Recommendations For Capitol Lake New Zealand Mudsnail .

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Recommendations for Capitol Lake New Zealand Mudsnail ManagementPrepared byKelly Stockton-FitiKASF Consulting, LLCPrepared forCapitol Lake Improvement and Protection Association (CLIPA)Jack Havens, Denis Curry & Bob WubbenaAugust 2018

Table of ContentsExecutive Summary . 3Introduction . 5The NZMS as an Invasive Species . 6Capitol Lake Management Options Pertaining to NZMS. 6Dredged Material Containment. 7Controlling NZMS within the Management Options . 9NZMS Survive and Flourish in an Estuary Environment . 9Dam Removal . 9Control Options for Capitol Lake Area . 10NZMS Prevention Management . 11Budd Inlet NZMS Prevention and Management . 12Surrounding Area NZMS Prevention and Management . 12History of NZMS in Capitol Lake . 13NZMS Controversy. 14Environmental Damage of the NZMS . 14Federal and State Response to NZMS. 15Eradication of NZMS by the Environment . 16Review of Milne (2017) Preliminary Report . 18Conclusions . 20References . 21Appendix A: Resume Kelly Stockton-Fiti . 262

Executive SummaryClosure of Capitol Lake in Olympia, Washington to the public in 2009 was in part due to a NewZealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, NZMS) infestation discovered in the NorthBasin. This was the fifth watershed in Washington to become infested with NZMS. NZMS arefederally and state listed invasive species. They are invasive because they are not native to theUS, have broad habitat preferences, and are proliferative. NZMS will survive many differenttreatments making them hard to eradicate from the environment. At high densities, the NZMSdominate and change the food web with potential cascading effects on protected and nativespecies.Washington State Department of Enterprise Services (WDES) is exploring ways to manage theCapitol Lake area related to water quality, invasive species, protecting species of interest andlarge volumes of sediment input from the upper watershed of the Deschutes River. It is WDES’sresponsibility to employ actions to enable the public to use Capitol Lake because it is part ofstate-owned land and is designated as State Capitol and Historic Facilities. Management mustoccur of the federally and state listed protected and listed species of interest as well as invasivespecies to limit their spread. Incorporating NZMS control and prevention strategies in theproposed Capitol Lake management options after dredging is essential to achieving a successfuloutcome, especially when informed by monitoring and verification studies (Figure 1).Figure 1. Implementing researched options for NZMS remediation, control and prevention underall of the possible Capitol Lake management options with input from monitoring studies willallow use of the Capitol Lake area by the public with low risk of NZMS transport.3

Under all of the options considered to manage the lake, large volumes of dredged material willresult. There is the potential that 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material will need to becontained and treated with the removal of the dam. Material kept on site or isolated near CapitolLake will not need to be treated. Containment and treatment of dredged material that goes offsite could limit the spread of NZMS. Control options have been shown to work at the laboratoryscale, but additional research and verification of the treatment at large scale, in-field applicationsmust occur before implementation on large quantities of dredged material. Quantification andquality control standards on treatment process are pertinent to defend the management actions.None of the Capitol Lake management options will eradicate the NZMS from the area. Removalof the dam to return the area back into an estuary will not eradicate or control the NZMS. NZMSsurvive in brackish water environments and tolerate ocean salinities. The flows from theDeschutes River are not high enough to keep the NZMS from thriving and spreading. NZMS areequally suited for river and lake environments.Management and control of the NZMS population in the lake or estuary must occur to keepNZMS populations low, to limit the likelihood of their spread out of Capitol Lake. Eradication isnot attainable in the natural environment without high environmental costs. Chemical treatments,such as copper or other pesticides, will decrease the NZMS population. The yearly flushes andadditional floodwater from the Deschutes River has transported the NZMS, most likely creatingan established population in Budd Inlet, though no surveys have been conducted. If eradicationor control is achieved in Capitol Lake, it is necessary to install barriers at the dam to limit themovement of NZMS back into Capitol Lake.The most important step in controlling NZMS is to implement prevention management. Utilizingdecontamination stations at access points around Capitol Lake and other areas in Washington isan effective way to limit and clean mud and plants from transport vectors that harbor NZMS.Decontamination stations are effective prevention tools when properly maintained. Preventionmanagement strategies are useful in slowing the introduction of all invasive and non-nativespecies.Additional surveys of NZMS including population densities and other invasive species areessential before implementation of lake management options and need to continue on a regularbasis to inform management decisions. There is only one density estimate completed on theNZMS from Johannes survey in 2009. The management decisions used on NZMS must beevaluated to be in the best interest with other species of interest that exist in the Capitol Lakearea, such as the Brown Bat, Chinook and Coho salmon. Extensive surveys of the fauna ofCapitol Lake could confirm the suggestion that natural predation is controlling the NZMSdensities.NZMS are likely to stay in the Capitol Lake area and not disappear. Over time, NZMS haveshown that their population densities decrease, but prior to the “bust” they may alter theecosystem changing the food web and nutrient cycles. The Capitol Lake management actionscould make the habitat very favorable for NZMS because the alterations will create a disturbed4

system and an ecologically new habitat. Utilizing predators of NZMS as a control tool has a highuncertainty of being effective and very little evidence is available to show that it is successful.Implementation of NZMS control and management strategies with decontamination stations andconducting annual monitoring to inform future management decisions are actions that willreduce the risk of NZMS spread to naïve environments. Monitoring programs need to includeadjacent waterways, such as Black Lake, which is between two watersheds that have NZMSinfestations (Deschutes River and Chehalis River/Estuary). These actions should be inaccordance with federal and state legislation and be the most cost effective ways to manageCapitol Lake. A successful Capitol Lake management plan will have adequate resourcesdedicated to NZMS management and control.IntroductionCapitol Lake in Olympia, Washington was found to be infested with New Zealand mudsnail(Potamopyrgus antipodarum, NZMS) in the winter of 2009. Washington Department of Fish andWildlife (WDFW) closed Capitol Lake to the public shortly after the discovery. This was thefifth watershed in Washington to become infested with NZMS (Fuller 2018). WDFW tried threedifferent eradication attempts over the next year with limited success, as a survey completed in2011 showed high densities of NZMS through the North Basin and into the middle basin ofCapitol Lake. The NZMS has created a challenge for the long-term management of Capitol Lake.Washington State Department of Enterprise Services (WDES) is working on a strategy tomanage Capitol Lake for all of the stakeholders, though this has been their goal for about 30years. WDES is currently hiring an environmental consulting firm (Floyd & Snyder) to conduct aproject specific environmental impact statement. This brief is to encourage WDES and Floyd &Snyder to incorporate the management and control of NZMS into all of the Capitol Lake areamanagement options. Three strategies need to be addressed within all of the Capitol Lakemanagement options:1. Containment and treatment of dredged material2. Control of NZMS densities to lower the potential risk of transport and environmentaldamage3. Implementation of prevention actions to lower the risk of NZMS and other invasivespecies being transported out of the area and other invasive species being introduced intoCapitol Lake.Monitoring the effect of the implemented strategies will be critical in evaluating the success ofthe project. Monitoring should also be used to make informed management decisions and optionsfor treatment and eradication adjusted as shown to be needed. Options for eradication,management, and prevention are discussed, but it will be important for stakeholders morefamiliar with all of the issues and intricacies surrounding Capitol Lake to choose what is best forthe area.5

The NZMS as an Invasive SpeciesNZMS discovered in the United States in 1987 from an established population at Snake River,Idaho (ANS 2007; Johannes 2011; Benson et al. 2018). They are native to New Zealand and areinvasive in Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States (ANS 2007; Benson et al. 2018).Federal legislation considers NZMS an invasive species (ANS 2007) and Washington Stateprohibits them under RCW 77.135.010(13) (Meacham 2001; Pleus 2016). The goal of the federalNZMS management plan is to prevent and delay the spread of NZMS to new areas and reducethe impacts of existing and new population (ANS 2007), which dictates federal and stateagencies directives. Considered a “management class 2” in Washington State’s managementplan, NZMS must have management actions that mitigate the impact, control the population sizeand prevent dispersal to other water bodies (Meacham 2001). Washington Department ofEnterprise Services (WDES) has the responsibility to manage Capitol Lake and WashingtonDepartment of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has the responsibility to administer the invasivespecies statutes. Since these are both government entities, the federal and state laws apply tothese agencies and dictate their management actions.NZMS are categorized as invasive species because they have broad environmental tolerances.They are able to survive a large range of temperatures (0-30 C), conductivity and salinity ranges( 25 µS/cm and freshwater to brackish water), flows (0-100 cm/s), colonize different substrates,and do not prefer pristine or disturbed habitat (ANS 2007; Alonso and Castro-Diez 2008;Stockton 2011; Alonso and Castro-Diez 2012). NZMS are clonal, but successful clones can havebroad environmental tolerances (Dybdahl and Lively 1995; Jacobson and Forbes 1997; Dybdahland Drown 2010). They either fill unoccupied niches in environments or compete with nativeinvertebrates in that ecological niche changing the dynamics of the ecosystem (Alonso andCastro-Diez 2008). This snail has a solid operculum ensuring its survival from desiccation andchemical treatment (Richards et al. 2004). NZMS are easily transported; examples of transportvectors include aquaculture products and aquatic ornamental plants, transport tanks and pipes,recreational vehicles and sport fishing gear, and birds and fish (ANS 2007; Alonso and CastroDiez 2008; Stockton 2011).Capitol Lake Management Options Pertaining to NZMSCapitol Lake has been closed to the public since 2009. WDFW conducted three treatments toeradicate the NZMS from the lake between 2009 and 2010 (Johannes 2010a; LeClair and Cheng2011; Johannes and Aitkin 2011), which were not successful as the NZMS densities in 2011were high in some areas sampled (Milne 2017). Instituting a long-term management plan forboth protected species and invasive species in Capitol Lake is essential for WDES.In all of the Capitol Lake management options, NZMS management requires more definition.The following are some of the general options that have been proposed (Hayes et al. 2008; Floyd& Snider 2016) and how NZMS management would most likely occur.6

Status Quo - no change from existing conditions and NZMS are not managed orcontrolled and continue to be transported into the marine waters with high probability ofbeing transported to other areas;Managed Lake – Dam remains with various up lake management strategies and NZMSare managed and controlled to limit their densities within lake and prevention strategiesare employed to minimize the likelihood of spread to other areas;Estuary - 5th-Avenue Dam removal resulting in a dynamic, steady-state tidal mudflatenvironment and partially restored estuary, where NZMS are still present in theenvironment thus additional prevention and management of NZMS would continue as inthe managed lake options; andHybrid of the Above- There have been several conceptual designs, but management andprevention of NZMS will need to occur.Status quo, leaves the lake closed to the public and no further management is to be conducted,though due to constant input of sediment from the Deschutes River, Capitol Lake will be dredgedperiodically (Hayes et al. 2008). The other options require dredging the lake, removing plantsand sediments from the lake, which has the high probability of harboring NZMS. In the optionsthat require removal of the dam to create an estuary environment, it will create a suitable habitatfor NZMS. Hayes et al. (2008) did an extensive assessment of the fauna of Capitol Lake and theimpact of the management options, but this was prior to the establishment of NZMS.Within these lake management options or others future options, WDFW and WDES need toassess and control for NZMS in dredged material and establish a management or eradicationprogram for NZMS. As these are taxpayer-funded entities and Capitol Lake is public, it is theirresponsibility to employ actions to enable the public to use Capitol Lake. Keeping the lakeclosed in status quo is not an option; there are viable management and control options availablefor use at Capitol Lake. A successful Capitol Lake management plan will have adequateresources dedicated to NZMS management and control.Dredged Material ContainmentProcessing dredged plant or soil material containing NZMS removed from Capitol Lake area isrequired. An estimated 400,000 cubic yards of material would be initially dredged and about35,000 cubic yards annually dredged. Dredged material that stays on site would not have to betreated. This material would still harbor NZMS and contribute to the population already in thearea, but until the NZMS are eradicated from Capitol Lake, there is no additional risk from thedredged material. The dredged material should be contained and kept isolated to lower the risk oftransport of NZMS from the area.Any material moved off site would have to be treated and testing completed to ensure NZMSwere dead or removed. Several mechanical control options that kill or remove NZMS arefiltration, incineration, freezing, or desiccation (ANS 2007). Chemical treatment with pHchanges will work, but concentrations will be high and material will need to be neutralizeddepending on intended use after treatment (Stockton-Fiti and Moffitt 2017; Barenberg and7

Moffitt 2018). Organic material deactivates many chemicals, so chemical treatment of dredgedmaterial will need high concentrations to mitigate the deactivation of the organic material.Conducting large scale testing and verification of mortality for the chosen method for treating thedredged material must occur, as there is no published work stating that it is effective with largevolumes of dredged material. The following are mechanical options that will work to kill NZMS,but the method used on large amounts of dredged material will be at the discretion of engineersor planners.Freezing the NZMS to a temperature less than -3 C for 2 h will kill NZMS (Richards et al.2004). Complete freeze of the dredged material will be necessary to be 100% effective. Furtherprocessing of the material such as sieving out snail shells before use at another location could berequired. Freezing does not destroy DNA; additional removal steps to lower the risk arenecessary if material is applied in an ecological rehabilitation project. DNA in the soil wouldincrease the likelihood of false positives as the use of eDNA for monitoring increases (Goldberget al. 2013).Heating dredged material to temperatures greater than 40 C will kill NZMS (Richards et al.2004); incineration would ensure mortality. Incineration of soil, as they do with contaminatedsoil from hazardous waste sites, will remove NZMS and any other invasive species of concernsuch as the purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). It will destroy all DNA and the clean dredgedmaterial is usable for any reclamation project.Desiccation will take a long time, studies demonstrate that NZMS remain dormant and survivedesiccation for up to 50 days on wet substrates at 20-25 C and 72 h at 9 C on dry substrates;desiccation time is dependent on humidity and temperature (Richards et al. 2004). Completedesiccation of the material is necessary to ensure NZMS mortality. Degradation of DNA occurswith time exposure to sunlight. Desiccated dredged material would have degraded DNA andsieving out the NZMS is unnecessary, though shells are present. With this treatment method,second hand application could be limited.Removing plant material and then suction dredging the top layers of soil is another option (ANS2007). Material from the suction dredge would need to be filtered with a sieve small enough tocatch the NZMS ( 100 µm). A sieve of 100 µm will catch all neonates (baby snails), juveniles,and adults (Nielson et al. 2012). This might not be feasible due to time and cost as the filter mayplug easily at this small of mesh size. Additional sieving or treatment may need to occur.Dredged material will contain eDNA, but time to degradation of DNA not filtered is short andmaterial could be used for any reclamation project.Disposing dredged material into Puget Sound is another option, but the NZMS would likelysurvive the salinity increase (Hoy et al. 2012). However, it is unknown how the combination ofpressure, salinity, temperature, and food availability will effect the NZMS survival. Levri et al.(2008) found NZMS could not survive at depths greater than 40 m in Lake Ontario. Thiswarrants additional research if chosen as the treatment method.Disposal of dewatered material in a landfill will be effective. Methods and disposal requirementsshould be followed per the landfill directions in compliance with Environmental Protection8

Agency guidelines. Inspection of landfill containment systems will ensure that the landfill willcontain and control the NZMS.Placing dredged material prior to treatment or during treatment on top of an impenetrableplatform that has a contained water collection system is essential in ensuring the NZMS do notcrawl away, infest the land, and cause more problems. Equipment used in the dredging activityand any hauling of contaminated material are transport vectors. Cleaning and decontamination isnecessary before transport or used only on site (ANS 2007). Conducting risk analysis foroverland transport and implementing safety measures will keep NZMS from being dropped,blown out, or transported by equipment into other areas (ANS 2007).Controlling NZMS within the Management OptionsIn the various Capitol Lake management options, NZMS management and control must occur.The proposed dam removal and creation of an estuary does not eliminate the NZMS from thearea and environment. Prevention strategies must be in place prior to reopening the area to thepublic to ensure NZMS transport does not occur to other locations.NZMS Survive and Flourish in an Estuary EnvironmentIn some of the proposed Capitol Lake management options, an estuary environment is favored.The estuary environment will support NZMS survival. NZMS can survive in fresh and brackishwater (ANS 2007), however recent research has shown NZMS can survive much higher salinitiescomparable to ocean salinity levels (LeClair and Cheng 2011; Hoy et al. 2012). They are foundin the brackish waters and estuaries of the Columbia River and Chehalis River (Bersine et al.2008; Litton 2017; Fuller 2018). Most of the populations in the western US of NZMS are of thesame genotype; therefore, the snails in Capitol Lake are going to be similar to those in Young’sBay Columbia River and survive in an estuary (Dybdahl and Drown 2011; Hoy et al. 2012).Young’s Bay Columbia River has high densities of NZMS since 1996 (Bersine et al. 2008).NZMS from the Columbia River Estuary are tolerant of salinity levels equal to that of oceanlevels. Laboratory testing shows that 23% mortality of freshwater NZMS was achieved after 24days (with acclimation to ocean salinity) and 30 to 63% survival occurred to acute exposure toocean salinity levels (Hoy et al. 2012). Tolerance to salinity by the NZMS is dependent ontemperature and rate of acclimatization to the higher salinity (LeClair and Cheng 2011).LeClair and Cheng (2011) suggest that the response of NZMS to high salinity at coldertemperatures warrants additional study. Conducting additional monitoring on Budd Inlet todetermine if NZMS are present is prudent. If the NZMS are not present in the inlet, this could bevaluable information regarding the salinity tolerance of the Capitol Lake NZMS and thedispersal activities of the population.Dam RemovalRemoval of the dam to make Capitol Lake entirely an estuary will have little effect on theNZMS. After the removal of the dam, the flow of water may be more variable, turbidity will9

increase potentially impeding growth of periphyton and filamentous algae, which will initiallydecrease the density of NZMS (Oasis Environmental 2011). However, NZMS will rebound whenturbidity decreases and food sources stabilize with the new flow regime, as observed in the BearRiver, Idaho (Oasis Environmental 2011). Flow regimes higher than 100 cm/s will ensure thatNZMS survival is low (Stockton 2011). Obtaining these high velocities in a river is extremelydifficult; as the river widens the velocity slows.The Deschutes River has not achieved these velocities to achieve low likelihood of NZMSsurvival. Maximum discharge in the Deschutes River over the last 10 years was about 6000 cubicfeet per second in 2016 (USGS and USDOI 2018). At the USGS station 12080010 DeschutesRiver at E St Bridge at Tumwater, WA the depth was 33 feet deep at the maximum dischargeand the width of the river was 65 feet (USGS and USDOI 2018). The velocity of the river was84.5 cm/sec at the maximum discharge observed in the last 10 years. This is not a high enoughvelocity to ensure low NZMS survival. The station is in an area that is highly channelized, butdownstream the river is wider, which will result in slower velocities. Removal of the dam andallowing for natural release of water into Budd Inlet will spread the water over the landscape andresult in velocities less than 100 cm/sec, which will ensure a medium to high likelihood ofNZMS survival (Stockton 2011).Control Options for Capitol Lake AreaContinued management of NZMS in the Capitol Lake area needs to occur with all lakemanagement options. Dredging will not eradicate NZMS from the Capitol Lake area.Application of control options to reduce the NZMS population will lower the risk of transportwhen Capitol Lake is open to the public. Possible control options for Capitol Lake could includea periodic chemical application, or drawdown of water to do a complete freeze or desiccate themud and lakebed.Chemical applications have proven effective to kill NZMS. The negatives include not 100%effective or if effective on NZMS, the chemical is brutal to native species, including species ofinterest and protected species. Application of pH changes to either basic levels, or coppercontaining pesticides as control options in lakes warrants additional research (Watton andHawkes 1984; ANS 2007; Oplinger and Wagner 2009; Barenberg and Moffitt 2018).Desiccation and freezing may not be permitted because of effect on native fauna or impossibledue to the flow of the Deschutes River and temperatures in the winter.If eradication is achieved in upstream areas installation of copper, electrical, or velocity barrierswill prevent NZMS from moving upstream from Budd Inlet (Stockton 2011). Barriers will limitthe infestation potential and keep Capitol Lake free of NZMS as part of control efforts.Installation of copper barriers at fish hatcheries to limit the establishment of NZMS wassuccessful (Hoyer and Myrick 2012). The type of barrier chosen for use at Capitol Lake will bedependent on engineering controls available for the area installed.Since NZMS are upstream of Capitol Lake in the Deschutes River (Johannes 2013; Johannes2015), there is a risk of them spreading down into Capitol Lake from this upstream source. The10

best solution would be to monitor the populations to determine if downstream spread is occurringand institute NZMS prevention management strategies.NZMS Prevention ManagementPrevention management of NZMS at Capitol Lake needs to occur under all of the proposedmanagement options (with and without the dam) to reduce the risk of new populations in CapitolLake and to stop the spread of NZMS out of Capitol Lake. When the lake is open to the public,utilization of prevention protocols is essential to stopping the transport of NZMS into other areasthat are not infested. While there are 15 watersheds infested with NZMS (Table 1), it is best tokeep them out of other watersheds to minimize control management costs (Fuller 2018).Prevention management strategies for NZMS include putting decontamination stations for gearcleaning at all access points. These decontamination stations include education and outreachmaterial to explain the reasons for and proper use of stations. There are two options fordecontamination stations. One option is to have a station that includes cleaning, draining andrinsing contaminated gear. This station will provide bristle brushes, boot picks, and clean water;maintenance should occur bimonthly. The second option is to have chemical treatment of gearonce it is devoid of organic material (mud and plants). This station would have a chemical bathin addition to the items in option 1. A good chemical for disinfection is Virkon Aquatic(Stockton and Moffitt 2013) with maintenance occurring weekly. Maintenance of the stations isimperative for it to be effective.Table 1. Management actions implemented by WDFW for watersheds/drainages. Capitol Lakeand Ringold hatchery are the only area closures. *Ringold hatchery was reopened aftermanagement actions s HarborLake WashingtonLower ChehalisLower ColumbiaLower Columbia-ClatskanieLower CowlitzLower SkagitLower Snake-AsotinMiddle Columbia-Lake WallulaPuget SoundSnohomishUpper Columbia-Priest RapidsWillapa BayManagement ActionArea Closure Educational OutreachXXXXXXXXUnknownXXX*XXXXXX11

Education and outreach are not enough to control the spread of NZMS. Currently 15 watershedsin Washington State contain populations of NZMS, with the most recent find in 2018 in theLower Skagit watershed (Table 1; Fuller 2018). WDFW has put up signage at these areas, buthas not instituted closure of the areas or installed decontamination stations (Table 1; Pleus andSchultz 2015). Continued spread into other drainages is evidence that only signage at infestedareas is not enough to limit the spread of NZMS. California and Oregon are other states that onlyutilized education and outreach, but have new watersheds infested with NZMS yearly (Fuller2018).Montana implemented gear decontamination stations in 2009 (Davis and Moeltner 2010) andhave had one new locality (but same watershed as other NZMS populations) in 2013 reported asinfested (Fuller 2018). Idaho and Wyoming have also implemented gear decontaminationstations at popular fishing sites where NZMS exist (ISAN 2014). Idaho has had

3 Executive Summary Closure of Capitol Lake in Olympia, Washington to the public in 2009 was in part due to a New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, NZMS) infestation discovered in the North Basin. This was the fi

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