Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management –Combining Fluid Loops in Electric DriveVehiclesJohn P. RughNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryMay 15, 2012Project ID: VSS046This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information.NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.
OverviewTimelineBarriersProject Start Date: FY11Project End Date: FY14Percent Complete: 35% Cost – cooling loop components Life – thermal effects on energystorage system (ESS) andadvanced power electronics andelectric motors (APEEM) Weight – additional cooling loopsin electric drive vehicles (EDVs)BudgetTotal Project Funding: 750 K*Funding Received in FY11: 375 K*Funding for FY12: 375 K** Shared funding between VTP programs: VSST, APEEM, ESSPartners Interactions/collaborationsCRADA is in– “Detroit 3” OEM approval process– Visteon Corp.– Magna Steyr Project lead: NREL2
Overview – Collaboration Between Vehicle Technology ProgramsHybrid Electric SystemsDave Howell – Team LeadVehicle SystemsLee SlezakDavid AndersonEnergy StorageTien DuongBrian CunninghamPeter FaguyPower Electronics& Electric MotorsSusan RogersSteven BoydElectric range and fuel consumptionBattery temperature and lifeAPEEM temperaturesPhoto Credit: John Rugh, NREL3
Relevance – The PHEV/EV Thermal Challenge Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electricvehicles (EVs) have increased vehicle thermalmanagement complexity– Separate coolant loop for APEEM– Thermal requirements for ESS Additional thermal components result in higher costs Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to– Increased weight– Energy required to meet thermal requirements Since thermal management crosses multiple groups atautomobile manufacturers, cross-cutting system designsare challengingPhoto Credit: Mike Simpson, NREL4
Relevance/ObjectiveObjective Collaborate with industry partners to research thesynergistic benefits of combining thermal managementsystems in vehicles with electric powertrainsTargets Improve vehicle performance and reduced cost from thesynergistic benefits of combining thermal managementsystems Reduce volume and weight Reduce APEEM coolant loop temperature (less than 105 C)without requiring a dedicated system5
Approach – Overall Build a 1-D thermal model (using KULI software)– APEEM, energy storage, engine, transmission,and passenger compartment thermalmanagement systems– Identify the synergistic benefits from combiningthe systems– Perform a detailed performance assessmentwith production-feasible component data Conduct bench tests to verify performance andidentify viable hardware solutions Collaborate with automotive manufacturers andsuppliers on a vehicle-level project Solve vehicle-level heat transfer problems, whichwill enable acceptance of vehicles with electricpowertrainsPhoto Credit: Charlie King, NRELc6
Approach FY12 – Go/No-GoGo/No-Go DecisionPoint:Based on the outcome of analysis of the thermal management systemconcepts, assess if building a benchtop system is justified or if furtheranalysis is neededChallenges / Barriers: Integration of requirements and coordination of the diverse groups thathave thermal management activities at the automotive OEMs and DOE Meeting the heat load requirements of the APEEM components, battery,engine, and passenger compartment with a thermal managementsystem that is less costly and complex7
Approach – Analysis Flow ChartLee Slezak, David AndersonVehicle SystemsFASTSim – VehicleCost/PerformanceModelESS Waste HeatSusan RogersPower ElectronicsAPEEM Waste HeatMotor Waste HeatKULI ThermalModelInverter Waste HeatRangeCostPower Demand of Vehicle Thermal SystemsBattery Life Leverage existing DOE projects– Vehicle cost/performance model– Lumped parameter motor thermal model– Battery life modelTemperaturesBattery Life ModelBrian CunninghamEnergy StorageFASTSim Future Automotive System Technology Simulator8
March 2011 – Solid Foundation for March 2011 - March2012 Research Thermal component and system information––––Visteon Corp. (Tier 1 HVAC component supplier)DrawingsThermal and flow component dataSystem data Built components in KULI– Used geometry, heat transfer, pressure drop, etc.– Verified component functioning as expected Developed A/C, cabin thermal, and APEEM coolingloop models– Connected components– Compared to test data9
Improvements to Models Improved electric motor model Added inverter model Updated FASTSim model (heat generated for ESSand APEEM components) Improved A/C compressor control Adjusted heat exchanger air-side positions tomore closely match current EVs Developed hot and cold design cases10
ESS Cooling Loop ModelBattery Jacket Cooled by a Chiller(WEG to Refrigerant Heat Exchanger) or a RadiatorWEG water-ethylene glycol11
A/C System ModelAdded Chiller Branch for ESS Cooling Loop12
Baseline A/C, Cabin, ESS, and APEEM Cooling LoopsLiquid Circuits Combined into a Single SimulationHeat Load, Cabin, and A/CAPEEMESS13
Baseline A/C, Cabin, ESS, and APEEM Cooling LoopsAir Side – Low Temperature Radiators Behind Condenser14
Baseline EV Thermal Management SystemEV Test Case at Four Ambient Temperatures6 24 kWh EV Environment 0% recirc US06 drive cycle Cooldown simulationfrom a hot soak ESS – cooling loop withchiller & low temperatureradiator Waste heat load fromFASTSim simulationsMotor5Generated Heat (kW)– 43 C, 35 &, 30 &, 25 &– 25% relative e from start of cooldown (sec)Photo Credit: John Rugh, NREL15
Baseline SystemAt Higher Ambient Temperatures, Cabin is still Warm after 10 min.Reasonable cooldown profilesPhoto Credit: Charlie King, NREL16
Baseline SystemBattery Cells Cool Quickly with the ChillerControl temperature for cells(between 15 C and 35 C)** National Renewable Energy Laboratory Strategic InitiativeWorking Group Report: Thermal Model of Gen 2 Toyota Prius,Kandler Smith, Ahnvu Le, Larry Chaney.17
Baseline SystemBattery Cells Cool Quickly with the ChillerWith radiator, batterytemperature increasesControl temperature for cells(between 15 C and 35 C)** National Renewable Energy Laboratory Strategic InitiativeWorking Group Report: Thermal Model of Gen 2 Toyota Prius,Kandler Smith, Ahnvu Le, Larry Chaney.18
35Σ C Ambient – Cabin and ESS CoolingInitially Less Than 50% of the A/C System Capacity is Going to the Cabin7EvaporatorChiller6ChillerHeat Transfer (kW)54Evaporator32100100200300400500600Time from start of cooldown (sec)19
35Σ C Ambient – Cabin and ESS TemperaturesTradeoff between Battery Cooling and Thermal ComfortCabin AirOccupants likely uncomfortableBattery CellsDesired cell temperature quickly attained20
Baseline SystemElectric Motor TemperaturesMotor is at elevated temperature,but within the 130 C limit** J. Lindström, “Thermal Model of a Permanent-Magnet Motor fora Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Chalmers University of Technology,Gotebörg, Sweden, 199921
Baseline SystemAPEEM Fluid Temperatures – Critical to Inverter Maximum TemperatureTemperatures reasonable compared to design guideline( 70 C maximum inlet temperature desired)** “Electrical and Electronics Technical Team Roadmap.” [Online]. uels/pdfs/program/eett roadmap 12-7-10.pdf. [Accessed: 11-Oct-2011].22
Baseline SystemVTM Power including Compressor, Fans, Blowers, PumpsHotter ambient temperaturesrequire more powerPower drops off when battery celltemperature reaches control levelPhoto Credit: John Rugh, NREL23
Baseline SystemVTM Power including Compressor, Fans, Blowers, PumpsHotter ambient temperaturesrequire more powerA/C evaporator antifreeze controllimits A/C compressor powerPower drops off when battery celltemperature reaches control levelLess power required with radiator cooling of the batteryPhoto Credit: John Rugh, NREL24
Baseline EV Thermal Management SystemEV at Davis Dam – Exploring the Hot Design Limits Davis Dam drive cycle– Acceleration, then constant 55mph up a constant 5% grade 24 kWh EV Environment– 43 C– 25% relative humidity– 850 W/m2 Cooldown simulation froma hot soak ESS – cooling loop withchiller Waste heat load fromFASTSim simulations25
Baseline System - Davis DamIn extreme conditions, APEEM components within thermal limitsAmbient Temperature 43 C26
Baseline EV Thermal Management SystemEV at Bemidji – Exploring the Cold Design Limits Bemidji drive cycle– UDDS 24 kWh EV Environment– -18 C– 25% relative humidity– No solar load Warm-up simulation from acold soak Waste heat load fromFASTSim simulationsPhoto Credit: Mike Simpson, NREL27
Collaboration Visteon Corp.– Data– Engineering support “Detroit 3” OEM – CRADA is in approval process Magna Steyr– KULI software– Engineering support VTP Tasks– Vehicle Systems– Energy Storage– Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors28
Future Work Using the KULI model, analyze concepts for combiningcooling loops– Assess benefitsooooMaximum temperaturesBattery lifeCostRange– Add new components– Improve model as required Based on the analysis results, select, build, and evaluateprototype systems in a lab bench test to demonstrate thebenefits of an integrated thermal management system Lead a vehicle-level project to test and validatecombined cooling loop strategies29
Summary DOE Mission Support– Combining cooling systems in EDVs may reduce costs andimprove performance, which would accelerate consumeracceptance, increase EDV usage, and reduce petroleumconsumption Overall Approach– Build a thermal 1-D model (using KULI software)ooAPEEM, energy storage, engine, transmission, and passengercompartment thermal management systemsIdentify the synergistic benefits from combining the systems– Select the most promising combined thermal managementsystem concepts and perform a detailed performanceassessment and bench top tests– Solve vehicle-level heat transfer problems, which will enableacceptance of vehicles with electric powertrains30
Summary (cont.) Technical Accomplishments– Developed a modeling process to assess synergistic benefits of combiningcooling loops– Improved A/C, cabin, APEEM cooling loop KULI models and built ESS coolingloop KULI models– Assembled the KULI models into a baseline simulation of a Nissan Leaf-sized EVoProduced reasonable component and fluid temperatures– Assessment of combined cooling loop concepts underway Collaborations– Collaborating closely with OEM, Visteon Corp. and Magna Steyr– Leveraging previous DOE researchoooBattery life modelVehicle cost/performance modelLumped parameter motor thermal model– Co-funding by three VTP tasks demonstrates cross-cutting31
Acknowledgements, Contacts, and Team MembersSpecial thanks to:David AndersonSteven BoydBrian CunninghamDavid HowellSusan RogersLee SlezakVehicle Technologies ProgramFor more information:Task Leader and PI:John P. RughNational Renewable EnergyLaboratoryJohn.firstname.lastname@example.orgNREL Team:Kevin BennionAaron BrookerLaurie RamothKandler Smith32
Based on the outcome of analysis of the thermal management system concepts, assess if building a benchtop system is justified or if further analysis is needed Integration of requirements and coordination of the diverse groups that have thermal management activities at the automotive OEMs and DOE Meeting the heat load requirements of the APEEM components, battery, engine, and passenger .
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Thermal Control System for High Watt Density - Low thermal resistance is needed to minimize temperature rise in die-level testing Rapid Setting Temperature Change - High response thermal control for high power die - Reducing die-level test time Thermal Model for New Thermal Control System - Predict thermal performance for variety die conditions
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