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AUTOMOTIVE BATTERIES 101JULY 2018WMG, University of WarwickProfessor David Greenwood, Advanced Propulsion Systems

The battery is the definingcomponent of anelectrified vehicleCostPowerRangePackageLifeRide and Handling2 2018

ENGINEMOTOR‘BATTERY’BATTERY FUNCTIONCONVENTIONAL(ICE)100kWFull transientStarter motorStop/start12V3kW, 1kWhEngine starting(3kW, 2-5Wh) Ancillaryloads (400W average,4kW peak, 1kWh)MILD HYBRID(MHEV)90-100kWFull transient3-13kWTorque boost/re-gen12-48V5-15kW, 1kWhAbsorb regeneratedbraking energyFULL HYBRID(HEV)60-80kWLess transient20-40kWLimited EV mode100-300V20-40kW, 2kWhSupport accelerationPLUG-IN HYBRID(PHEV)40-60kWLess transient40-60kWStronger EV mode300-600V40-60kW, 5-20kWhProvide primary powerand energyRANGE-EXTENDED(REEV)30-50kWNo transient100kWFull EV mode300-600V100kW, 10-30kWhProvide primary powerand energyELECTRIC VEHICLE(EV)No Engine100kWFull EV mode300-600V100kW, 30-80kWhProvide sole powerand energy source 2018Increasing power to energy ratioPrimary functions ofthe battery acrossvehicle types3

Biggest challenge formass market uptake is costCOMPONENT COSTS FOR ELECTRIFICATION OF POWERTRAINBATTERYCOST ISTHE missionBatteryPower 060008000Bill-of-Materials Component Cost 4 20181000012000

Lithium-ion batteries areimproving rapidly18650 CELL CAPACITY (MAH) Costs have fallen dramatically due to technology,production volume and market dynamics4000 Pack cost fallen from 1,000/kWh to 250/kWhin less than 8 years30002,0001,6001,5002014 US per kWh200095% conf interval whole industry95% conf interval market leadersPublications, reports and journalsNews items with expert statements1,9001,8001,700Log fit of news, reports, and journals: 12 6% declineAdditional cost estimates without clear methodMarket leader, Nissan Motors, LeafMarket leader, Tesla Motors, Model SOther battery electric vehicles1,4001,3001,2001,1001000Log fit of market leaders only: 8 8% declineLog fit of all estimates: 14 6% declineFuture costs estimated in publications US 150 per kWh goal for 156005004003002001000200520102015202020252030Year Volumetric energy density is increasing due to bettermaterials and cell structure Doubled in 15 years Requires continuous chemistry and materialsinnovation to continueGraph credit: Nkyvist et al 2014Lithium-ion batteries areimproving rapidly 20185

What makes up anautomotive battery?Lithium-ion cellModulePacke.g. pouch or cylindrical celle.g. module for pouch cells (Nissan Leaf)e.g. pack for pouch cells (Nissan Leaf)As a single unit, a ‘cell’ performs theprimary functions of a rechargeable‘battery’. Cells come in varied formats:A ‘module’ is formed by connectingmultiple ‘cells’, providing them witha mechanical support structure andthermal interface and attachingterminals. Modules are designedaccording to cell format, target packvoltage and vehicle requirements.A ‘pack’ is formed by connectingmultiple ‘modules’ with sensorsand a controller and thenhousing the unit in a case.Electric vehicles are equippedwith batteries in a ‘pack’ statewhich are connected tothe powertrain. Cylindrical Cells Pouch Cells Prismatic Cells6 2018

How a Lithium-ioncell works During discharge, thelithium-ions flow backthrough the electrolyte/separator to the cathode.Electrons flow back to theanode through the outercircuit. When all ions havemoved back, the battery isfully discharged and needsrecharging A motor converts theelectrical energy from thebattery into mechanicalenergy to turn the wheels Electricity from the grid isused to charge the batterye-e-Li ChargeDischargeLiLi e-e-Li Cathode Materiale.g. LiCoO2Anode Materiale.g. graphiteAnode/cathode materials: specific capacities andoperating voltages vs pure lithiumDifferent chemistries suit specific Hard CarbonsMetal Nitrides3.8VGraphite0Cathode2.8V3.2VLTO20ENERGY DENSITYLiMn1.5Ni0.5O44.5Voltage vs Li(V) During charging, thepositively charged lithiumions flow from the cathode,through the electrolyte/separator, to the anodewhere they are stored.Electrons flow from thenegative electrode to thepositive through the outercircuit (the power supply).When no more lithium-ionswill flow, the battery isfully chargedLi Anode There are many types ofLi-ion battery dependingon the exact combinationof materials used for theanode and cathodeNiO6Cathode Lithium-ion (Li-ion) is ageneral term for a variety ofbatteries whose propertiesrely on lithium as thecharge carrier. Li-ion offersadvantages over otherchemistries such as weightand voltage. For automotivepurposes, rechargeablecells are usedCharging200141 mAh/gM alloys400600Silicon3500Lithium4200Specific Capacity (mAh/g)3.7 V x 141 Ah/kg 512 Wh/kg 20187

AnodeCathodeCurrent lithium-ionbattery chemistries:8CATHODE/ANODE MATERIALSTRENGTHSWEAKNESSESLithium Cobalt Oxide(LCO) Cathode High energy High power Thermally unstable Relatively short life span Limited load capabilitiesLithium Manganese Oxide Spinel(LMO) Cathode High power and thermal stability Enhanced safety Low cost Low capacity compared to other cathode materials Limited life cycle Need advanced thermal managementLithium Nickel Cobalt AluminiumOxide (NCA) Cathode High specific energy Good specific power Long life cycle Safety issues CostLithium Nickel Manganese CobaltOxide (NMC) Cathode Ni has high specific energy; Mn adds lowinternal resistance Can be tailored to offer high specific energyor power Nickel has low stability Manganese offers low specific energyLithium Iron Phosphate(LFP) Cathode Inherently safe; tolerant to abuse Acceptable thermal stability High current rating Long cycle life Lower energy density due to low operatingvoltage and capacityGraphite/Carbon-basedAnode Good mechanical stability Good conductivity and Li-ion transport Good gravimetric capacity Low volumetric capacityLithium Titanate(LTO) Anode Withstands fast charge/discharge rates Inherently safe Long cycle life Lower energy density compared tographitic anodes CostSilicon Alloy(Si) Anode High gravimetric/volumetric capacity Low cost Chemical stability High degree of mechanical expansionon charging 2018

Promising battery chemistries:early stage researchCHEMISTRY*PROPERTIES/BENEFITSRESEARCH CHALLENGESSolid State Batteries Solid electrolyte and separator components; no concerns over‘leakage’ Improved safety due to lack of liquid electrolyte High operating voltages increase potentialenergy density Lighter and more space efficient; less need for cooling Improving poor conductivity High volume manufacturing atacceptable costMetal Air Batteriese.g. Li, Al, Zn, Na Pure metal anode and ambient air/O2 cathode Very high theoretical capacity Increased safety vs Li-ion No use of heavy metals Short life cycle Issues with practical rechargeability Air handling Energy density reduces at high powerLithium Sulphur(Li-S) High theoretical gravimetric energy density Sulphur is a low cost, abundant material Improved safety Poor volumetric energy density Issues with power density anddischarge rate Issues with cycle life stabilitySodium-ion(Na-ion) Sodium is a low cost, abundant material Improved safety for battery transportation Issues of volumetric/gravimetric energydensity compared to Li-ionSilicon-based Electrodes(Si) Si has x10 gravimetric capacity compared to graphite Could be lighter and/or store more energy Does not offer long cycle life Practical application constraints* Promising chemistries included are those demonstrating suitableapplication potential for automotive requirements at lab scale. 20189

Automotive battery:cell components ve/-ve TerminalsElectrolyteActive electrodes: Thinly wound or stacked into alternating sheets of materialfollowing a pattern: cathode – separator – anode.Quality and purity of material has an impact on charge efficiency and battery life. C athode: Positively charged electrode in the battery cell, often made of alithium metal oxide and coated on to a current collecting aluminium (Al) foil. Anode: Negatively charged electrode in the battery cell, often made ofgraphite and coated on to a current collecting copper (Cu) foil.Metallisedfoil pouchAnode Terminals: positive and negative contacts to connect the cells and module. Separator: Thin layer of polymer electrically isolates the cathode and anodefrom one another to prevent short circuit. Its structure allows lithium ions topass through, allowing current to flow through the cell (microporosity) Electrolyte: A liquid transport medium which surrounds the electrodes andsoaks into the separator, allowing lithium ions to flow freely Additives: Electrode and electrolyte properties can be improved by addingsmall amounts of other components, e.g. conductive additives C urrent Interrupt Device: A pressure valve disables the cell in case ofover-charge/over-heatingSeparator 0 2018CathodeCathode

Production steps for electrode/cell littingElectrode manufacturingCell stackingTab weldingPackagingElectrolyte FillingFormation/ageingEoL TestingCell assembly/electrical formation 201811

Cell formatsCylindrical cellsPouch cells Highly developed H ighest power and energydensity at cell level B enefits lie part-way betweencylindrical and pouch cells N eeds volume forcommercialisation L ayered approach improvesspace utilisation R elatively lightweight and easy topackage for effective use of space A llows highly flexible moduledesign for differing requirementsChallenges:Challenges: Requires supporting structure withina module Can be expensive to manufacture Standard sizes U sed widely in consumergoods (well standardised) Mechanically self-supporting H igh volumes and pricecompetitive marketChallenges: Relatively heavy Shape reduces packagingdensity12 2018 Little standardisation of format (VDA) Some cooling constraints L arge format cells contain highenergy (safety issues if damaged)Prismatic cells L ittle standardisation of format(VDA) Large format cells contain highenergy (safety issues if damaged)Image credit: Panasonic

Cell supply chain: materials contentBreakdown by relative weight and cost of cell materials shows the value is spread across components,not just from the primary electrochemical materials.TYPICAL MATERIAL VOLUME (CYLINDRICAL CELL)Electrolyte 12%CathodeMateriale.g. NCA 42%Separator 2%Anode CurrentCollector (Cu)5%AnodeBinders1%Anode Materiale.g. graphite 29%Electrolyte 9%Separator 14%AnodeCurrentCollector(Cu) 9%CathodeBinder 0%MATERIAL COMPONENT COST BREAKDOWN(CYLINDRICAL CELL)AnodeBinders 1%Anode Materiale.g. graphite 29%Cathode Conductors 1%Cathode Current Collector(Al) 4%Cathode CurrentCollector (Al) 1%Cathode Binder 0%Cathode Material e.g. NCACathode ConductorsCathode Current Collector (Al)Anode Material e.g. GraphiteAnode BindersAnode Current Collector (Cu)Cathode Materiale.g. NCA 53%Cathode Conductors 0%SeparatorElectrolyteFigures source:ITRI, Taiwan 201813

Cell supply chain: materials sourcingImage credit: Institutfrancais des relationsinternationales (ifri)14 2018

Automotive battery:module components1Casing: Metal casing provides mechanicalsupport to the cells and holds them under slightcompression for best performance2Clamping frame: Steel clamping frames secure themodules to the battery case3Temperature sensors: Sensors in the modulesmonitor the cell temperatures to allow the batterymanagement system to control cooling and powerdelivery within safe limits4 ells: Each module in a pack contains the sameCnumber of cells. The number of cells varies byformat and usage requirements5 erminals: Two terminals on the module allow it toTbe electrically connected to other modules via thebus bars6Cell interconnects: Each cell has two tabs – onepositive and one negative. These are weldedtogether in series then connected to the terminals7 Cooling channels: Liquid coolant runs betweenrows of cells to withdraw heat and avoid thermalrunaway. Other packs, such as Nissan Leaf, insteaduse air cooling2164Image credit:Nissan UK653Pouch cell module (Nissan Leaf)134675Cylindrical cell module (Tesla) 201815

Module assembly - manufacturing processMODULE ASSEMBLY LINEModule e yTestPrimary tasks: Assembling the cells into a carrier Joining the conductors inarchitecture (typically welded)16 2018 Installing the module control unit withvoltage and temperature sensors Testing the systemfunctionality Inserting cooling system componentsif requiredLower cost achieved throughincreased automation.

Automotive battery:pack components1 Upper case: Provides fire protectionand watertight casing for thebattery components and protectsit from dirt ingress. Also shieldsservice personnel from high voltagecomponents2 Battery modules: A ‘module’ isformed by connecting multiple‘cells’, supporting those cells ina structural frame and thenattaching terminals. Modules aredesigned according to cell formatand vehicle requirements3 Bus bars: Electrically connectthe battery modules together,and connect the modules tothe contactors4 Contactors: Electrically isolatethe battery pack from the vehicle.Closed upon completion of safetytests and opened in the event of acrash or battery fault 315 Fusing: Fuses protect expensivecomponents from damage due topower surges and faults426 Disconnect: Used to electricallyisolate the battery from the vehicleduring servicing or maintenance7 Cooling: Modules requirecooling. Packs may be cooledusing air, water or vehicle airconditioning system8 Battery management system(BMS): The BMS ensures the cellsremain within their safe operatingtemperatures and voltages. Itmeasures the remaining chargein the battery and reports onstate of health. It also ensuresthe battery is correctly connectedand isolated before closingthe contactors9 Lower case: Structural casingsupports the mass of the batterypack and protects it from damage98675Image credits: Nissan UK 201817

Battery managementsystem (BMS)- Load balancing/individualcell nterface ModuleCANBMM Core ModuleCANCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCell8 Cell StackCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCell8 Cell StackCell8 Cell StackCellBMM Core ModuleCellBMM Core ModuleCell 2018BatteryChargerCANBattery Pack18Computepower limitsBATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A dvances in BMS can provideimproved cell usage and efficiencyand reduce the amount of batterycontent required R equires highly skilled electronicsand software engineering talentBalancecellsLoop each measurement interval while pack is active- Safety and critical safeguardsCell- State of function (SOF)Estimate stateof health(SOH)Estimate stateof charge (SOC)Cell- State of health (SOH)Meas. voltagecurrenttemperatureCell- State of charge (SOC)CANCurrentSensorkey off: store data The BMS monitors and controls:key on: initialize ells need to be monitored andCcontrolled, e.g. temperature, voltage.The BMS is an electronic system thatmanages cells in a battery pack.

Electrical DistributionSystem (EDS)The primary function of the EDS is to providethe electrical conduction path through thebattery pack.It also: Isolates the conduction path M easures current and voltage in thehigh voltage (HV) line P rovides pre-charge function whenenergising HV line Fuses the HV line in case of over-current P rovides manual disconnect of theHV line for vehicle servicing VE sensorMCBMCBManual ServiceDisconnectPre-CHARGE ContactorPre-CH FusePre-CH registorMCBMCBHVConnectorMain FuseHV VEBatteryManagementSystem(BMS)HV -VEMCBLVConnectorMCBCurrent sensor VE Contactor M onitors effectiveness of theelectrical insulation T he Low Voltage (LV) wiring also providespower for the battery control functions andallows communication between the batteryand vehicle (CAN protocol). The LV wiringalso carries a signal (HVIL) to confirm allexternal connectors are correctly in placeand to ensure that HV conductors can notbe contacted externally T he BMS receives inputs fromvoltage and temperaturesensors in the modules. Insome packs, the BMS may alsoprovide outputs to drive othercomponents such as fans,pumps or valves for the batterycooling system E xternal connectors enablerobust and safe connectionbetween the battery pack andother vehicle systems. Theseare typically split into HV and LVconnectors and potentially otherauxiliary connectors (to chargersor HV accessories) 201819

Battery pack assembly - manufacturing processPACK ASSEMBLY LINEModuleDeliveryModuleBoL TestModuleAcceptanceLower CasePre-assemblyModuleInsertionBus barAssemblyHandlingElectricalIntegrity TestAssemblyTestCooling ary tasks:20 2018EoL AcceptanceTestingCoolingSystem TestCasePressure TestTop CoverAssembly Assembling the modules intothe pack Connecting and testing powerelectronics Testing pack quality andsystem functionality Joining the modules in packarchitecture Inserting cooling systemcomponents if requiredLower cost achieved throughincreased automation.

Typical R&D timeline for potentialchemistries/technologiesNew chemistries at proof of concept stage in the lab will take typically 10years to emerge as market products.MATERIALDEVELOPMENT I nvestigating newchemistries Understandingproperties andcharacterisation Chemical labbased/university-led activity No limit topotential timescalefor breakthroughto occur?PROOF OFCONCEPTRESEARCH D evelopingpromisingmaterials atgram scale Testing andanalysingproperties forapplication Lab-based/university-ledactivity Timescaledependent uponchemistry maturityMin. 3 YearsdecadesMATERIALSCALE UP S cale up ofpromisingmaterialsfrom lab tocommerciallyviable cell T esting andanalysis ofimpact of scaleup on chemistry V alidation ofmanufacturingprocesses U niversity and/or industry ledactivity2 YearsINDUSTRIALPLANTDEVELOPMENT P roving outat-volume cellmanufacturingapplication S upply chainvalidation ofR&D O ptimisation ofindustrial scalemanufacturing I ndustry anduniversity ledactivity3 YearsPRODUCTVALIDATIONOEMDEVELOPMENTCYCLE V alidation ofR&D at the cellstage O EM ready tobring technologyinto 3-yeardevelopmentcycle A t-volumetesting of cellsto industrialstandards OEM led activity O EMvalidationof requiredquality,reliability andsafety levels I ndustry-ledactivity/OEM1-1.5 Years2-3 Years 201821

Where should batteries be in 20 years?22 2018

The UK Battery IndustrialisationCentre (UKBIC)The establishment of this new facilityis being led by Coventry City Council,Coventry and Warwickshire Local EnterprisePartnership, and WMG, atthe University of Warwick. The consortiumwere awarded 80 million, througha competition led by the AdvancedPropulsion Centre and supported byInnovate UK.UK BIC: SCHEMATIC VISIONElectrodesoutPowdersinElectrodemixingAnode coatinglinesCathode coatinglinesElectrodesinDryingUKBIC is part of the UK Government’sFaraday Battery Challenge.Cylinder cell assemblyFormationPouch cell assemblyCell EoLtestingThe UK Battery Industrialisation Centre will: B e a ‘Learning factory’ for high speed,high quality manufacturing of cells,modules and packs at GWh/year scale Enable users to develop and provemanufacturing processes, and train staffPacksoutPack assemblyCellsinModule BoLtestingCellsoutUKBIC will be an open access facility,opening early 2020 in the Coventry/Warwickshire area.Module assemblyModules inModulesout Be capable of bespoke cell develo

Automotive battery: module components Casing: Metal casing provides mechanical support to the cells and holds them under slight compression for best performance Clamping frame: Steel clamping frames secure the modules to the battery case Temperature sensors: Sensors in the modules monitor the cell temperatures to allow the battery management system to control cooling and power delivery within .

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