AUTOMOTIVE EMC TESTING - EMC & Environmental Stress .

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Feature ArticleAUTOMOTIVE EMC TESTING:CISPR 25, ISO 11452-2 AND EQUIVALENT STANDARDSEMC Standards and Chamber Testing for Automotive ComponentsAutomotive standards addressing electromagneticcompatibility (EMC) are developed mainlyby CISPR, ISO and SAE. CISPR and ISOare organizations that develop and maintain standardsfor use at the international level. SAE develops andmaintains standards mainly for use in North America.In the past, SAE developed many EMC standardswhich were eventually submitted to CISPR and ISOfor consideration as an international standard. As theSAE standards become international standards, theequivalent SAE standard is then withdrawn as aImage courtesy of ETS-Lindgren20Photo 1: Automotive test chamber using polystyrene absorbercomplete standard and reserved for use to documentdifferences from the international standard.Each vehicle manufacturer has internal corporatestandards that specify the levels and testing thatcomponents used in their vehicles must meet. Aswith the government standards, these documentsusually refer to the CISPR and ISO documents withdifferences in scope or test levels. In the past, a vehiclemanufacturer based in the U.S. referenced SAEdocuments in their corporate standards. Today most

IN COMPLIANCEGarth D’Abreu is the Director, Automotive Solutions at ETS-Lindgren.He can be reached at Garth.D’Abreu @ets-lindgren.com.Craig Fanning is the EMC Lab Manager at Elite Electronic Engineering.He can be reached at cfanning@elitetest.com.Ammar Sarwar is Application Engineer, EMEA for ETS-Lindgren.He can be reached at ammar.sarwar@ets-lindgren.com.By Garth D’Abreu, Craig Fanning and Ammar SarwarU.S. based vehicle manufacturers market worldwide.Therefore, they reference CISPR and ISO standards intheir internal corporate standard, and this is also truefor other established and emerging manufacturers.CISPR/D is responsible for developing andmaintaining the standards used to measure theemissions produced by vehicles and their components.ISO/TC22/SC32/WG3 is responsible for developingand maintaining the standards used for immunitytesting of vehicles and their components. ISOstandards for the vehicle industry are mainly brokeninto two categories, vehicle (ISO 11451-xx) orcomponent (ISO 11452-xx, ISO 7637-xx). Table 1(pages 22 and 23) provides an overview of the CISPRand ISO EMC standards for the automotive industry.As with the ISO EMC standards, SAE EMCstandards are mainly broken into two categories,vehicle (SAE J551-xx) and component (SAE J1113-xx).As can be seen in the notes of Table 1, many of theSAE standards are inactive because they have beenwithdrawn as complete standards and reserved foruse to document differences from the internationalstandards. Table 2 (page 24) does not show all theEMC standards related to automotive publishedby the SAE, but it gives an overview of the mainstandards and cross-references to the equivalentISO or CISPR document. Table 2 shows the mainSAE standards that are still active for both vehiclecomponents and vehicles.As with Table 1, Table 2 is not intended to show allthe different parts of the standard, but to show thecomplexity of the standard documents and the manyparts and methods that are covered under them.As mentioned above, government standards anddirectives in many cases refer to the CISPR or ISOmethods. 2004/104/EC, which surpassed 95/54 EC,is a European directive for vehicle EMC. Its sectionsrelated to automotive components follow thedirections given in the CISPR 25 document.CISPR 25 AND CISPR 12CISPR 12 deals with “radio disturbance characteristicsfor the protection of off-board receivers” [1]. CISPR25 deals with “radio disturbance characteristics forthe protection of receivers used on-board vehicles,boats and on devices” [2]. It is important to rememberthat CISPR 12 (the test methods and/or limits) iscommonly used for regulatory purposes. The regulatorybodies want to make sure that an item with aninternal combustion engine does not cause unwantedinterference with TV and radio reception when it drivespast (or is used nearby) a residence or business.CISPR 25 is not typically used for regulatory purposes,it is commonly used by the vehicle manufacturers toassure good performance of receivers mounted on-boardthe vehicle. If the radio mounted in the vehicle, boat orother device does not perform reliably, then consumersatisfaction and ultimately product sales could suffer.Both CISPR 12 and CISPR 25 deal with automobiles(vehicles which operate on land) powered by internalcombustion engines, boats (vehicles which operate onthe surface of water) powered by internal combustionengines, and devices powered by internal combustionengines (but not necessarily for the transport ofpeople). This last category includes compressors,chainsaws, garden equipment, etc. CISPR 12 wouldapply to all of these devices since they could affect theperformance of nearby (off-board) receivers. However,CISPR 25 should only be considered for itemswhich contain on-board receivers. As an example, achainsaw with an internal combustion engine (butwith no on-board receivers) would need to meet therequirements of CISPR 12, but CISPR 25 would notapply to this chainsaw since it does not utilize anyon-board receivers. 21Photo Jerry RamieFEBRUARY 2016

22 Feature ArticleDocumentNo.TitleTypeEquivalentTest SetupChamberRequirementISO-11451-1Road vehicles — Vehicle testmethods for electrical disturbancesfrom narrowband radiatedelectromagnetic energy — Part 1:General principles and terminologyN/ASAE J551/1DefinitionsN/AISO-11451-2Part 2: Off Vehicle Radiation SourcesRISAE J551-11(Note 1)Vehicle Radiated Immunity test ina anechoic chamberVehicle Absorberlined chamberISO-11451-3Part 3: On-board transmittersimulationRISAE J551-12(Note 2)Vehicle Absorber Lined ShieldedEnclosure (ALSE) is requiredVehicle Absorberlined chamberISO-11451-4Part 4: Bulk Current Injection (BCI)RISAE J551/13(Note 3)Test was designed for machinesand vehicles too large to fit in astandard vehicle EMCOutdoor Test Site(OTS) or VehicleAbsorber linedchamberISO-11452-1Road vehicles — Component testmethods for electrical disturbancesfrom narrowband radiatedelectromagnetic energy — Part 1:General principles and terminologyN/ASAE J1113/1DefinitionsN/AISO-11452-2Part 2: Absorber lined chamberRISAE J1113/21(Note 4)An absorber lined chamber isrequired. Antennas and fieldgenerator to cover the range arerequired. No need to scanAbsorber linedchamberISO-11452-3Part 3: Transverse electromagnetic(TEM) cellRISAE J1113/24(Note 5)TEM cellN/AISO-11452-4Part 4: Bulk current injectionRISAE J1113/4Radiated immunity using the BCImethodShielded roomISO-11452-5Part 5: StriplineRISAE J1113/23(Note 6)Radiated immunity using astriplineShielded roomISO-11452-7Part 7: Direct radio frequency (RF)power injectionRISAE J1113/3(Note 7)Conducted immunity test 250 kHzto 500 MHzBench orShielded roomISO-11452-8Part 8: Immunity to magnetic fieldsRISAE J1113/22(Note 8)Helmholtz coils are usedBench test; noshielded roomrequiredISO-11452-9Part 9: Portable transmittersRINoneSmall antennas are used inconjunction with amplifiersand signal sources to simulateportable transmittersAbsorber linedchamberISO-11452-10Part 10: Immunity to conducteddisturbances in the extended audiofrequency rangeCISAE J1113/2(Note 9)Conducted immunity test 15 Hzto 500 MHzBench test; noshielded roomrequiredISO-11452-11Part 11: Reverberation ChamberRISAE J1113/28(Note 10)Reverberation chamber – ModeTunedReverberationchamberISO 7637-1Road vehicles — Electricaldisturbances from conduction andcoupling — Part 1:Definitions and generalconsiderationsN/ASAE J1113/1DefinitionsN/AISO-7637-2Part 2: Electrical transientconduction along supply lines onlyCISAE J1113/11Conducted immunity to transientsas they are applied directly to thepower leads of the test item.Bench test; noshielded roomrequiredISO-7637-3Part 3: Electrical transienttransmission by capacitive andinductive coupling via lines otherthan supply linesCISAE J1113/12Conducted immunity to transientsas they are applied directly to theI/O lines of the test item.Bench test; noshielded roomrequired

FEBRUARY 2016IN COMPLIANCEISO-10605Road vehicles — Test methods forelectrical disturbances fromelectrostatic dischargeESDSAE J1113/13J551/15ESD testing performed on amodule on a bench or a vehiclein a temperature and humiditycontrolled environmentBench test; noshielded roomrequiredCISPR 12Vehicles, boats and internalcombustion engines – Radiodisturbance characteristics – Limitsand methods of measurement forthe protection of off-board receiversRESAE J551/2(Note 11)Vehicle Radiated EmissionsOTS or VehicleAbsorber linedchamberCISPR 25Vehicles, boats and internalcombustion engines – Radiodisturbancecharacteristics – Limits andmethods of measurement for theprotection ofon-board receiversRESAE J551/4(Note 12)Clause 5: Vehicle portion of thestandard. This is to measure theamount of noise generated by thevehicle will be induced into theon-board receiver antenna port.Vehicle Absorberlined chamberCISPR 25Vehicles, boats and internalcombustion engines – Radiodisturbancecharacteristics – Limits andmethods of measurement for theprotection ofon-board receiversCE &RESAE J1113/41(Note 13)Clause 6: Component (module)test section where conductedand radiated emissions aremeasured.Absorber linedchamberNote 1: SAE J551-11 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11451-2. At thepresent time J551-11 is not used.Note 2: SAE J551-12 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11451-3. At thepresent time J551-12 is not used.Note 3: SAE J551-13 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11451-4. At thepresent time J551-13 is not used.Note 4. SAE J1113-21 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11452-2. At thepresent time J1113-21 is not used.Note 5. SAE J1113-24 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11452-3. At thepresent time J1113-24 is not used.Note 6. SAE J1113-23 This standard has been withdrawn.Note 7. SAE J1113-3 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11452-7. At thepresent time J1113-3 is not used.Note 8. SAE J1113-22 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11452-8. At thepresent time J1113-22 is not used.Note 9. SAE J1113-2 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11452-10. At thepresent time J1113-2 is not used.Note 10. SAE J1113-28 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from ISO 11452-11. Atthe present time J1113-28 is not used.Note 11: SAE J551-2 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from CISPR 12. At thepresent time J551-2 is not used.Note 12: SAE J551-4 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from CISPR 25. At thepresent time J551-4 is not used.Note 13. SAE J1113-41 Withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from CISPR 25. At thepresent time J1113-41 is not used.Table 1: Some of the main CISPR and ISO EMC standards for the automotive industry 23

24 Feature ArticleCISPR 12 radiated emissions measurements aremade at either 3 meter or 10 meter test distances. Themeasurements are normally done on an outdoor testsite (OTS) or in an absorber lined shielded enclosure(ALSE) if the ALSE can be correlated to an OTS.Measurements for boats can also be made on theTypewater. The correlation of the ALSE to an OTS hasbeen a point of discussion over the past few yearswithin the group of experts who are responsible for themaintenance of CISPR 12. The specification currentlydoes not provide a method to achieve this correlation.A working group has been tasked with developing aEquivalentTest SetupChamberRequirementSAE Doc No.TitleSAE J551/1Performance Levels and Methodsof Measurement of ElectromagneticCompatibility of Vehicles, Boats (upto 15 m), and Machines (16.6 Hz to18 GHz)SAE J551/5Performance Levels and Methodsof Measurement of Magnetic andElectric Field Strength from ElectricVehicles, 150 kHz to 30 MHzRENone AtPresent.CISPR 36 iscurrently indevelopmentto cover RE 30 MHzon ElectricDrivenVehiclesVehicle ALSE is requiredAbsorber linedchamberSAE J551/15Vehicle Electromagnetic Immunity –Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)ESDISO-10605Clause 10ESD test at the vehicle levelwould not need a shieldedenclosure.No shieldedroom requiredSAE J551/16Electromagnetic Immunity - Off-Vehicle Source (Reverberation Chamber Method) - Part 16 - Immunity toRadiated Electromagnetic FieldsRINoneVehicle Sized ReverberationChamber is needed for this test.Method allows for the reverberation test along with a “hybrid testwhich utilizes direct illuminationand reverberation.Vehicle SizedReverberationChamberSAE J551/17Vehicle Electromagnetic Immunity Power Line Magnetic FieldsRINoneMagnetic Field RI testing at thevehicle level would not need ashielded enclosure.No shieldedroom requiredSAE J1113/1Electromagnetic Compatibilitymeasurement procedures and limitsfor vehicle components (exceptaircraft), 60 Hz-18 GHzN/AISO-11452-1DefinitionsN/ASAE J1113/4Immunity to radiated electromagnetic fields- bulk current injection(BCI) methodRIISO-11452-4Radiated immunity using the BCImethodShielded roomSAE J1113/11Immunity to conducted transientson power leadsCIISO-7637-2Conducted immunity to transientsBench test; noshielded roomrequiredSAE J1113/12Electrical interference by conductionand coupling - coupling clampCIISO-7637-3Conducted immunity to differentcoupling mechanismsBench test; noshielded roomrequiredSAE J1113/13Electromagnetic compatibility proce- ESDdure for vehicle components-immunity to electrostatic dischargeISO-10605ESD testing performed on abench in a temperature and humidity controlled environmentBench test; noshielded roomrequiredSAE J1113/27Immunity to radiated electromagnetic fields reverberation methodNoneReverberation chamber – Continuous StirredReverberationchamberSAE J551/1RITable 2: Some of the remaining active SAE automotive EMC standards

FEBRUARY 2016method to correlate the ALSE tothe OTS; however, we expect thisto take several more years and afterCISPR 12 7th Edition is published.CISPR 25 has two parts.One part deals with a fullvehicle or system test in whichthe antennas mounted on thevehicle are used to sense thenoise generated by the differentelectric and electronic systemsmounted on the same vehicle.This test shows how much noisegenerated by the vehicle will beintroduced into the radios antennaport (sort of a self-immunitytest). The other section of thestandard deals with conducted andradiated measurements of vehiclecomponents and modules. In thisarticle, we are going to concentrateon the module radiated emissionstest section of CISPR 25, andonly briefly highlight some ofthe additions needed to supportelectric vehicles. More specifically,this article will concentrate on thechamber requirements forthe standard.CISPR 25 states that theelectromagnetic noise level in thetest area has to be 6 dB lower thanthe lowest level being measured.Some of the radiated emissionslimits found in CISPR 25 are aslow as 18 dB (μV/m). This meansthat the ambient noise must be12 dB (μV/m) maximum for acompliant environment. An RFshielded room is typically used tokeep RF signals from the externalenvironment out of the test areaso that the equipment under test(EUT) remains the dominantsource of any radiated interference.Although the shielded room is toosmall to support resonant modesat low frequencies, the number ofmodes increases with frequencyIN COMPLIANCEfrequencies, so no significantresonant behaviour appears. Thestandard therefore concentrates onabsorber performance at 70 MHzand above. The standard requiresthat the absorber used must havebetter than -6 dB absorption atnormal incidence. To achievethese levels, there are several typesof absorber technology on themarket today.Figure 1: A shielded room blocks the noisefrom outdoor sources of EM interferenceabove the cut off of the chamber.When these resonant modesappear, they can add significanterror to the measurements. Toreduce these errors, the shieldedroom covered with RF absorbermaterial on its ceiling and interiorwalls, greatly supresses internalreflections so that the dominantcoupling path is between the EUTand measurement antenna.CISPR 25 in its current version(Ed 3:2008) covers a frequencyrange of 150 kHz to 2.5 GHzand to date absorber technologyis unable to provide appreciableabsorption at levels downin the 150 kHz range. Onebeneficial consequence of thelow measurement frequency isthe fact that the chamber sizesare electrically small at these lowOne of the most efficient andcost effective is a polystyrenebased absorber that combines ahigh-performance ferrite tile witha polystyrene EMC absorber,having 60cm x 60cm base and60cm height. The main absorbersubstrate is based on expandedpolystyrene (EPS), which isvolumetrically loaded with lossymaterials, and environmentallyfriendly fire retardants.Advanced uniform loading in themanufacturing process resultsin superior RF performance anexcellent absorption uniformity.The closed cell structure ofthis type of absorber makesit suitable for use even inhigh humidity environments.These features all contribute toproviding for a better controlledand predictable chamber testenvironment. Figure 2 presentsthe performance of one type ofhybrid polystyrene absorber.Figure 2: Typical performance of polystyrene absorber 25

26 Feature ArticleAn alternative polyurethane absorber typically 36inches (1m) in depth, EHP 36, can be used withimproved high frequency performance due largely tothe increased material length. But, without the benefitof the matching ferrite material used in the hybrid, thepolyurethane only absorber suffers from reduced lowfrequency performance. Figure 3 shows the typicalperformance of this material and its compliance withthe CISPR 25 limit.The layout and dimensions of thetypical CISPR 25 anechoic chamberis guided by the standard.The layout and dimensions of the typical CISPR25 anechoic chamber is guided by the standard.Several guidelines must be followed when sizingthe chamber and the starting point is the EUT,which is determines the size of the test bench.Figure 4 shows a typical test bench used in aCISPR 25 and ISO 11452-2 type chamber.As Figure 4 shows, the bench must accommodatethe largest EUT and all the cables that are needed topower and communicate with the device. The cablesare routed in a cable harness that is positioned alongthe front edge of the bench. The cable harness itselfis a significant component of the EUT and is themain component illuminated by the measurementantenna since at lower frequencies (frequencies forwhich the device under test is electrically small) themain coupling to radiated fields will occur throughthe cables feeding the device. This same procedureis used in MIL STD 461 [3] and in ISO 11452 [4]and as shown in the illustration, a line impedancestabilization network is used to provide a definedimpedance for the power to the device.Figure 5 shows how the size of the bench isdetermined. The ground plane bench must extend allthe way to the shield and in most cases, it is groundedto the wall of the shielded room. The standard,however, does permit the bench to be grounded to thefloor as an alternative.Figure 3: Typical performance of 36” polyurethane absorber materialFigure 4: A typical conductive test benchAs defined in CISPR 25, the minimum width of thereference ground plane (bench) for radiated emissionsshall be 1000 mm, the minimum length of the groundplane for radiated emissions shall be 2000 mm, orthe length needed to support the entire EUT plus200 mm, whichever is larger.The minimum overall dimensions of the compliantchamber are determined by a series

AUTOMOTIVE EMC TESTING: CISPR 25, ISO 11452-2 AND EQUIVALENT STANDARDS EMC Standards and Chamber Testing for Automotive Components A utomotive standards addressing electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are developed mainly by CISPR, ISO and SAE. CISPR and ISO are organizations that develop and maintain standards for use at the international level. SAE develops and maintains standards mainly for .

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