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Automotive EMC testing with Keysight11/7/2018Jon KinneyRF/uW Applications Engineer

How to evaluate EMI emissions with aspectrum/signal analyzer ?Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 2

Getting started – Basic termsEMI, EMS, EMCEMIToday, Wefocushere !EMCEMSKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 3

Why bother?EMI ComplianceEMC evaluation is along with your product NPI cycleEMI PrecomplianceEMITroubleshooting Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 4

Agenda– EMI pre-compliance measurement overview– Keysight EMI solutions– Emerging instrumentation in automotive labsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 5

Agenda– EMI pre-compliance measurement overview– Keysight EMI solutions– Emerging instrumentation in automotive labsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 6

What is EMI?Electromagnetic Interference– EMI is disturbance that affects anelectrical circuit due to eitherelectromagnetic conduction orelectromagnetic radiation emittedfrom an external source– EMI emissions can be well captured by aspectrum analyzer– A spectrum analyzer tells you the frequency,power, and other important properties of anEMI dImmunityConductedImmunityKeysight EMI Solutions11/7/2018Page 7

Conducted Emissions9 kHz – 30 Provide ACpower for DUTCapture interferencesignal for EMI receiver /spectrum analyzerLimiterDUTSpectrum analyzer / EMI receiverKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 8

Conducted Emissions Test SetupTable: Surface area 1.5 * 1 m 2 Height 0.8 m A metal grounding panel must be placedon the surface of the tableGrounding panel: Size 2*2 m 2 0.5 m margin against the other setupson the table Must connect to the ground Ground resistance 2 ohmCompliance test needs be done in ashielded roomKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 9

Accessories of EMI testingLISN: Line ImpedanceStabilization NetworkCurrent injection probeClose Field Probe Set:Diagnostics antennasEM-ClampKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 10

Radiated Emissions Setup1 to 4 mabove groundplaneTest in vertical andhorizontal position3, 10 or 30 Meter distanceEUTSignal Analyzer/EMI ReceiverGround PlaneThe goal is to find and record the maximum emissions from the EUT by rotating theturn table, changing the polarity and the height of the antenna.Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 11

Accessories of EMI testingLog Periodic Antenna:200 to 1000 MHzBiconical Antenna:30 to 300 MHzHybrid log periodicBroadband30 MHz to 2 GHzDouble ridged horn antennas18 GHz or even higherTripods: used to raise andlower antennasRotating Table:To rotate EUT for testingEUT: Equipment Under Test, same as Device Under Test (DUT)Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 12

About antenna factor (AF)Very important in EMI measurement– AF is defined as the ratio of the electric field strength to the voltage induced across theterminals of an antenna.– Think of it as a “correction factor” for a given receiver– For an electronic field antenna (V/m, or µV/m): Expressed in linear quantity: AF Expressed in log quantity: AF 𝐸(1/meter)𝑉 E dBμV/m – V dBμV– For a magnetic field antenna (A/m): AF 9.37ൗλ 𝐺G: the antenna gainKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 13

EMI Measurement VideoKeysight EMI Solutions14

Pre-compliance vs. CompliancePre-compliance testingCompliance TestPurposeTo increase the confidence level at finalcompliance testTo achieve certificates (e.g. C-tick, CE, UL, KC, CCC,FCCOverallNot identical to, but can simulate thestandard procedure as much as possibleMust follow the standard procedurePhysical setuprequirementsCan be done in house, throughout thedesign processMust be done in test house (for certification)Can be done in a shielded room, or anopen areaMust be in an anechoic chamberEMI receiver or spectrum analyzerMust use an EMI receiverSimplified test setupMust use standard test setupCostMuch less expensive, and quick turnaroundVery expensive and time consumingResultWill report an EMI riskWill report an EMI failureAble to track to the interference sourcewith a NF probeCannot tell where the failure comes fromKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 15

CISPR 16-1-1 Compliant ReceiverA CISPR 16-1-1 receiver must have the following functionality in the range 9 kHz - 18 GHz:– A normal /- 2 dB absolute accuracy– CISPR-specified resolution bandwidths (-6 dB)– Peak, quasi-peak, EMI average, and RMS average detectors– Specified input impedance with a nominal value of 50 ohms; deviations specified asVSWR– Be able to pass product immunity in a 3 V/m field– Be able to pass the CISPR pulse test (implies pre-selector below 1 GHz)– Other specific harmonic and intermodulation requirementsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 16

Theory of OperationEnvelope DetectorBefore detectorAfter detectorEnvelopeDetectorKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 17

EnvelopeDetectorTheory of OperationEnvelope Detector and Detection TypesDigitally Implemented Detection TypesBins/Buckets(Sweep Points)Positive Detection: largest valuein bin displayedNegative detection: smallest valuein bin displayedSample detection: middle value inbin displayedOther Detectors: Normal(Rosenfell), Average (RMS Power)Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 18

EnvelopeDetectorTheory of OperationAverage Detector TypeVoltsPositive PeakDetectionbinxxSampleDetectionxNegative PeakDetectionTimePower Average Detection (rms): Square root of the sum of thesquares of ALL of the voltage data values in the bin divided by 50ΩKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 19

About quasi-peak detection– There are three commonly used detection modes for making EMImeasurements, including peak, average, and quasi-peak detection.– Why use Quasi-peak detection? Used for CISPR based measurements. Weights signals as a function of repetition rate. Lower repetition rate noise has less “annoyance factor” and thus getsless emphasis CISPR bandwidth: 200 Hz, 9 kHz, and 120kHz bandwidth.Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 20

Detection ModesPeak Quasi-Peak AverageKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 21

Agenda– EMI pre-compliance measurement overview– Keysight EMI solutions– Emerging instrumentation in automotive labsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 22

Keysight Analyzers– Pre-compliance X series Analyzers– Compliance EMI receiver- N9000B CXA- N9010B EXA- N9020B MXA- N9030B PXA- N9040B UXA N934xC Handheld AnalyzerKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 23

The new PXE EMI Receiver series enables you to makeradiated and conducted emissions tests, certifying that aproduct meets local regulatory compliance standards. Determine if product meets localEMC standards Diagnose causes for compliancefailures Troubleshoot product’s emissionproblem areasKeysight New PXE EMI Receiver24

New RF Pre-Selector & LNA Design Three frequency ranges Enables you to tune out multiplefrequencies and image responses whileimproving dynamic range Amplify your signal of interest withoutadding noise 2 Hz – 3.6 GHz 2 Hz – 8.4 GHz 2 Hz – 26.5 GHz Fully CISPR Compliant Most CompetitiveSensitivity in the WorldCISPR bandwidths (6dBand impulse BW) Quasi-Peak, EMI-Avg and RMS-Avg detectors Fully MIL-STD-461 Compliant 6dB bandwidthsPeak detectorKeysight New PXE EMI Receiver25

10.6 inch multi-touch screensimplifies measurement setupAuto-detect peaksRegulatory agencylimit lines. Failed signalsappear in redPeak ListInput 22 Hz to 1 GHzSurge protected to 2 kW(built-in limiter)Real-timeMeters with any 3SimultaneousDetectorsLimit DeltaKeysight EMI SolutionsNavigate the interfaceand help system usingthe front-panel keys, or amouse and keyboardInput 12 Hz to 3.6/8.4/26.5 GHz26

Keysight Software– Keysight Spectrum Analyzers have 2 EMI software applications N6141x (EMI Measurement Application) and Option EMCKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 27

Option EMCProvides the essential capabilities on EMI interference analysisOption EMC provides: CISPR 16-1-1 (2010) fullycompliant detectors CISPR band presets to 18 GHz Measure at marker with threedetectors Tune and listen for signaldiscriminationOne-button EMI presetsMeasurement parameters setaccording to CISPR bandsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 28

Option EMC (cont.)Measure at marker with 3 detectors simultaneouslyMeasure at marker withthree detectors: Peak Quasi-peak EMI averageKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 29

Built-in CISPR and MiL-STD limit lineA list of commercial limits for recallingKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 30

RBWs for CISPR & MILCommercial (CISPR)Military (MIL-STD-461)BandsFrequency rangeCISPR RBWFrequency rangeRBWA9 – 150 kHz200 Hz30 Hz – 1 kHz10 HzB150 kHz – 30 MHz9 kHz1 – 10 kHz100 HzC30 – 300 MHz120 kHz10 – 150 kHz1 kHzD300 MHz – 1 GHz120 kHz150 kHz – 30 MHz10 kHzE1 – 18 GHz1 MHz30 MHz – 1 GHz100 kHzAbove 1 GHz1 MHzKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 31

N6141x EMI measurement applicationRuns inside signal analyzerEMI precompliance test capabilities: Built-in CISPR and Mil-STD compliant BW,detectors and band presetsAutomated testing to regulatory limit lines withuser-selected marginsAmplitude corrections for antennas, LISNs, NFprobes, etcMeasurement features: 3 simultaneous detectors (Peak, Quasi-peak,Average)Built-in signal list tracking those noncompliance emissionsStrip chart for analysis of emissions versustimeSupports precompliance “Click” measurementsFollows CISPR 16-1-1 reference work flowKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 3232

Reference work flow:Instrument Setup Scan Peak search MeasureSetupScanFrequency rangeY axis unitRBW, VBWEdit from PCsoftware for: Limit file Amplitudecorrection fileWith peakdetector Load limit Limit test withPass/FailindicatorIf failed PeaksearchMeasurePut markers onthose failedpointsKeysight EMI SolutionsUse Quasipeak detectorPage 33

N6141x Measurement procedureStep 1. Set up the scan table12Press [Meas Setup] {Scan table} to configurethe measurement range, aswell as other parameters, ifneededThe X-series signalanalyzer will set the EMImeasurement parametersaccording to the scan tableautomaticallyKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 34

N6141x Measurement procedureStep 2. Load limit line. Load correction data.12 Press [Recall] {Limit} to load a predefined limit filePress [Recall] {Correction} to load apre-defined correction fileTo edit a correction, press [Input/Output] {Correction}, tomanually edit correction dataKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 35

N6141x Measurement procedureStep 3. Scan, search, and measureStrip chart lets you viewsignals over a long timeperiod to identify widelyspaced discontinuitiesCapturing out oflimit emissionsand list them intothe table belowMeasure each point with 3detectors simultaneously,also shows theirdeviations from the limitKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 36

Agenda– EMI pre-compliance measurement overview– Keysight EMI solutions– Emerging instrumentation in automotive labsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 37

Who has used a Vector Network Analyzer?Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 38

RF Immunity: FMC1278 RI 115Test SetupRI 115 simulates near-field electromagnetic field exposure from cellular transmittersand covers the frequency range from 360 to 2700 MHz.Prior to testing, characterization of testsetup shall be performed in accordancewith the procedures delineated in AnnexC. The characterization will determine theforward power required to generate thespecified net power.Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 39

Annex C (Normative): RI 115 Characterization Procedures Facilitates accurate delivery of net power to the transmit antenna. Procedure is based on ISO 11451-3, but considers the effects of mismatchlosses that if not controlled will impact the accuracy of the net power.ISSUE:The equations for forward/reflected power neglect the effect of mismatch losseswhich can impact the net power if not controlled. To assure accurate delivery of thenet power to the transmit antenna, all transmission and mismatch losses must bemanaged or accounted for.Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 40

Annex C (Normative): RI 115 Characterization ProceduresNote:Differences between EMC-CS-2009.1 (FEB10)and FMC1278 (JUL15): New Characterizationprocedure presented in Annex C. Requires useof vector or scalar network analyzer.Test ParametersLimits @ RI 115Frequencies (360 MHzto 2700 MHz)C.1 Directional CouplerParameter VerificationC.1.1 VSWR andTransmissionLossMeasurement VSWR 1.3 Insertion Loss (DC) 0.5 dBC.1.2 VSWR andForward CouplingFactorMeasurement VSWR 1.3 Forward CouplingFactor (CFF) 20 dBC.1.3 VSWR andReflectedCoupling FactorMeasurement VSWR 1.3 Reverse CouplingFactor (CFF) 20 dBC.2 SBA AntennaReflection CoefficientMeasurementC.3 RF ComponentVSWR Verification VSWR 1.3C.4 Characterization ofVSWR and TransmissionLoss for theCoupler/AntennaInterconnect VSWR 1.3 ofrespectiveconnections Transmission loss (T1) 4 dBKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 41

Annex C (Normative): RI 115 Characterization ProceduresKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 42

Annex C (Normative): RI 115 Characterization ProceduresKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 43

Annex C (Normative): RI 115 Characterization ProceduresKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 44

Keysight VNA PortfolioIndustry’s Broadest Price/Performance ChoicesPNA-X (N524XB),NVNAMost advanced & flexibleMicrowave NAMeet strict amplitudePNA (N522XB)accuracy requirementHigh-performance MicrowaveNAPNA-L (N523XB)Economy Microwave NAE5080AThe next-generation ENAPNA FamilyReach for unrivaled excellence300 k to 1.1 THzE5071C, E5072AE5061B, E5063AHigh-performance RF NANA ZA in one-boxLow cost RF NAPXI VNADrive down the size of test300 k to 26.5 GHzENA SeriesDrive down the cost of test5 Hz to 20 GHzFieldFoxCarry precision withyou30 k to 50 GHzPNA-X Receiver8530A AntennaReplacementmm-wave SolutionUp to 1.1 THzKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 45

Industry ChallengeH I G H F R E Q U E N C Y A N D W I D E B A N D W I D T H S F O R H I G H D AT A T H R O U G H P U T5G Industry DriversMassive growth indemand for mobiledataMove to cm & mmWave for more bandwidth0102030405060708090Radar Industry Drivers100GHzDesign and measurement challengesNeed for higherresolution requireswider bandwidthChallenging very wideband mmWave measurements Phase noise, IQ & freq response errors worse at mmW Wide bandwidth means more noise, more spurs, worseEVMKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 46

InsightsAllocated Frequency BandsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 47

Who is working on StandardsETSI – European Telecommunications Standards Institute**Out of band emissions requires testing up to 3x themaximum operating frequency81 GHz x 3 243 GHz!Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 48

How do we achieve mmWave measurements?UpconverterFilterRadar ModuleUUT / DUTAttenuatorAmplifierDownconverter/Smart MixerKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 49

Wrap upEMI basics and EMI measurement Which standard(s) to follow? Depends on what, where, and how of product (Generally, startfrom CISPR 25 for automobiles) The conducted and radiated emissions can be captured and analyzed with a spectrumanalyzer and corresponding accessories Keysight spectrum analyzers help you on EMI pre-compliance testUnderstand the compromises/value in the precompliance scanningIt cannot duplicate the final compliance test, but it can tell you the EMI trend and the change oftrend in your deviceKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 50

Back upKeysight EMI Solutions51

EMC standardsFrom international to commercialEMC StandardsCategories:IECCISPRBasic ional Provide general andfundamental rules Serve as a reference but notapplicable to specific productsFCCGeneric Standards Provide essential testrequirements and procedure ina specific environment Also provide limitsGBETS/ENProduct Standards Apply to specific products orfamilies of products Provides test procedures andlimits for these productsKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 52

Emissions regulationsComparison of regulatory agency requirements25Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 53

Emissions regulations in USFCC regulatory agency requirements9 kHz – 30 MHzNote:FCC part 15 states that any digital device which uses timing pulses (clocks) in excess of 9kHz, must not unintentionallyemit radiation over certain limits. This testing is required up to the 5th harmonic of the fastest clock but less than 40 GHz.For example, a computer or radio with a 1.2 GHz processor must meet FCC Class B limits up to 6 GHz.FCC Part 18 requires devices that operate (transmit) from 30 MHz to above 1Ghz test to 10th Harmonic, examples:250 MHz 10th harmonic: 2.5 GHz500 MHz 10th harmonic: 5.0 GHz1.0 GHz 10th harmonic: 10 GHz2.4 GHz 10th harmonic: 24 GHzKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 54

Source of EMIFrom Natural power: thunder; volcano, typhoon electrostatic discharge sun, outer space From Man-made Unintentional: Switching power supplies Switching frequencies and harmonics Load-dependent emissions Clock and Data High speed clocks, data, edges High speed interfaces Switching controls From Man-made Intentional: Broadcasting, cellular communication Radar, GPS Wireless charging Keysight EMI SolutionsPage 55

About Antenna typeCommercial electronicsAutomotive electronicsMilitaryFrequency range30 MHz – 1 GHz10 kHz – 1 GHz10 kHz – 18 GHzAntenna typeBiconicalLog periodicBiconicalLog periodicWhip antennaWhip antennaBiconical喇叭天线Log periodic antennaBiconical antennaHorn antennaWhip antennaKeysight EMI SolutionsPage 56

Recommended design practicesKeysight EMI Solutions11/7/2018Page 57

Recommended Design Practices:Device Selection Use lowest clock speed possible. Use multiple clock oscillators instead of routing clock lines whenever possible. Use minimum acceptable rise-time parts. Use low-ESR , low - ESL capacitors for decoupling/filtering. Use multilayer PCBs whenever possible. Always use toroidal transformers in switching power supplies. Watch out for DC saturation of ferrites in power supply lines. Use SMT parts whenever possible. Avoid IC sockets whenever possible. Avoid using ribbon cables for data or clock signals. Keep cables as short as possible.58Keysight EMI SolutionsPage

Recommended Design Practices:PCB layout Segment board to separate high-frequency logic from low-frequency I/O as much as possible. Always route lines over ground/power plane "bridges" over segmentation "moats". The width of the bridges should extend at least 2 tracewidths past outside traces. Ground the PCB to a metal plate parallel to it in a 2" grid. The ground plate should be as close to the PCB as possible, and should lip up tobe higher than the PCB on the sides. The plate itself should be either the base of the enclosure or single-point grounded near the safety("green-wire") ground attachment point. If a 2-layer board is used, fill one side with ground as much as possible, and eliminate as much trace work from that side as possible. Place decoupling capacitors as close to the IC Vcc and GND pins as possible -even on analog parts - we have seen Hall-effect sensor IC'soscillate at 40 MHz when no decoupling was used ! Filters should always be place as close to the end of the trace as possible. I/O connector filters must go as close to the I/O port as possible; avoid ground planes between a common-mode filter and the connector itis filtering - the ground plane should stop at the circuit side of the CM choke. Buss lines, clock lines, and other periodic lines should be routed on layers adjacent to inner plane layers. Slower and low-susceptibilitylines should be routed on outer layers. Always route clocks first and lock them. Avoid placing other lines within 2 trace widths of a clock line Ferrites and other filters should be reviewed to see if shapes can be used to allow replacement of the series elements with 0-ohm resistorsat the prototype stage. Whenever possible, 45-degree bends should be used at corners. Minimize vias (connections between layers on a PCB). Do not route clock traces along edges of PCB or PCB segments. Allow at least 2 trace widths between edge-most trace and outside edge of power-plane. Treat Read/Write traces as clock traces.59Keysight EMI SolutionsPag

Automotive EMC testing with Keysight Jon Kinney RF/uW Applications Engineer 11/7/2018. Page How to evaluate EMI emissions with a spectrum/signal analyzer ? Keysight EMI Solutions 2 . Page Getting started –Basic terms Keysight EMI Solutions EMI, EMS, EMC 3 EMI EMS EMC Today, We focus here ! Page Why bother? EMC evaluation is along with your product NPI cycle 4 EMI Troubleshooting EMI Pre .

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