Automotive EMC Testing – The Challenges Of Testing Battery .

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Automotive EMC Testing –The Challenges Of Testing Battery SystemsFor Electric And Hybrid VehiclesPresented by:James Muccioli - Jastech EMC Consulting, LLCAuthored by:James Muccioli - Jastech EMC Consulting, LLCDales Sanders - Jastech EMC Consulting, LLCSteve English - TUV SUD America1

Automotive EMC Testing –The Challenges Of Testing Battery SystemsFor Electric And Hybrid VehiclesThe focus of this presentation is to share the challenges and flexibilitythat a test facility needs to address in order to accommodate OEMapproved Test Plans and development testing.Part 1 - Defining the Test Methodology using System EngineeringPresented by: James MuccioliPart 2 - Test Laboratory Practical ImplementationPresented by: Dale Sanders2

Hybrid / Electric VehiclesadvertisementToyota PriusChevrolet VoltFord Fusion HybridCoda AutomotiveVolkswagen JettaNissan Leaf3

Hybrid / Electric EnginesNorth American International Auto Show 2011Pictures courtesy of Dale Sanders4

Nissan Leaf Battery PackThe Nissan Leaf battery packconsists of 48 modules.5

Ford Battery PackNorth American International Auto Show 2011Pictures courtesy of Dale Sanders6

GM Volt Battery PackClose-up of battery cells in the ChevyVolt battery pack.The battery pack is T-shaped, and runs thelength of the car underneath the center of thecar and then Ts underneath the rear seats.7

GM Volt Battery Pack8

Electric Charging StationsNorth American International Auto Show 2011Pictures courtesy of Dale Sanders9

What is new to EMC testing?We are not just testing a battery module, but an EnergyStorage System.The paradigm shift is moving to complete EMC system leveltesting from module or component level testing.The Energy Storage System can be designed with thefollowing modules:1.Battery control module2.3.4.5.DC to DC convertor moduleInternal battery chargerInternal battery cooling moduleOther modules10

Writing an EMC Test PlanThe person writing an EMC Test Plan must understandthree things about the Device Under Test (DUT) orSystem Under Test (SUT).1. What EMC standards should the SUT be tested to and how do theyapply to the test setup?2. What are the operating states of the SUT to be tested?3. What are the conditions when an RF field is applied or measured thatdetermines a pass or failure criteria for the SUT?11

Big “V” System Engineering ModelConcept ofOperationsSystemValidationSystem Validation PlanSystemRequirementsSystemVerificationSystem Verification on PlanModuleTest dware / SoftwareDevelopmentDocument / ApprovalDevelopment Process Time LineValidation is confirming that a product or service meets the requirements.Verification is process for quantifying and accepting the requirements.12

System Engineering ProcessCoordinate and Iterate as Required2. IdentifySource ofRequirements1. BoundSystem forEMC3. Discover &UnderstandRequirements5. SelectBestSolution6. ValidateBestSolution4. CreateAlternatives13

Systems Engineering Approach to EMCDescriptionBefore discussing the process for developing good requirements, some important definitions must beestablished:System: a set of components acting together to achieve a set of common objectives via theaccomplishment of a set of tasks.System Behavior: a sequence of functions or tasks, with inputs and outputs, that must be performedto achieve a specific objective.Requirement: mandates that something must be accomplished, transformed, produced, or provided.The attributes of a good requirement are that it is unambiguous, understandable, traceable, correct,concise, unique and verifiable.Traceable: in reference to requirements; a requirement is said to be traceable if one can identify itssource. The source may be a higher level requirement or a source document defining its existence. Anexample would be if a component level requirement (weight, reliability) is traceable back to a vehiclelevel requirement.Operational Concept: an operational concept is a shared vision from the perspective of the users anddevelopment participants of how the system will be developed, produced, deployed, trained, operated,maintained, refined and retired to meet the operational needs and objectives.14

Bounding the SystemObjectModelsComponent ModelsC1C33.1Source Requirements3.23.3Step 2Bounding the SystemSystem ObjectivesOperations ConceptC2C4Step 3Behavior ModelsStep 1System nComponentSpecificationBest SolutionTestPlansStep 4AlternativesInterfaceControlDocument(ICD)Step 6Step 515

Step 1 - Bound System for EMCFrom: www.Hybrid.gov16

Step 1 - Bound System for EMCTypical Hybrid Electric Powertrain with InverterEnergy Storage SystemInternalbatterychargerBatterycontrolmoduleDC to DCconvert moduleBatteriesInternal battery cooling moduleNote: EMC08 EMC08-WS FR WS FR-AM AM-5-6 IEEE EMC 2008 August; “Overview ofComponent Level EMC Characteristics Overview of Component Level EMCCharacteristics for HEV application”17

Step 2-3 - Identify, Discover & Understand Requirements2. IdentifySource ofRequirementsIdentify Source of Requirements:North America, Asia, and Europe Module EMC standardsMilitary standardsDiscover & Understand Requirements:3. Discover &UnderstandRequirementsRadiated RF EmissionsConducted RF EmissionsRF ImmunityMagnetic Field ImmunityPower Cycling & Transient ImmunityElectrostatic DischargeHow do these requirements change for an Energy Storage System?18

Things to Consider in Testing a SystemIf the vehicle supplies the loads, charging, and regenerativecharging from braking to the Energy Storage System: What would be required to mimic the vehicle interactions whentesting the system? How would this system level testing affect the test time requiredwhen running through the different modes of operation? If the testing is not done at the system level first, what will be theimpact to the number of vehicles required for verification (notvalidation) at the vehicle level?Note:Validation is confirming that a product or service meets the requirements.Verification is process for quantifying and accepting the requirements.19

Things that must be Addressed in Test PlanDue to the increased complexity of the Energy StorageSystem, the following items need to be addressed withthe test lab and documented in the test plan: Will the test lab have the capability for increased monitoring of thevarious modules in the system during testing? What additional equipment is needed to simulate sensors, loads,data bus, etc. of the vehicle operation of the System Under Test?www.hybridextrication.com20

Radiated RF Emissions & ImmunityThe second thing to consider in performing a radiatedemission or immunity test is how to place the high and lowvoltage wiring harness for the Energy Storage System. Test the low voltage wiring harness, no power to high voltage.Test the high voltage wiring harness, no power to low voltage.Test with power to both high and low voltage wiring harnesses.Test with power to both high and low voltage wiring harnesses, butshield high voltage wiring harness.Other possible modes.Energy Storage SystemLoadHarness low voltageHarness high voltage21

Radiated RF Emissions & ImmunityWhen testing a system for EMC, the test plan must address theminimum dimensions of the test setup.In writing the test plan, youneed to collaborate withyour test lab to meet thefollowing requirements: Will the system fit on theground plane?Is the spacing for theantenna in the front andback still adequate?How will the system beplaced on the ground plane?Does the system meet theminimum setbacks from theedge of the ground plane?IEC CISPR 25 Edition 3.0 2008-322

Radiated RF Emissions & ImmunityWhen performing a radiated emission or immunity test with a specifiedwiring harness length, the antenna is typically centered on the wiringharness. However, the Energy Storage System length can be thesame size or larger and some EMC specifications require you tocenter the antenna on the wiring harness or the DUT or both.Energy Storage SystemLoadHarness1 meterAntenna1 meter3 metersAntennaAntenna23

Conducted RF EmissionsConducted RF Emissions from an Energy Storage System can bedivided into two parts: high and low voltage. For the low voltage, EMC standards use a LISN to provide the DUTsupply lines with repeatable and repetitive RF impedance over thedesigned frequency range tested. When testing high voltage supply lines to the DUT, the test planneeds to define what LISN to use and how to accommodate theshielded or non-shielded lines to the LISN.What is a Line Impedance Stabilization Network?CISPR 25 A low pass filter placed between the power supply and the DUT. Provides the DUT supply line with a repeatable and repetitive RF impedance over the designed frequency range. Conveys the DUT generated RF noise on the supply line to the 50 Ω measuring equipment.24

Conducted RF EmissionsHigh Voltage Automotive EMC Component MeasurementsUsing an Artificial NetworkStandard 12V CISPR 25 LISN Measures DM voltage: 150 kHz Vout 100-200 MHz 1 uF on return generally shorted LISN defined to represent system impedances Generally no shieldingExample HV Automotive LISN Setup Measures CM voltage, generally between inner conductor and shield 1 uF generally much larger than HV cable shield capacitance 5 uH generally much larger than coaxial cable inductance Shielding termination not definedhttp://www.ansoft.com/firstpass/pdf/High Voltage Automotive EMC Component Measurements.pdf25

Conducted RF EmissionsHigh Voltage Automotive EMC Component MeasurementsUsing an Artificial Networkhttp://www.ansoft.com/firstpass/pdf/High Voltage Automotive EMC Component Measurements.pdf26

Magnetic Field ImmunityWhen writing a test plan for an Energy Storage System, one mustconsider how the magnetic fields will affect the system.Below are some items which should be addressed:1.Which sensors will be affected by the magnetic fields?2.How will this affect the way the system reacts working normally?3.Should the system have the high voltage and current lines workingduring testing to see if the added fields affect the contactors openingand closing?4.How will the plastic or metal enclosure affect the paths for themagnetic fields?5.How are the high current lines routed in the Energy Storage Systemnear the magnetic field sensors, and is this representative ofproduction intent?27

Power Cycling & Transient ImmunityWhen testing the Energy Storage System for transientimmunity and power cycling, one of the mostimportant things to consider is how to monitor thesystem and what standards apply.Below are a few items which need to be addressed in the test plan:1.Use the diagnostic bus to monitor the multiple interfaces to thedifferent modules in the system, provided the software will capturethe anomalies.2.Will the sensors be affected by the transients and give bad data tothe system?3.Define a way to monitor the contactors on the high voltage side totell if they are truly open or closed.4.Define where a DVM must be used to measure the voltage andcurrent at different places in the system before and after the test.28

Electrostatic Discharge Bench Test Due to having multiple modules in the Energy StorageSystem, where should the ESD test points be located? How should the test plan be specified using the resistivemat and bleed off resistor? Should the sheet metal of the vehicle body be part of thebench testing?29

System Engineering ProcessCoordinate and Iterate as Required2. IdentifySource ofRequirements1. BoundSystem forEMC3. Discover &UnderstandRequirements5. SelectBestSolution6. ValidateBestSolution4. CreateAlternatives30

SummaryIn order to meet the requirements for verificationand validation of the Energy Storage System, awell defined Test Plan is Required!ConceptofOperationsSystemValidationSystem Validation PlanSystemRequirementsSystemVerificationSystem Verification fication(SFS)SystemRequirementsSpecification(SRS) on PlanModuleTest PlanHardware / ocument / ApprovalFor more information and technical papers go to: http://www.Jastech-emc.com31

IN-HOUSE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION COURSES Applying the Systems Engineering 7 Step Process EMC Shielding on Hybrid and Electric VehiclesContact:Sandra HinesMichigan EngineeringInterdisciplinary Professional Programs2401 Plymouth Road, Suite A,Ann Arbor MI 48105-2193(734) 647-717632

Automotive EMC Testing – The Challenges Of Testing Battery Systems For Electric And Hybrid Vehicles Presented by: James Muccioli - Jastech EMC Consulting, LLC. Authored by: James Muccioli - Jastech EMC Consulting, LLC. Dales Sanders - Jastech EMC Consulting, LLC. Steve English - TUV SUD America. 2 Part 1 - Defining the Test Methodology using System Engineering. Presented by: James Muccioli .

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