MONITORING AND EVALUATION TOOLKIT For M&E

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MONITORING AND EVALUATION TOOLKITFor M&E Network MembersVolume 2Primary Education(Version 2.0)KHAMKEUNE VANASOUKPHOUTSAVAD VONGPACHANALEXANDER G. FLORTHOMAS GADSDENVISIANE XAYASENSOUKEDITED BY:KHANTHALY SIRIPHONGPHANHDepartment of InspectionMinistry of Education and SportsVientianeMay 20140

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0TABLE OF CONTENTSPREFACE:How to Use this ToolkitCHAPTER sUsers44455CHAPTER 2.A.B.C.D.The M&E NetworkMembershipTasks, Duties and ResponsibilitiesCompetenciesNetwork Configuration66678CHAPTER 3.A.B.C.The M&E FrameworkESDP Theory of ChangePerformance Assessment FrameworkProcedural Framework10101112CHAPTER 4.A.B.C.The M&E Indicator SystemIntroduction to the Indicator SystemPAF’s Table of Key IndicatorsESDP Core Indicators15151521CHAPTER 5.A.B.C.D.E.Monitoring and Assessment ToolsIntroduction to the DOI Monitoring and Assessment ToolsSchool Level Core Indicator Data Collection ToolDistrict Level ToolsProvincial Level ToolsCentral Level Tools242626293643CHAPTER 6. Evaluation ToolA.Introduction to the DOI Evaluation ToolB.Evaluation Tool for Primary Education525354CHAPTER 7. M&E Reporting ToolsA.Core Indicator Reporting MatrixB.ESDP Annual Performance Report7273801

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0PREFACEHow to Use this ToolkitThis volume presents a set of data collection, analysis and reporting tools tomonitor and evaluate the progress of the Lao PDR Education Sector. Written for theprimary education level, it constitutes Volume 2 of a series of toolkits that also coverearly childhood, nonformal, secondary, TVET and higher and education. The users ofthis toolkit are members of the M&E Network coordinated by the Department ofInspection of the Ministry of Education and Sports.By definition, a toolkit is a collection of tools, each with its own special uses,advantages and disadvantages. The choice of tool to use will depend upon thesituation and conditions of application. Good tools are useful, user-friendly,versatile and appropriate. For purposes of monitoring and evaluation, a tool isuseful only if it efficiently captures the data required. It is user-friendly if it isuncomplicated and simple enough to be used by the school principal. It is versatile ifit can fulfill more than one purpose. It is appropriate if it fits the conditions orcircumstances within which it is being used.This toolkit was prepared (and should be used) with two things in mind.Firstly, the M&E tools contained herein are simplified versions. We recognizethat M&E in the Lao education sector is a seasonal activity and that its practitionersare not fulltime M&E personnel. They perform primary duties and responsibilitiesother than M&E. Multi-tasking is the norm among officers and staff of the Lao PDRMinistry of Education and Sports. The school teacher, the school principal, thedistrict officer, the provincial officer and the central officer all performsimultaneously occurring tasks often with simultaneous deadlines. Adding anotherlayer of responsibility in the form of monitoring and evaluation may adverselyfactor into organizational efficiencies. Hence, this toolkit was conceived as a “light”version of conventional M&E tools. The tools are uncomplicated and the user shouldbe able to perform his/her monitoring and evaluation responsibilities efficiently andeffectively with the least amount of effort involved.Secondly, these tools are flexible. They are not cut in stone. The user isencouraged to “tweak” them as the situation requires. Take note that this is merelyVersion 1 of the toolkit.The toolkit is made up of seven sections. Chapter 1 gives the background,rationale and objectives. It identifies the toolkit’s user, members of the M&ENetwork, the composition of which is discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 lays out thefoundation of the Lao PDR education sector M&E initiative while Chapter 4enumerates the output and outcome indicators that form part of the M&E system.Chapters 5, 6 and 7 present the monitoring and assessment tools, the evaluation tooland the reporting tools, respectively.2

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0It is a product of collaborative work among core members of the M&ENetwork, staff of the Department of Inspection and DOI M&E technical advisers, pastand present.KHAMKEUNE VANASOUKPHOUTSAVAD VONGPACHANALEXANDER G. FLORTHOMAS GADSDENVISIANE XAYASENSOUK3

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0CHAPTER 1. IntroductionA.BackgroundIn 2011, the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) began implementing aplan that should take Lao PDR off the list of the world’s least developed countries by2020. This plan is called the Education Sector Development Plan (ESDP). It guidesthe design and implementation of development undertakings and policy reform forthe entire education sector. Within the next five years, all educational developmentprograms, projects and activities are to be situated under ESDP.To ascertain if ESDP is meeting its targets, education sector stakeholdersagreed on a Performance Assessment Framework (PAF) to monitor and evaluate theplan. These stakeholders include relevant Government ministries, nongovernmentorganizations and donor partners. A range of multilateral and bilateral donorsincluding the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, AusAID, JICA, UNICEF andUNESCO supports ESDP and has endorsed the PAF.The PAF is operationalized by a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Systemcoordinated by the MoES Department of Inspection (DoI). The M&E System employsa results-based management approach. It has the following components:1.2.3.4.an M&E Network;an M&E Framework;an Indicators System; anda set of M&E tools contained in a series of sub-sector specific toolkits.Each of these elements is discussed more extensively in the next chapters.B.RationalePrimary education is the foundation of education. Performance in primaryeducation often determines success in basic education, technical-vocationaleducation and training and higher education. Primary education occupies both a keyand a critical position in the entire education sector. Nationwide, this subsector iscurrently made up of a total of 8927 primary schools, 6570 of which offer fullprimary education. Given its importance, its progress should be evaluated, itsperformance should be assessed, and the results of its ESDP interventions should bemonitored to input into the policy and planning processes, respectively.Monitoring and evaluation requires a set of tools and instruments. Thetoolkit series is a collection of such tools and instruments that would assist themembers of the M&E Network to discharge their functions efficiently and effectivelyfrom the early childhood education to the higher education levels. This manualconstitutes Volume 2 of the M&E Toolkit series and it covers primary education.4

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationC.Version 2.0ObjectivesAfter studying this toolkit, the user should be able to:1. Identify who compose the members of the M&E Network;2. Enumerate the tasks, responsibilities and competencies of the members of theM&E Network;3. Discuss the framework of the M&E system;4. Recall the output and outcome indicators of the M&E system;5. Gather, analyze and track core indicator data using the monitoring andassessment tools;6. Assess sector performance using the sector performance scorecard;7. Utilize the evaluation tool for the primary education sector; and8. Write M&E reports at their respective levels.D.UsersThe primary users of the Toolkit are members of the M&E Network.Secondary users include school principals and stakeholders of the education sector.5

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0CHAPTER 2. The M&E NetworkA.MembershipTwo national policies mandated the establishment and composition of theLao Education Sector M&E Network. These are Ministerial Decree 4353 signed on23 November 2012 and Ministerial Decree 3411 signed on 23 August 2013.The M&E Network is composed of central, provincial and district MoES staffmembers.At the central level, the Network is made up of the M&E staff from theDepartment of Inspection and two representatives from each MoES implementingunit (IU). These IUs are:1. The Cabinet2. The Department of Planning (DoP)3. The Department of Finance (DoF)4. The Department of Pre-Primary and Primary Education (DPPE)5. The Department of Secondary Education (DSE)6. The Department of Technical Vocational Education and Training (DTVET)7. The Department of Nonformal Education (DNFE)8. The Department of Higher Education (DHE)9. The Research Institute for Education and Science (RIES)10. The Education and Sports Research Center (ESRC)11. The Education Standards and Quality Assurance Center (ESQAC)12. The Education and Statistics Center (ESC)13. Information and Communication Technology Center (ICTC)At the provincial level, the Network is made up of two provincial staff of theDoI. At the district level, two district inspectors are represented in the Network. LaoPDR is divided into18 provinces and 145 districts. With two representatives fromeach of these as well as the IUs, the number of members of the M&E Network wouldtotal 375 including the assigned DoI staff.B.Tasks, Duties and ResponsibilitiesThe functions of the M&E Network include: the collection of monitoring data;the analysis of data at all levels; and the write-up of ESDP Annual and QuarterlyM&E Reports. These tasks are guided by a procedural framework discussed in thenext chapter.In terms of reporting responsibilities, however, the Ministerial Decreeoutlines the following specific assignments:1. The DoI reports the results of the annual Joint Sector Review Mission.6

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.02. The DoP reports the results of monitoring the ESDP.3. The DoF reports on results of research & budget allocations for theEducation and Sports Sector.4. The REIS reports on assessments of the effectiveness of the curriculum,student learning outcomes in basic education.5. The ESRC reports on statistical data derived from analysis and research.6. The ESQAC reports on the monitoring and evaluation of the technicalimplementation of the Education Quality Standards.7. The Education and Sports Research Center reports on the results ofresearch for education and sports development following the policy andstrategy of the education and sports sector.8. All other offices, divisions and departments of the Ministry will report onthe monitoring and evaluation of their respective implementationstrategies.C.CompetenciesIn a series of workshops conducted from December 2013 to March 2014, theDepartment of Inspection and key representatives from other implementing unitsidentified the knowledge and skills competencies of M&E Network members.A member of the M&E Network should be knowledgeable with the followingsubjects:1. ESDP1.1. Three Pillars (Access, Quality, Governance)1.2. Programs1.3. Eight Tools of PAF (focus on policy)1.4. Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation1.5. Results Based Planning1.6. Results Based Budgeting2. Indicators3. Education Quality StandardsFurthermore, he/she should possess the following skills:1. Computer Literacy1.1. Use of lao.edu.info, email, Internet1.2. MS Word, MS Excel, PPT2. Research Methodologies2.1. Data collection, cleaning and entry2.2. Data analysis and interpretation2.3. Statistics2.4. Report Writing3. Language Skills (English)4. Toolkit utilization7

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.05. Documentation Skills5.1. Photography5.2. VideographyD.Network ConfigurationMinisterial Decree 4353 that established the M&E Network did not prescribea specific structure for the organization.Technically, it is a network. Generally, a network is a structure made up ofnodes and links. It is informal in nature and does not provide lines of authority. It isa flat organization. Responsibility and authority is distributed among the nodes.Found below is the M&E Network configuration if it adopts an informalnetwork structure.FIGURE 1. Informal Non-Hierarchical NetworkHowever, in reality, the M&E Network functions like a hierarchicalorganization. Authority is still centralized at the national level with the DOI.Although the implementing units do not possess direct line authority, they are stillconsidered to be near the top of the pyramid. The national level has authority overthe provincial level and the district level. Similarly, the provincial level exercisesauthority over the district level.The following organogram depicts the structural and functional relationshipsamong the members of the M&E Network more accurately.8

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0FIGURE 2. Formal Pyramidal Structure9

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0CHAPTER 3. The M&E FrameworkA.ESDP Theory of ChangeThe Education Sector Development Plan is based upon the assumption thatthe Lao education sector needs change.This change must be managed. It must be planned by the Ministry. It must betargeted. It must adopt a strategy that involves a set of interventions. It must bemeasureable. Finally, it must follow a certain logic or a theory of change.ESDP contributes to the goal of moving Lao PDR from Least Developed Statusto industrialization and modernization by 2020. It submits that it can achieve thischange through three strategies, which are called pillars:1. Pillar 1 - expand equitable access2. Pillar 2 - improve quality and relevance3. Pillar 3 - strengthen planning and management and strengthen sectorperformance monitoring and inspection.All education development projects are situated within these three pillars.The following chart gives ESDP’s pathway to change or results chain:Long-Term Goal anded Accessto EducationOutputsInterventionSchool buildingsBlock grantsScholarships, etc.Improved Qualityof EducationQualified teachersTrained VEDC membersTrained EQS staff, etc.StrengthenedGovernanceSIPsSchool PrincipalsSchool Records, etcEDUCATION SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PLANFIGURE 3. ESDP Pathway to Change10

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationB.Version 2.0Performance Assessment FrameworkEarlier, we described the ESDP Performance Assessment Framework or PAFas the mutually agreed framework for all stakeholders to measure progress of theplan. By definition, the PAF assesses the performance of the entire Lao educationsector. It does so with a set of eight instruments that are used selectively to measureprogress in areas of interest or concern. These eights instruments of PAF are:1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.An annual assessment processAn assignment of responsibilitiesA sector reporting frameworkA policy action matrixA monitoring and evaluation matrixA table of core sector indicatorsA development partner profile matrixA sector performance assessmentThe ESDP M&E System draws upon these instruments and operationalizesthem. However, we are using a phased approach at fully operationalizing theseinstruments inconsideration of the absorptive capacity of the M&E Network.In its current version, the M&E System has fully operationalized itsmonitoring and evaluation matrix and its table of core sector indicators. It haspartially operationalized the annual assessment process, the assignment ofresponsibilities, the sector reporting framework, and the sector performanceassessment. However, it has only minimally operationalized the policy action matrixand the development partner profile matrix. When fully operationalized the PAFshould provide a collective, impact-level assessment of all investments made underthe ESDP umbrella expressed in simplified reporting terms for all ESDPstakeholders.The following table gives the current phase of operationalization for each ofthe PF instruments.PAF INSTRUMENTSCurrent Phase of OperationalizationFULLPARTIALMINIMALAn annual assessment process An assignment of responsibilities A sector reporting framework A policy action matrix A monitoring and evaluation matrix A table of core sector indicators A development partner profile matrix A sector performance assessment TABLE 1. Status of PAF Operationalization11

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationC.Version 2.0Procedural FrameworkConsidering that the M&E Network is composed of 375 members from 15central units, 18 provinces and 145 districts, operational procedures wouldencounter formidable logistical challenges. For these to work effectively, theprocedural framework should be: resource efficient; sensitive to existing MoESorganizational realities and dynamics; duplication averse; and network synergygenerating.In a workshop conducted in January, members of the M&E Network at thecentral level proposed a procedural framework that outlines memberresponsibilities at the central, provincial and district levels in terms of datacollection, data analysis and report preparation. This matrix is found below:NETWORKDATA COLLECTIONLEVELCentralDOI will prepare toolsGather all informationMaintain database (aspart of the EMIS)Coordinate M&E activitiesand JSRMSummarize M&E workDATA ANALYSISUse tools to analyze keyissuesCompare information withconcerned departmentsDOF is in charge of M&Edata on financeUse appropriate analyticaltoolsReport as per decreeDP is in charge of M&Edata for planningUse appropriate analyticaltoolsReport as per decreeREIS is in charge of M&Edata for ASLO and EGRAASLO and EGRA analysisReport as per decreeESQAC is in charge of data EQS analysison EQSES Research CenterProvincialREPORTPREPARATIONSummarize reportsfor FG3 and 4Data collection ofsecondary schoolSupervise data collectionat district levelCoordinate with otherunits in the PESCompile data fromAnalysis on areas thatrequires researchUse descriptive stats for PESplanning purposesCategorize data according tokey indicatorsIdentify targets achieved andfailedDetermine causes andReport as per decreeReport to FG4Prepare report forPES approvalSubmit all reports toDOI for certificationReport should betwice a year.12

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationDistrictSchoolschools intoCollect district leveloutcome dataSubmit data to DOIValidate dataSupervise data collectionSupport principal to dodata collectionCoordinate with otherunits in the DEBCompile data fromschools intoCollect district leveloutcome dataSubmit data to PESValidate datasolutionsCoordinate with otherconcerned units on problemsand solutionsSubmit analytical info to DOIUse descriptive stats for DEBplanning purposesCollect school infoTrack key indicatorsSubmit analytical info to PESIdentify targets achieved andfailedDetermine causes andsolutionsCoordinate with otherconcerned units on problemsand solutionsTraining on use of toolsInterpretation of school levelAccomplish tools 1&2data: enrollment andRecord keepingpromotionAccomplish EMIS formCompare to targets16 areas of concern/tasks Find causesFind solutionsAction on solutionsTABLE 2. M&E Network Procedural FrameworkVersion 2.0Prepare report forDEB approvalSubmit all reports toPES for certificationReport should betwice a year.Write school levelM&E ReportInput M&E findingsto school planSend results to DEBThe procedural framework provides a general delineation of responsibilities amongthe members of the M&E Network based on Ministerial Decrees 4253 Series of 2012and 3411 Series of 2013. A flowchart that traces the data collection, analyses andwrite-up tasks at the central, provincial and district levels has been included in thissection. Although at this point, the tools have not yet been discussed, they form partof the flowchart to illustrate when they will actually be employed in the process.These tools will be discussed extensively from Chapters 5 to 7.13

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0FIGURE 4. M&E Procedural FlowchartSTARTPREPARATORYACTIVITIESINTEGRATEDM&E entralEVALTOOLDATASETlao.edu.infoDISTRICTDATA SETPROVINCEDATA SETEMIS,ETC.CENTRALDATA ESSTOOLCentralDISTRICTTRACKING DATAPROVINCIALTRACKING DATACENTRALTRACKING DATAREPORTINGTOOLS14END

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationVersion 2.0CHAPTER 4. The M&E Indicator SystemA.Introduction to IndicatorsAs members of the M&E Network, we study change. We analyze how ESDP ischanging the Lao education sector.How do we detect change?We detect change through outcomes of our interventions. Outcomes areconditions that result from our outputs. Outputs are goods, products or servicesgenerated by our projects under ESDP.How do we measure outcomes and outputs?We measure outcomes and outputs by quantifying these. We quantify thesethrough indicators.Since outcomes are conditions, outcome indicators are expressed in rates,ratios or percentages. Since outputs are tangible goods, products or services, outputindicators are expressed in numbers.What makes a good indicator?Good indicators are measurable and comparable. They are made up ofavailable data and, thus, can be collected. They should represent the outcome or theoutput concerned. They are not redundant or repetitive. Most of all, good indicatorscan be attributed to the intervention. We can be sure that it is caused by ESDP.B.PAF’s Table of Key Sector IndicatorsOne of the instruments provided by the Performance Assessment Frameworkis a table of key sector indicators. Table G in the PAF document, it gives acomprehensive list of output and outcome indicators classified under each pillar ofESDP.below.Table G, in its complete form covering all education sub-sectors, is found15

TABLE 3. KEY SECTOR 16Sub-Sector IndicatorCore sub-sector indicators to be maintained as EMIS outputBaselineThe official start ofthe ESDF. [To becompleted by STEIC]AnnualPerformanceTargetsTo be set from thegovernment annualSOP. Columns to beadded by yearCommentAssessor evaluation of annualperformance against the targetEarly Childhood Education and CareNumber of pre-primary schools as a percent of primary schoolsNER of 3-4 year olds in kindergartenNER of 5 year olds in pre-primaryNumber of in-service programs deliveredStudent unit costPrimary EducationIntake rate for grade 1Percent of children never attending schoolSurvival rate to Grade 3Survival rate to Grade 5Repetition rate for Grade 1Percent of schools with 1 teacher and percent of over-staffed schoolsPTR less than 15:1)Variance of pupil to teacher ratios at different levels – percent of schoolswith ratio less than 15:1 and percent of schools with ratio greater than70:1Percent of new teacher trainees who are from remote areas and are ofethnic backgroundPercent of qualified teachersAverage number2 of instructional hours for pupilsNumber of in-service programs for content upgrading deliveredNumber of in-service programs for pedagogy deliveredNumber of in-service programs for multigrade pedagogy deliveredPercent of schools with feeding programsPercent of students receiving a scholarshipPercent of schools meeting minimum standards to be called “childfriendly”12Actual rather than mandated therefore teacher absenteeism must be noted.16

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary use1use2use3use43Sub-Sector IndicatorVersion 2.0BaselineAnnualPerformanceTargetsCommentPercent of grade 5 students reaching level 6 competency in ASLO for LaolanguagePercent of grade 5 students reaching level 6 competency in ASLO forMathematicsPercent of grade 5 students reaching level 3 competency in ASLO for LaolanguagePercent of grade 5 students reaching level 3 competency in ASLO forMathematicsStudent unit costLower Secondary EducationTransition rate from primary to lower secondaryNet enrolment ratePercent of students receiving a scholarshipPercent of schools with pupil to teacher ratio of greater than 60:1Percent of qualified lower secondary teachers (excluding qualifiedprimary teachers who have received additional in-serviceNumber of in-service programs for content upgrading deliveredNumber of in-service programs for pedagogy deliveredPercent of grade 8 students reaching level 6 competency in ASLO for Laolanguage3Percent of grade 8 students reaching level 6 competency in ASLO forMathematicsPercent of grade 8 students reaching level 3 competency in ASLO for LaolanguagePercent of grade 8 students reaching level 3 competency in ASLO forMathematicsPercent of schools with library meeting minimum standardPercent of schools with at least one functioning science laboratoryStudent unit costUpper Secondary EducationTransition rate from lower to upper secondaryNet enrolment ratePercent of students receiving a scholarshipPercent of schools with pupil to teacher ratio of greater than 60:1ASLO is yet to be developed for grades 8 and 11 but is in process.17

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary 4tv5tv6tv7tv8tt4Sub-Sector IndicatorVersion 2.0BaselineAnnualPerformanceTargetsCommentPercent of qualified upper secondary teachers (excluding qualifiedprimary teachers who have received additional in-serviceNumber of in-service programs for content upgrading deliveredNumber of in-service programs for pedagogy deliveredPercent of schools with library meeting minimum standardPercent of schools with at least one functioning science laboratoryPercent of grade 11 students reaching level 6 competency in ASLO forLao language4Percent of grade 11 students reaching level 6 competency in ASLO forMathematicsPercent of grade 11 students reaching level 3 competency in ASLO forLao languagePercent of grade 11 students reaching level 3 competency in ASLO forMathematicsGraduation rate from grade 11Student unit cost.Non-formal EducationYouth literacy rate (15-24 yearsAdult literacy rate (15 years)Number of graduates from primary equivalence programsNumber of graduates from lower secondary equivalence programsNumber of training programs delivered to villages without access to aprimary schoolTechnical and Vocational Education and TrainingNumber of students per 100,000 inhabitantsNumber of institutions and programsPercent of programs which involve private sector as trainersPercent of trainers who have a degree (Bachelor/ post-graduate)Percent of vocational/technical teachers who have worked in therelevant private sector for more than 3 yearsNumber of in-service programs for content upgrading deliveredNumber of in-service programs for pedagogy deliveredStudent unit costTeacher TrainingASLO is yet to be developed for grades 8 and 11 but is in process.18

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary 3he4he5he6he7he8he9he10amam1am2am3am45Sub-Sector IndicatorVersion 2.0BaselineAnnualPerformanceTargetsCommentPercent of enrolments by level (early childhood, primary, lowersecondary, upper secondary)Percent of enrolments by qualification level (5 4, 8 3, 11 1, 11 3,)Percent of enrolments in special courses (as proportion of totalenrolments of teacher training and special courses)Percent of teacher trainers who have taught as a teacher for more than 3yearsPercent of teacher trainers who have Masters (or higher) qualificationNumber of in-service programs for lecturers for content upgradingdeliveredNumber of in-service programs for lecturers for pedagogy deliveredPercent of teacher training graduates who take up a teaching position infirst year after graduationStudent unit costHigher EducationNumber of students per 100,000 inhabitantsNumber of institutions and facultiesPercent of post-graduate and specialist5 programs that are offered atmore than one institution,Percentage of students by level (Bachelor Post-graduate courseworkPostgraduate research)Enrolments by field of study (Education, Humanities, Law and SocialSciences, Natural Sciences and Medical Sciences)Completion rates by faculty, subject, genderAverage time taken for completion by faculty, subject, genderPercent of academic staff who have Masters qualificationPercent of academic staff who have a PhDStudent unit costAdministration and ManagementTeacher salary levels as a percent of per capita GDPPercent of GOL expenditure to education as percent of GDPShare of GOL expenditure to education as percent of total publicexpenditureProportion of recurrent to total expenditure for educationHigh-cost courses such as medicine, dentistry, engineering, law19

M&E Toolkit Volume 2. Primary EducationCodeSub-Sector Indicatoram5Proportion of recurrent budget to wages billProportion of education expenditure (investment and recurrent) by subsectorPercent of provinces who submit complete and correct MIS data to STEICGender parity index by sub-sector for students, administrators andteachers/trainersPercent of administrators by all levels who are from ethnic groups6Number of students receiving out-of-country scholarships for BachelorstudyNumber of students receiving out-of-country scholarships for postgraduate studyNumber of MOE staff receiving out-of-country scholarships for postgraduate studyPercent of schools with teachers trained in inclusive educationapproachesPercent of Districts where DEB staff have been trained in HIV/AIDSeducation strategiesAmount of formal and informal payments from families for “free basiceducation”Percent of districts receiving subsidies through block grants to districtand/or schools (all levels)Tracking survey of graduates for post-primary sub-sectorsBalance between supply and demand for labour market for post-basicsub-sectorsPercent of schools with sufficient textbooks and teaching aids that meet apre-defined minimum standardPercent of PES who submit annual plans and reports that are inaccordance with ESDF priority 17am18am19am206Version 2.0BaselineAnnualPerformanceTargetsCommentEthni

4. The Department of Pre-Primary and Primary Education (DPPE) 5. The Department of Secondary Education (DSE) 6. The Department of Technical Vocational Education and Training (DTVET) 7. The Department of Nonformal Education (DNFE) 8. The Department of Higher Education (DHE) 9. Th

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# We are grateful to Per Johansson, Erik Mellander, Harald Niklasson and seminar participants at IFAU and IUI for helpful comments. Financial support from the Institute of Labour Market Pol-icy Evaluation (IFAU) and Marianne and Marcus Wallenbergs Stiftelse is gratefully acknowl-edged. Corresponding author. IUI, Box 5501, SE-114 85 .

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Monitoring and Evaluation Platform is defined as an implementing mechanism which gives a mission or other operating unit access to technical and advisory services to design and carry out multiple, third-party, monitoring and evaluation tasks.2 These M&E Platform mechanisms may often include additional tasks related to monitoring and evaluation,