10 Steps To Successful Automotive EMC Testing

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10Steps To SuccessfulAutomotive EMC TestingElite Electronic Engineering, Inc.1516 Centre CircleDowners Grove, IL 60515630-495-9770 www.elitetest.comComplete EMC & Environmental Stress Testing

2ContentsIntroduction to Automotive EMC Testing12345678910Define Your Target MarketDevelop a Test PlanSpecify Function & Expected PerformanceDesign for CompatibilityConfirm Design with Development TestingCommunicate with the End UserSchedule Well in AdvancePrepare for Validation TestingBe Available When Testing BeginsRespond Quickly to Project Delays10 Automotive EMC Considerations

Automotive EMC TestingAutomotive EMC testingmeasures the radio frequency(RF) emissions emanatingfrom vehicle electrical systemsand evaluates theirsusceptibility to RF signalsgenerated by other devices onthe vehicle as well as from offvehicle sources.EMC testing also extends toevaluating the deviceperformance while exposed tovehicle steady state andelectrical transient conditionsand electro-static discharge.An average passenger car today relies on between 50 to 75embedded electronic modules to monitor and control nearly allaspects of vehicle operations. These functions include steering andbraking, tail-pipe emission controls, safety, as well as entertainmentand comfort enhancements, to name just a few.To ensure safe and reliable operations of these systems, a rigoroustest and validation process is often performed as part of new productdevelopment. All vehicle original equipment manufactures (OEMs)and most component suppliers prescribe corporate tests to validatethe electrical performance and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)of their devices. Government regulations also stipulate testing andcompliance for certain vehicle types and electronic subassemblies.To help manufacturers prepare for automotive EMC and electricaltesting Elite has outlined the following 10 steps to set in motion asmooth and successful test and validation effort. After reviewingthese key steps, contact Elite to discuss the specific details andunique needs for your test and validation program. Let’s begin withStep 1 10 Automotive EMC Considerations3

1Define Your Target MarketDownload Elite guides to learnmore about regulatorycompliance processes:The first key step in automotive EMC test and validation is to define your Can it be fitted on a passenger, truck or construction machine, orE-markingFCC CertificationCE Marktarget markets. Is your device being sold to a vehicle OEM or is it anaftermarket product? Will it be used in North America, Europe, or Asia?potentially multiple platforms? Does it include wireless connectivity?If an electronic subassembly is sold to a vehicle OEM, then the OEM willtypically issue a design specification that lists their EMC and electricalrequirements. Often the OEM design specification will identify theapplicable regulatory requirements for the markets being targeted. Plus,in many cases the OEM’s testing standards incorporate the regulatoryrequirements within their procedures and test limits.If the product is strictly an aftermarket electronic subassembly then thefocus shifts to complying with the regulatory requirements of the countrywhere the product is used. Some government regulations can be met bythe manufacturer performing tests to published harmonized standards andthen self-declaring compliance, but other regulations require testing thencertification by a third party.Elite can provide step-by-step guidance for either OEM validation testingor global regulatory conformity assessment.10 Automotive EMC Considerations4

2Develop a Test PlanContact Elite for assistance ontest plan preparationA well written test plan is essential to a successful EMC validationprogram. Most vehicle OEMs require an EMC Test Plan be completedby the supplier and approved by the OEM EMC engineer assigned toTest plan templates areavailable from mostautomotive OEMsCertain regulatory standardsinclude test plan templatesthe project.The test plan approval process is an absolute requirement for certainOEMs (i.e. Ford, GM, and FCA) and any delays in its submittal by thesupplier to the OEM can impact test start/completion dates. A test planthat is not properly signed by the OEM is at risk of invalidating the testreport. We recommend clients forward their test plan to Elite where ourexperts can review it to confirm the necessary signatures and laboratoryidentification are present.For certain vehicles and aftermarket products a test plan is not alwaysrequired but we highly recommend one still be generated. A test planbuilds confidence between the supplier and vehicle OEM and end user.It’s also an important document to include in a technical compliance fileand is used to support a manufacturer’s due diligence in assessingcompliance for a regulatory conformity assessment.A generic test plan can be developed if a specific template does notexist. The regulatory compliance limits associated with the product’send use application or test levels and limits can be listed in the test planor a manufacturer can draw from recommendations in CISPR, ISO, andSAE standards.10 Automotive EMC Considerations5

3Specify Function &Expected PerformanceTest Plan Basic InformationThe test plan should capture all the information that the test Number of samplesengineer will need to accurately complete the project. It should Test methodsalso consider modes of operation and other conditions that an end Immunity test levels and emissionslimitsuser would want to see evaluated when the final test report is Operating mode(s) during testsdelivered. What is the function of the device? Is it a convenienceitem or a safety critical device? How the operation will be monitoredduring immunity tests Expected performance of monitoredparameters (with tolerances)If the device is a convenience item, then it may be allowed to Pass/Fail criteria (includingtolerances)normal operation after the threat is removed and the response Input power requirements andgroundingconvenience item will also usually be less severe since conveni-respond during certain immunity tests as long as it returns back todoes not distract the driver. The immunity test levels for a Signal lines loadingence products are not critical to the safe operation of the vehicle. Communications bus (ie CAN)configurationA safety critical device will usually need to operate without anysign of upset from the immunity threat being applied. In addition,the immunity test levels of a safety critical device will usually bemuch higher than the requirements of a convenience item.10 Automotive EMC Considerations6

4 Design for CompatibilityBy understanding the EMC andelectrical environment andrequirements, a manufacturercan design for compliance andcompatibility.The process of EMC and electrical testing is to confirm that a devicewill operate properly in the presence of its own interference as wellas from other devices that may be nearby or connected to the samepower and communications bus.If the product is being designed for a particular vehicle OEM, thenthe corporate EMC standards typically set the benchmark for testand performance requirements. If the product is an aftermarketdevice, then the regulatory requirements are key. As a minimum,government imposed EMC regulations stipulate emissions limits forthe protection of off-board receivers through standards like CISPR12. Some regulations also set requirements for the protection of onboard receivers applying CISPR 25 as the test method and limit. Forelectric vehicles. CISPR 22 may apply for emissions through the ACmains connection. In addition, the electronic subassemblies thathave functions related to the safe operation of the vehicle are testedfor RF and conducted transient immunity and ESD.10 Automotive EMC Considerations7

5Confirm Design withDevelopment TestingDevelopment testing shouldbe performed during theproduct design and prior tovalidation testing. Althoughdevelopment testing adds upfront costs to the project, thistesting can greatly improve theodds for successful validationtesting.Development testing is an important step in a product designprocess. A full series of tests is usually not required fordevelopment testing. A subset of the tests that evaluate emissionsand immunity are often enough to give a high level of confidence tothe product design. Check with Elite experts for a recommendationon test applicability.If possible, use the same EMC test lab for both development andvalidation testing. This will ensure familiarity with the product andassociated support equipment. It may also save travel costs for thevalidation tests. Since the lab will use the same test methods andtechniques during both tests, testing at the same lab will eliminatesurprises (due to lab differences) during the validation tests.If development tests are performed at the supplier’s “in-house” orlocal “development” lab, then make sure the development testingwill correlate with the validation lab.10 Automotive EMC Considerations8

6Communicate with theEnd UserCommunication is the key tosuccess of any business.Whenever possible, theVehicle OEM should beconsulted and made aware ofany potential issues.If an unforeseen issue occurs during the test, communicate thefindings with the vehicle OEM. Often the OEM will work with thesupplier to mitigate the issue or resolve problems by acceptingresults based on analysis, test conditions, risk, or other testingcircumstances.The vehicle OEM usually has EMC experts on staff and they oftensupport the supplier with engineering assistance to expedite designissue resolution.Ultimately, project success is more likely achieved if the end user isinvolved during the entire design process including EMC testing.Open communications will build the relationship between thesupplier and the vehicle OEM and will greatly improve the potentialfor a successful program.10 Automotive EMC Considerations9

7Schedule Well in AdvanceCommunicate your scheduleneeds well in advance of yourtest date. By establishing anearly channel ofcommunication, a lab canusually achieve the desiredtest start and completiondates.At Elite, we strive for quick access to laboratory services. However,manufacturers should anticipate a schedule backlog for automotivevalidation testing from (several) weeks up to months. Be sure to contactElite well in advance of the date the product will be ready for testing.Begin by contacting the Elite sales team with your requirements. Wecan provide the expertise you need for selecting the appropriate OEMtest standards and test methods. Elite experts can also help identifythe regulatory requirements and outline the process for conformityassessment.Once a proposal is generated, Elite will schedule all services based onthe required time and lab resources. By establishing an early channel ofcommunication with Elite’s lab scheduler we can usually achieve thedesired test start and completion dates. Typically a purchase order isnot required to hold a scheduled test date, but a PO will be required tostart testing.Certain regulatory tests for European Union vehicle and agriculturaltractors and their electronic sub assemblies require an “E” marking typeapproval through a European Notified Body. These services areprocessed directly between the Notified Body and the equipmentmanufacturer. Elite can provide the contacts for notified body servicesand we work closely with the Notified Body and client to coordinate testscheduling.10 Automotive EMC Considerations10

8 Prepare for Validation TestingCommunicate with the labscheduler early and oftenregarding your readiness fortesting.Prepare for testing by configuring a fully functional system that canWith sufficient notice, the testlab can easily shift your startdates.the lab will need the following items:be delivered to the test laboratory on the scheduled start date. Besure to add time to make sure all of the wiring harnesses, supportequipment, etc. are ready for the project start date. As a minimum A properly approved test plan for OEM validationDevice(s) to be testedWiring harnessesLoad box and support equipment to properly simulate thesystems that interface with the test itemLaptop computer with communication (CAN) bus simulatorMonitoring equipmentInstructions for operating the equipmentCertain specialized support equipment can be provided by Elite.However, clients should identify their needs early on so we canprovide the necessary resources at the start of your testing.Examples of equipment available through Elite (upon advancedrequest): 10 Automotive EMC ConsiderationsFiber Optic TransceiversLaptop PCs, Oscilloscopes, Audio Analyzers,Communication Simulator (CMW500)Mechanical fixturing, tooling, and test automation11

9Be AvailableWhen Testing BeginsElite provides a daily emailsummary of testing progress.Elite business hours typically run from 8:00am to 4:30pm so plan toarrive shortly before 8:00am on the first day scheduled for yourtesting. For special shifts or extended hours testing contact Elite atMore significant issues andtesting problems arecommunicated by phonecontact.the earliest phase of the test project.Elite clients are always welcome to be present for testing. In manycases we encourage clients to attend the initial setup and for the firstfew test operations. However, many of our clients ship theirequipment along with setup and operating instructions to Elite. Ourengineers then configure the unit for testing and run the tests whilemonitoring the performance of the device. If the client is not presentfor testing, then we need a responsive technical support contact thatcan be reached quickly to help with setup and resolve testing issues.Also, to ensure a more efficient test process, we recommend theclient provide spare test samples if possible.10 Automotive EMC Considerations12

10Respond Quickly toProject DelaysIt’s not uncommon for projectsto run into delays. For thisreason it is important to keepthe laboratory informed ofpotential project delays forplanning purposes.For project delays that occur in advance of the test start date werequest that clients notify Elite as soon a possible so the reserved labtime can be reallocated to others and a new start date reassigned forthe delayed project.When problems occur during testing our engineers work quickly andclosely with the client to resolve all issues. This includes workingthrough test item setup complications, test item non-compliance, orElite equipment faults. For clients not present at Elite during testing,we rely on our client contact being readily available by phone tosupport our troubleshooting efforts. For these cases we requestemail and mobile phone contact information for key supportpersonnel.10 Automotive EMC Considerations13

Contact Elite today!Our Experts, Your Timing, Best ValueLet us know how we can helpyou succeed with your productdevelopment.Automotive EMC testing can be a challenging process, but with theWhy Trust Elite?provider in the industry. Contact the following Elite personnel to get 60 years of EMC testingexperienceyour project started on the right path. 20 automotive EMC testengineers and iNARTEorganizational certificationSales Engineers 15 years of continuouslaboratory recognition fromFord, GM, and Fiat-ChryslerJohn Schmit x 125Robert Bugielski x 168Dan Mon x 142Steve Laya x 119 Only independent testlaboratory fully recognized forall Ford, GM, and Fiat-ChryslerEMC test methodssupport of Elite engineers you can rest assured that you’re workingwith the most knowledgeable, best equipped, and best value serviceElite phone number: test.comdmon@elitetest.comsglaya@elitetest.comLab Services SchedulingAdam Rohman, x 139adrohman@elitetest.comTechnical Support AutomotiveStan Dolecki, x 103Brandon Lugo, x 163Frank Bowes, x 106Craig Fanning, x s@elitetest.comcfanning@elitetest.comTechnical Support RegulatoryDan Crowder, x 10110 Automotive EMC Considerationsdecrowder@elitetest.com14

10 Automotive EMC Considerations Prepare for testing by configuring a fully functional system that can be delivered to the test laboratory on the scheduled start date. Be sure to add time to make sure all of the wiring harnesses, support equipment, etc. are ready for the project start date. As a minimum the lab will need the following items: Certain specialized support equipment can be .

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