WORKING PAPER 2016-18Automotive ThermalManagement TechnologyAuthor: Sean Osborne, Dr. Joel Kopinsky, and Sarah Norton (The ITB Group); Andy Sutherland, David Lancaster, andErika Nielsen (BorgWarner); Aaron Isenstadt and John German (ICCT)Date: 21 September 2016Keywords: Passenger vehicles, advanced technologies, fuel-efficiency, thermal management, technology innovationIn 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) andthe Department of Transportation’s National Highway TrafficSafety Administration (NHTSA) finalized a joint rule establishing new greenhouse gas and fuel economy standardsfor vehicles.1 The standards apply to new passenger carsand light-duty trucks, model years 2012 through 2021. Amid-term review of the 2022–2025 standards is in progressand will be finished in 2018.Assuming the fleet mix remains unchanged, the standardsrequire these vehicles to meet an estimated combinedaverage fuel economy of 34.1 miles per gallon (mpg) inmodel year 2016, and 49.1 mpg in model year 2025, whichequates to 54.5 mpg as measured in terms of carbondioxide emissions with various credits for additional climatebenefits factored in. The standards require an averageimprovement in fuel economy of about 4.1 percent per year.The technology assessments performed by the agencies toinform the 2017–2025 rule were conducted five years ago.The ICCT is now collaborating with automotive suppliers ona series of working papers evaluating technology progressand new developments in engines, transmissions, vehiclebody design and lightweighting, and other measures thathave occurred since then. Each paper will evaluate: H ow the current rate of progress (costs, benefits, marketpenetration) compares to projections in the rule; R ecent technology developments that were not consideredin the rule and how they impact cost and benefits; C ustomer acceptance issues, such as real-world fueleconomy, performance, drivability, reliability, and safety.This paper provides an analysis of thermal managementtechnology development and trends. It is a joint collaboration between The ITB Group, BorgWarner, and the ICCT. Thepaper relies on data from publicly available sources and dataand information from the participating automotive suppliers.The essential takeaway is graphically summarized in figure1. More than 60 thermal management technologies arecurrently in production or development. As the chart shows,over half of these technologies are projected to cost less than 50 per percent fuel consumption reduction and will be of“high” or “very high” value to manufacturers. Furthermore,cabin technologies offer passenger comfort benefits inaddition to the efficiency benefits. Thermal managementcan contribute on the order of 2% to 7.5% reductions infuel consumption over the next ten years depending on avehicle powertrain’s base thermal management features.Figure 1 Economic comparison of thermalmanagement technologies.600LowValue500Technology Cost ( )INTRODUCTIONModerateValue400HighValue300200 25 /Very HighValue1001U.S. EPA and NHTSA, (2012). EPA/NHTSA Final Rulemaking to Establish2017 and Later Model Years Light Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissionsand Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards. Retrieved from htm#2017-2025. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION, 20160%FC0123456789Reduction in CO (%) Fuel Consumption (FC)Legend:2 Powertrain2 Passenger Comfort (Cabin)WWW.THEICCT.ORG
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYBACKGROUNDAutomakers are applying new powertrain technologies in order to meet government regulations. Thermalmanagement techniques can improve powertrain andpassenger comfort system efficiencies and are alsoimportant for the implementation of powertrain technologies like start-stop and coasting systems.Examples of powertrain thermal management include engineand transmission lubrication, electrical systems, and coolantsubsystems. These subsystems include hardware and softwareto regulate powertrain thermal condition. Passenger comfort(or cabin) thermal management includes technologies toregulate the temperature within the passenger cabin suchas heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems,glazing, and others. Advancements of these technologiesgenerally refine thermal control and reduce energy losses.A PACE award recognizes automotive product innovationswith potentially high industry impact. The awards areintended as a general evaluation rather than an absolutemeasurement of the technology itself. Since 2014, therehave been 57 awards given, and 10 of them were specificallyrelated to thermal management. For the 2016 PACE awards,there were 28 finalists, of which 7 involved thermal and fluidmanagement. These technologies were from BorgWarner,Bosch, Dana, FTE Automotive, Hanon, Röchling, and Valeo.2This paper outlines the range of thermal technologiesbeing commercialized and the potential impact and cost ofvarious solutions. Thermal management technologies areexpected to complement other vehicle energy consumption reduction technologies to achieve future fuel consumption and emissions requirements in a cost-effectiveway. Thermal management improvements are important forboth electrified and conventional powertrain vehicles.In the past decade there has been a proliferation of thermalmanagement technological solutions. Automotive suppliershave developed and commercialized new products, suchas electric pumps and valves. At the same time, lower costvariable mechanical solutions that offer many of the benefitsof electrified devices have been commercialized. Devicessuch as grille shutters offer the ability to dynamically controlair flow based on powertrain thermal needs. Individualcomponents are being combined into system sets for application to specific vehicles. This state of flux is expected tocontinue for the next ten years, as components and systemsare refined to provide CO2 benefits at reduced costs.EPA/NHTSA 2017–2025 PROJECTIONSThermal management technologies have a role to play inimproving both conventional and electrified powertrainvehicles. Thermal technology advances may reduce parasiticlosses, but more importantly such technologies makeengines, transmissions, and HVAC systems more efficient.For conventional powertrains, a primary technology metricis the impact on fuel consumption versus the cost of thetechnology, from both a piece-cost and developmentcost perspective. In electrified powertrains the benefit ofthermal management is different, and value stems fromimproving electric powertrain range, reduced chargingtimes, and enabling reductions in size, mass, and cost ofthe powertrain subsystem (e.g. motor, power electronics orbattery). Benefits of thermal management are not limited toenergy savings, but also have a positive consumer impactwhen they improve passenger comfort.Listed in table 1 are technologies associated with vehicularthermal effects. For each of these technologies thermaleffects are only a portion of the total cost and benefit.For example, IACC1 includes an electric water pump andcooling fan thermal changes, but also a high efficiencyelectrical system (alternator).The rising importance of thermal innovation can be demonstrated by the Automotive News annual PACE awards.2As preparation for the initial GHG rulemaking, EPA andNHTSA conducted extensive investigations of the costand fuel consumption impact of technologies. Some technologies were shown to affect fuel consumption during thegovernment certification test drive cycles. Other technologies were found to not have significant impacts during thetest cycles, but to have significant real-world improvementsduring conditions that are not included on the test cycles.One of these key factors is thermal ambient conditions andthe benefits of rapidly warming the powertrain.As part of the initial rulemaking, processes were developedto grant off-cycle credits for technologies which providebenefits beyond those measured by federal driving testcycles (on-cycle benefits). A large portion of these technologies are related to thermal management. Table 2 liststhe technologies and shows estimates of the four valuecategories, as assessed by The ITB Group.Note that these standard values can be claimed byautomakers if the technology is applied to a vehicle meetingthe definition specified in the NHTSA ruling. Some creditvalues are based on specific calculation formulas. If atechnology permutation can provide higher value than thestandard credit, then an automaker may apply to receiveBoudette, Neal E, “21 Suppliers Named PACE Award Finalists,”Automotive News, 12 Oct. 2015.2 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION WORKING PAPER 2016-18
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYTable 1 On-Cycle Thermal Technologies NHTSA EstimatesThermal TechnologyBenefit (g CO2/mi)ITB Value Estimate*CarTruckCost EstimateCarCost EstimateTruckLow Friction Lubrication 10.70.7 4 4Very HighEngine Friction Reduction 1 (EFR 1)2.62.4 57 118HighLow Friction Lubrication EFR Level 21.31.2 60 122Moderate/LowCooled EGR 13.53.6 249* 305*ModerateCooled EGR 24.94.8 364* 885*Moderate/LowImproved Accessories 1 (IACC 1)1.21.6 75 89ModerateImproved Accessories 2 (IACC 2)3.63.8 120 143HighHigh efficiency transmission gearbox2.73.7 202 251ModerateVery high: 25 per percent fuel consumption reductionModerate: 50 to 100 per percent fuel consumption reductionHigh: 25 to 50 per percent fuel consumption reductionLow: 100 per percent fuel consumption reductionTable 2 Off-Cycle Credits for Thermal Control TechnologiesThermal Control TechnologyCredit (g CO2/mi)ITB Value EstimateCarTruckWaste Heat Recovery (Scalable)0.7 at 100 W0.7 at 100 WModerateGlass or GlazingUp to 2.9Up to 3.9LowActive Seat Ventilation11.3LowSolar Reflective Paint0.40.5ModeratePassive Cabin Ventilation1.72.3HighActive Cabin Ventilation2.12.8HighActive Engine Warm-Up1.53.2HighActive Transmission Warm-Up1.53.2Very HighSolar Panels (Battery Charging Only)0.70.7LowSolar Panels (Active Cabin Ventilation and Battery Charging)2.52.5LowActive Aerodynamics0.61Very HighEngine Idle Start-Stop (w/ heater circulation system)2.54.4LowEngine Idle Start-Stop (w/o heater circulation system)1.52.9LowVery high: 25 per percent fuel consumption reductionModerate: 50 to 100 per percent fuel consumption reductionHigh: 25 to 50 per percent fuel consumption reductionLow: 100 per percent fuel consumption reductionWORKING PAPER 2016-18 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION 3
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYTable 3 Examples of Thermal Management Technology Fuel Consumption Benefits3TechnologyBenefit on FTPat 75 FBenefit on Other 5-Cycle testsBenefit Off-CycleOff-Cycle Credit Available?Intelligent Coolant PumpsYesAll CyclesYesLimitedElectric Coolant Control ValveYesAll CyclesYesLimitedHeated Stat Position SensorYesAll CyclesYesLimitedTransmission Oil Bypass ValveYesFTP at 20 FYesLimitedExhaust Heat Recovery SystemYesFTP at 20 FYesLimitedThermoelectric GeneratorLimitedHWY, US06Most BenefitYes (Capped)Organic Rankine CycleLimitedHWY, US06Most BenefitYes (Capped)Thermal StorageYesFTP at 20 FMost BenefitNoBlock HeaterLimitedFTP at 20 FMost BenefitNoTraditional Remote StartN/AN/ANegativeN/APre-ConditioningTable 4 Percent of 2014 Model Year Vehicle Production Volume with Credits from the Menu, by Manufacturer andTechnology onActiveCabinVentilationActive SeatVentilationGlass Warm-UpActiveTransmissionWarm-UpEngine IdleStop-StartBMW0.00.085.12.52.90.078.50.00.0Fiat yota0.011.40.013.552.9184.108.40.2062.5Fleet Total9.815.02.19.650.78.7220.127.116.11BorgWarner, “Examples: Thermal Management Off-Cycle Technology,” received via email communication, May 2016.4 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION WORKING PAPER 2016-18
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYFigure 2 Economic Comparison of Vehicle and Powertrain FuelEfficiency Technology Value vs. Cost of CO2 Reduction (NHTSA)higher credit for an off-cycle technology than shown in theruling.As shown in table 3, some thermal management technologies have both on-cycle and off-cycle benefits. Insome cases the off-cycle benefits may be limited by thetechnology as defined in the off-cycle credit menu. Thislimitation could be overcome by applying for credit for aspecific thermal management technology, but the benefitsmay be difficult to generalize across powertrains. Validationof thermal technologies beyond the menu credits could bequite costly, although these additional thermal technologiescould offer additional benefits and should be considered foroff-cycle credits.CURRENT THERMAL MANAGEMENTTECHNOLOGY USETable 4 shows the percentages in which different manufacturers are currently incorporating different types ofthermal management technologies. For instance, a highpercentage of BMW vehicles have active cabin ventilation(85.1%) and active engine warm-up (78.5%). Automakersare taking very different approaches. In contrast to BMW,FCA focuses on passive cabin ventilation and glazing technologies, as well as active engine warm-up. The 2014 ModelYear Manufacturer Performance Report4 specified that thetechnologies vary by manufacturer and that each vehiclecan have more than one technology. Thus, each of the technologies and the vehicles are a many-to-one relationship.Active seat ventilation is a very common technology, butgenerally has a low penetration rate across the fleet average(9.6%) with the exception of JLR (62.6%). Glass or glazing isa relatively high percentage (50.7% fleetwide).CO2 reduction. Other conventional powertrain technologiesmay provide higher value, with costs below 25 or 50 perpercent CO2 reduction, but provide a smaller amount of CO2reduction. Note that automakers combine technology setsinto packages, which achieve targeted improvement goals.Furthermore, the entire automotive value chain is focusedon reducing the costs of these technologies. As discussedin ICCT’s working paper on naturally aspirated engines,start-stop system costs have been significantly reduced inthe past five years, shifting this technology downward andincreasing its value.5VEHICULAR AND POWERTRAINTECHNOLOGY VALUEIn order to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of thermalmanagement technologies, it is instructive to examine thevalue of vehicle and powertrain technologies that wereincorporated into the 2017–2025 rulemaking. As shown infigure 2 and table 5, based on NHTSA estimates, the valuesof 16 vehicle and powertrain technologies vary widely. Thevalues of vehicle architectures like strong hybrids, advanceddiesel, and 48V hybrid vehicles fall near a 100 per percent4United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Greenhouse GasEmission Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles: Manufacturer PerformanceReport for the 2014 Model Year,” EPA-420-R-15-026 (2015), ORKING PAPER 2016-18 5Aaron Isenstadt, John German, and Mihai Dorobantu, “Naturally aspiratedgasoline engines and cylinder deactivation,” ICCT working paper 2016-12(2016), ines-201606.INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION 5
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYTable 5 Economic Comparison of Vehicle and Powertrain Fuel Efficiency Technology Value vs. Cost of CO2 Reduction(NHTSA)Very HighHighModerateLowLess than 25 / % CO2 reductionBetween 25 and 50 / % CO2reductionBetween 50 and 100 / % CO2reductionGreater than 100 / % CO2reductionDual Cam PhasingSI Adv. Lubrication FrictionContinuously Variable Valve Lift12V Start-Stop8 Speed AT vs. 6 Speed ATCVT vs. 6 Speed ATCooled EGR – 50% Downsizing8 Speed DCT vs. 6 Speed AT10% Mass ReductionHP LP EGRAdv. Reduction in Tire RollingResistanceAdvanced Diesel10% Aero Drag ReductionStrong HybridTHE VALUE OF POWERTRAIN ANDPASSENGER COMFORT THERMALTECHNOLOGIESFigure 3 Economic Comparison of Over 60 ThermalManagement Technologies: Value vs. Cost of CO2 Reduction600Research performed by The ITB Group in 2015 and 2016outlines the rapidly changing technical and market dynamicsaffecting commercialization of thermal technologies.6Powertrain-related (red) thermal technologies generallyfall in the high and very high value categories. Some ofthe technologies are low cost, like software algorithm6The ITB Group, “Changing Paradigms in Automotive ThermalManagement” (2015) and “Evolution versus Revolution in PowertrainFluid Control” (2016).6 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION 500Technology Cost ( )Figure 3 graphically represents the value of over 60 thermalmanagement technologies7 that The ITB Group has identifiedas potentially beneficial within automotive applications andthat should be considered within the midterm evaluationand upcoming ruling. These estimates are for conventional powertrain vehicles. There are two broad classesof technologies included: passenger comfort (blue) andpowertrain (red) related. The thermal technologies fall intoone of the four value categories: very high, high, moderate,and low. Those that are in the very high value categories arelikely to be deployed sooner by OEMs in their vehicles. Thisis due to their lower technology cost versus higher CO2 andfuel consumption impact. Those technologies in the lowvalue category have a higher upfront technology cost andwill not necessarily have as great of an impact to reducea vehicle’s CO2 and fuel consumption numbers. Electrifiedvehicles have lower fuel consumption and are more likelyto utilize new passenger comfort thermal technologies.Simultaneously, there are efforts being made to reduce thecost of the lower value 00 25 /%FCVery HighValue1000012345678Reduction in CO (%) Fuel Consumption (FC)Legend: 2 Powertrain 2 Passenger Comfort (Cabin)improvements. Technologies like Rankine Cycle and thermalelectric exhaust heat recovery systems are not likely to beavailable by 2025, but continued development will reducetheir cost to achieve higher value and make them morecommercially viable.Table 6 lists the technologies mapped in figure 3. Definitionsand acronyms can be found in the appendix.7It should be noted that the benefits from the majority of these thermalmanagement technologies will vary based upon the application,including base engine and transmission design, vehicle integration, etc.WORKING PAPER 2016-189
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYTable 6 Economic Comparison of Over 60 Thermal Management Technologies: Value vs. Cost of CO2 ReductionVery HighHighModerateLowEngine thermal massreductionEjector CycleCold storage accumulatorLow-E / IRR / PVB glazingModel vs. map basedalgorithmsPassive cabin ventilationCabin exhaust heatexchanger (active)Lower heat transfer glazing (PC)Navigation basedpredictionActive cabin ventilation(high recirculation)Electric engine oil pumpAdaptive cabin temp control (IR Sensor)Predictive powertraincontrolInsulated coolantEGR Cooling HPFocused IR heatingInsulated oil panEncapsulated enginecompartmentEGR Cooling (HP LP)Heat storage accumulatorInsulated auto/CVT/DCTtransmissionVariable water pump(switchable)Engine oil heating atstart-upLiquid cooled condenserInsulated differentialVariable water pump(clutched)Exhaust heat recirculationHV PTC HeatingVariable engine oil pumpElectric water pump (EWP)Exhaust heat to engine oilHeat pump (XEV)Reduced oil sump massby 20%Smart multi-way watervalveMap controlledthermostatIntegrated localized HVACIntegrated liquid cooledexhaust / EGRSmart valve withintegrated EWPPre-heated coolantVentilated seats (heating cooling)
AUTOMOTIVE THERMAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY 2 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLEAN TRANSPORTATION WORKING PAPER 2016-18 BACKGROUND Automakers are applying new powertrain technolo-gies in order to meet government regulations. Thermal management techniques can improve powertrain and passenger comfort system efficiencies and are also
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