly to make the layer disappear from the display, but also to cause it tobe skipped when the drawing is regenerated. This feature can noticeablyimprove the speed with which the software regenerates a large drawing.You should not freeze the current layer because that would create asituation where you would be drawing objects that you couldn’t see onthe screen. The icon for freezing and thawing layers looks like a snowflake when frozen and a shining sun when thawed.Click: to expand the Layer Control listClick: the Freeze/Thaw icon to the left of Layer TEXTClick: any blank area in the graphics window to return to thedrawingLayer TEXT is still on, but it is frozen and therefore invisible. A layercan both be turned off and frozen; the effect is similar. You shouldeither freeze a layer or turn it off, but there is no point in doing both.Your screen should now be similar to Figure 2.11.Figure 2.11Locking LayersYou can see a locked layer on the screen, and you can add new objectsto it. However, you can’t make changes to the new or old objects onthat layer. This is useful when you need the layer for reference but donot want to change it. For example, you might want to move severalitems so that they line up with an object on the locked layer but preventanything on the locked layer from moving. You will lock layer POINTSso that you cannot accidentally change the points already on the layer.Click: the Lock/Unlock icon to the left of Layer POINTSLayer CENTERLINE should still be the current layer. (If for some reason it is not the current layer, set it current at this time.) Layer TEXT

MAKING OBJECT’S LAYER CURRENT 67is frozen and does not appear. Layer EXISTING ROAD is turned offand does not appear. Layer POINTS is locked so that you can see andadd to it, but not change it.On your own, try erasing one of the circled points in the drawing.A message appears, stating that the object is on a locked layer. Theobject won’t be erased.Making Object’s Layer CurrentThe Make Current button is located above the Layer Control pull-down(Figure 2.11). This command lets you select an object and then click onthe icon to make that object’s layer the current layer.Click: a black lot line (white if your background color is black)r epresenting a lot boundaryNote that the Layer Control now shows LOTLINES, the layer of theline you selected. This name is only temporary, for if you drew a newline, the layer name changes back to the current layer (Centerline). This is useful when you are unsure which layer a particularobject is on.Make Current buttonSelected lot lineFigure 2.12Next you will use the Make Current button to set LOTLINES as thecurrent layer.Make sure a black lot line is still highlightedClick: Make Object’s Layer Current iconThe current layer is changed to LOTLINES, and any new objectswill be added to this layer. In the command prompt is the message:LOTLINES is now the current layer.Now you will change the current layer back to Centerline by usingthe Layer Previous button. If you are not sure which button to select,hover your mouse over the buttons to show the tooltips.Click: to expand the Layer panel (down arrow near panel name)Click: Layer Previous buttonLayer Centerline returns as the current layer.

68 Tutorial 2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUESUsing LayerThe Layer command lets you create new layers and control the colorand linetype associated with a layer. You can also use Layer to controlwhich layers are visible or plotted at any one time and to set the currentlayer. Remember, only one layer at a time can be current. New objectsare created on the current layer. Use the Layer Properties Managericon from the Layer panel to create new layers and set their properties.(Its command alias is LA.)Click: Layer Properties Manager buttonThe Layer Properties Manager appears on the screen, showingthe list of existing layers (Figure 2.13).Tip: You can right-click on aheading in the Layer PropertiesManager, and select MaximizeAll Columns from the pop-upmenu that appears.Figure 2.13Tip: You can resize the LayerProperties Manager by dragging on its corners.Notice that the layers you earlier turned off, locked, or froze are identified with those icons. Next you will create a layer named EASEMENTSwhich you will use later in Tutorial 3. It will have a hidden linetype andthe color cyan (a light blue shade).Click: New Layer icon (located at the top middle of the dialog box)A new layer appears with the default name Layer1, which should behighlighted as shown in Figure 2.14.Figure 2.14By default it has the same properties as the currently selected layer(CENTERLINE). You will change the layer name, color and linetypefor the new layer next. Layer names can be as long as 255 characters.Layer names can contain almost any characters, except for restrictedoperating system characters like comma (,) and others like /”?:* ’ .Letters, numbers, spaces, and the characters dollar sign ( ), period (.),number sign (#), underscore ( ), and hyphen (-) are valid. While Layer1is still highlighted,Type: EASEMENTS [Enter]

USING LAYER 69Next, set the color for layer EASEMENTS. To the right of the layernames are the various layer controls mentioned previously. Eachcolumn title is labeled with the name of the function: On (light bulb),Freeze (sun), Lock/Unlock (lock), Color (small color box), Linetype,Lineweight, Plot Style, Plot, and Description. You can resize these columns to show more or less of the names by dragging the line betweenthe name headings.To change the color for layer EASEMENTS,Click: on the Color column box corresponding to layer EASEMENTSThe Select Color dialog box containing color choices pops up on thescreen as shown in Figure 2.15.Make sure that the Index Color tab is uppermost.Figure 2.15Color in LayersThe Select Color dialog box allows you to specify the color for objectsdrawn on a layer. You will select the color cyan for the easement layerthat you are creating. The color helps you visually distinguish linetypesand layers in drawings. You also use color to select the pen and penwidth for your printer or plotter.The Select Color dialog box has the choices BYLAYER and BYBLOCKon the right side. As you are specifying the color for layer EASEMENTSonly, you can’t select these choices, so they are shown grayed. Move thearrow cursor over the Standard Colors boxes, where cyan is the fourthcolor from the left.Click: cyan from the Standard Colors boxes to the left of theByLayer buttonThe name of the color that you have selected appears in the Color: boxat the bottom of the screen. (If you select one of the standard colors, the

70 Tutorial 2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUESname appears in the box; if you select one of the other 255 colors fromthe palette, the color number appears.)Click: OKNow the color for layer EASEMENTS is set to cyan. Check the listingof layer names and colors to verify that cyan has replaced green in theColor column to the right of the layer name EASEMENTS.Linetype in LayersThe linetype column allows you to set the linetype drawn for thelayer. You will select the linetype HIDDEN for your layer named EASEMENTS.Click: on Center in the Linetype column across from layer EASEMENTSThe Select Linetype dialog box appears on your screen.Figure 2.16Click: HIDDEN as shown in Figure 2.16Click: OKYou return to the Layer Properties Manager. Layer EASEMENTSshould have the properties set as shown in Fi

launch AutoCAD 2016. Opening an existing Drawing. This tutorial shows you how to add arcs and circles to the subdivision drawing provided with the datafiles that came with this guide. In Tuto-rial 3 you will finish the subdivision drawing so that the final drawing will look like Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 . POND. N. 10. ECSTASY ROAD . CIRCLE. GARRET BRONWYN ROAD. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Wannabe Heights .

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