A Comprehensive Thermal Management System Model For Hybrid .

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A Comprehensive Thermal Management System Modelfor Hybrid Electric VehiclesbySungjin ParkA dissertation submitted in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy(Mechanical Engineering)in The University of Michigan2011Doctoral Committee:Professor Dionissios N. Assanis, Co-ChairAssistant Professor Dohoy Jung, Co-ChairProfessor Huei PengProfessor Levi T. Thompson, Jr.

Table of ContentsTable of Figures. vTable of Tables . ixNomenclature . xiAbstract . . xviChapter 1 Introduction. 1Chapter 2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Modeling . 92.1 Vehicle Configuration . 102.2 Power Management Strategy . 132.3 Vehicle Powertrain Modeling. 142.3.1 Power Sources . 152.3.2 Drivetrain and Vehicle Dynamics . 202.4 Driving Condition and Cycle . 232.5 Vehicle Simulation Results . 24Chapter 3 Vehicle Cooling System Modeling . 303.1 Component Modeling . 303.1.1 Heat Source Component Modeling . 313.1.2 Heat Sink Component Modeling . 343.1.3 Fluid Delivery Component Modeling. 413.2 Cooling System Architecture . 50ii

3.3 Cooling System Sizing . 52Chapter 4 Climate Control System Modeling . 554.1 Refrigeration System Modeling . 564.2 Heat Load Modeling . 584.3 Battery Thermal Management System Modeling . 594.3.2 Battery Thermal Management Method . 604.3.2 Battery Thermal Management System Modeling . 634.4 Control Strategy of Climate Control System . 68Chapter 5 Integrated Simulation of Vehicle Thermal Management System andVehicle Powertrain System . 705.1 Integration of Vehicle Thermal Management System and Vehicle PowertrainSystem . 715.2 Cooling System Component Sizing . 735.2.1 Heat Generation by Heat Source Components . 735.2.2 Pump and Radiator Sizing . 775.3 Results of Integrated Simulation . 83Chapter 6 Design of VTMS Architecture for Heavy-Duty SHEV . 946.1 VTMS Architecture Design . 956.2 Comparison of VTMS Power Consumption . 1016.2.1 Power Consumption of Vehicle Cooling System . 1026.2.2 Power Consumption of CCS and VTMS . 1086.2.3 Effect of VTMS on Fuel Economy . 1106.3 Comparison of Temperature Variations of Powertrain Components . 113Chapter 7 Summary and Conclusions . 1167.1 Integrated Simulation of Vehicle Thermal Management System and VehiclePowertrain System . 116iii

7.2 Design of VTMS Architecture for Heavy-Duty SHEV . 118Chapter 8 Suggested Future Work . 120REFERENCES. 122iv

Table of FiguresFigure 1. Energy flow for various vehicle configurations. (A) ICE, theconventional internal combustion, spark ignition engine; (B) HICE, a hybridvehicle that includes an electric motor and parallel drive train which eliminatesidling loss and captures some energy of braking [1]. . 2Figure 2. Comparison of fuel economy impacts of auxiliary loads between aconventional vehicle and a high fuel economy vehicle [2]. . 3Figure 3. Temperature dependency of the life cycle of Li-ion battery [11]. . 6Figure 4. Schematic of series hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system. . 11Figure 5. Combined BSFC map of PGU and best PGU operation points. . 14Figure 6. Energy density vs. Power density [25]. . 17Figure 7. Comparison of internal resistance of Li-ion and Lead-acid batteries. . 17Figure 8. Schematic of NREL resistive battery model. 19Figure 9. Battery voltage response under a current pulse. . 19Figure 10. Open circuit voltage and internal resistance of Li-ion batterydepending on the battery temperature. 20Figure 11. Efficiency map of drive motor. (150kW) . 22Figure 12. Efficiency map of generator. (300kW) . 22Figure 13. Heavy duty urban cross country driving cycle. . 24Figure 14. Operating conditions of powertrain components under Grade Loadcondition . 26Figure 15. Operating conditions of powertrain components under MaximumSpeed condition. . 27v

Figure 16. Operating conditions of powertrain components over Urban CrossCountry driving cycle. . 28Figure 17. Engine operation points over Urban Cross country driving cycle. 29Figure 18. Staggered grid system for FDM and design parameters of CHE core.The design parameters are; core size, water tube depth (a), height (b) andthickness (c), fin length (d), width (e), pitch (f), and thickness (g), louver height (i),angle (j), and pitch (k). 36Figure 19. Schematic of concentric heat exchanger for oil cooler model. . 40Figure 20. Flow rate and efficiency map of mechanical and electric pump. . 43Figure 21. Schematic of pump model. (heat 1 and 2: heat source components) . 43Figure 22. Valve lift curve of thermostat with respect to the thermostattemperature with hysteresis characteristics. . 45Figure 23. Flow rate calculation of thermostat model based on system resistanceconcept . 45Figure 24. Air duct system based on system resistance concept. . 45Figure 25. Schematic of oil cooling circuit model. . 47Figure 26. Performance data of gear pump [39]. . 48Figure 27. PI controller with anti wind-up in Matlab Simulink. . 49Figure 28. Schematic of Cooling System Architecture A. (Rad: Radiator, EP:Electric Pump, MP: Mechanical Pump, T/S: Thermostat, CAC: Charge AirCooler) . 52Figure 29. Schematic of the CCS for a HEV. . 57Figure 30. The balance of the heat in the cabin. 59Figure 31. General schematic of thermal management using air [16]. . 61Figure 32. General schematic of thermal management using liquid [16]. . 62Figure 33. Schematic of a battery bank . 64Figure 34. Tube arrangement in a bank (Staggered) [37] . 65Figure 35. Friction factor f and correction factor X for equation (4.15).Staggered tube bundle arrangement [51] . 68vi

Figure 36. Schematic of integrated simulation of the vehicle powertrain and theVTMS . 72Figure 37. The snapshot of integrated model of the vehicle powertrain and theVTMS in the Matlab Simulink environment. . 72Figure 38. Heat generation rates under three driving conditions. . 75Figure 39. Comparison of heat rejection from powertrain components underthree driving conditions. . 76Figure 40. Correlation power consumption between the heat transfer rate andradiator thickness dependent on the power consumption of cooling fan. 78Figure 41. Design criteria of pump and radiator sizing. . 80Figure 42. Performance map of reference mechanical pump. . 81Figure 43. Performance map of reference electric pump. . 81Figure 44. Performance map of reference cooling fan. 82Figure 45. Temperature histories of electric components under the grade loadcondition (Architecture A). . 85Figure 46. Comparison of heat rejection and power consumption of VCS andCCS (Architecture A). . 86Figure 47. State of Charge (SOC) of battery under three driving conditions(Architecture A). . 89Figure 48. Comparison of heat rejection rate of battery pack. 90Figure 49. Parasitic power consumption of cooling components. 91Figure 50. Temperature histories of the electric powertrain components overurban cross country driving cycle. (GEN : Generator, MOT: Motor, PB: PowerBus) . 93Figure 51. Schematic of VTMS Architecture B. 96Figure 52. Schematic of VTMS Architecture C. . 99Figure 53. Comparison of VCS (pumps and cooling fan) power consumptions ofthree VTMS architecture designs under grade load condition. 104Figure 54. Comparison of VCS (pumps and cooling fan for condenser andradiators) power consumptions of three VTMS architecture designs under urban cross country driving cycle. 105vii

Figure 55. Comparison of the power consumption of VCS under three drivingconditions . 108Figure 56. Comparison of the power consumption of CCS under three drivingconditions . 109Figure 57. Comparison of the power consumption of VTMS under three drivingconditions. . 109Figure 58. Estimation of fuel economy of the SHEV under grade load andmaximum speed condition. . 111Figure 59. Estimation of fuel economy of the SHEV over urban cross countrydriving cycle. . 111Figure 60. Temperature histories of electric components in three architecturesover the urban cross country driving cycle: (a) generator, (b) drive motor, and(c) power bus. 115viii

Table of TablesTable 1. Specifications of series hybrid electric vehicle. 12Table 2. Diesel engine specifications. 16Table 3. Vehicle driving conditions. . 23Table 4. Summary of heat source component models. . 34Table 5. Summary of heat sink component models. . 41Table 6. Summary of fluid delivery component model. . 50Table 7. Thermodynamic and Fluid dynamic properties of Mineral Oil . 61Table 8. Constants of equation (4.11) for tube bank in cross flow [51] . 66Table 9. Correction factor of equation (4.13) for NL 20 [51]. . 66Table 10. Battery mechanical characteristics (Saft VL 6A) . 66Table 11. Peak heat generation rates from powertrain components under grade loadcondition . 76Table 12. General characteristics of a heavy military vehicle (M24) [53]. . 78Table 13. Radiator size (Width x Height x Thickness) and pump scaling factors forArchitecture A determined by grade load condition test. . 82Table 14. Control target temperatures of heat source components of SHEV[12]. . 84Table 15. Operation group of heat source components of SHEV. 98Table 16. Sizing result of radiator size (width x height x thickness) and pump scalingfactors for three VTMS architectures under grade load driving condition. . 101Table 17. Accumulated time (seconds) of fan operation without active cooling ofeach circuit over urban cross-country driving cycle. . 107ix

Table 18. Improvement of fuel economy by VTMS redesign. . 112x

NomenclatureA: areaa, b, c : pressure drop coefficientCp: specific heatC: fluid heat capacity rateCf: friction coefficientCr: the ratio of minimum to maximum fluid heat capacity rate (Cmin/Cmax)d: diameterf: friction factorGs: solar irradiationH: heighth: convective heat transfer coefficientI: electric currentk: thermal conductivityKloss: loss coefficientL: lengthm&: mass flow rateN: rotational speedNTU: number of transfer unitsxi

P: pressurep: pitchq: heat transfer rateQ: heat generation rateR: electrical resistanceRe: Reynolds numberT: temperaturet: thicknessT/S: thermostatU: overall heat transfer coefficientV: voltageV: average velocityV&: volumetric flow ratew: widthW: workGreekα: scaling factorαs: absorptivityη: efficiencyω: angular velocityτ: torqueρ:densityπ: ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameterxii

ε: effectiveness / emissivityσ: Stefan-Boltzmann constantμ: dynamic viscosityθ: angleSubscripts and Superscriptsa: airact: active areaamb: ambientbatt: batteryc: cold / cross sectionco: coulombiccap: capacitycomp : componentcond: condensercool: coolantext: externaleng: engineevap: evaporatorf: fingen: generatorh: hot / hydraulicheat: heat sourcei: inputin: inletxiii

int: internallou / l : louvermin: minimummax: maximummot: motoro: output/ over alloc: open circuit / oil coolerp: perimeterpb: power busr: ratiorad: radiatorref: referencet: tubetc: turbo chargerAbbreviationsAC: alternating currentA/C: air conditionBMEP : brake mean effective pressureBSFC : brake specific fuel consumptionCCS: climate control systemCOP: coefficient of performanceCFD: computational fluid dynamicsCHE: compact heat exchangerxiv

FDM : finite difference methodHEV : hybrid electric vehicleLMTD : log mean temperature differenceOCV : open circuit voltagePGU: power generation unitPI: proportional integralSHEV : series hybrid electric vehicleSOC: state of chargeVCS: vehicle cooling systemVESIM: vehicle-engine simulationVPS: vehicle powertrain systemVTMS : vehicle thermal management systemxv

AbstractThis study describes the creation of efficient architecture designs of vehicle thermal management system (VTMS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) by using numerical simulations. The objective is to develop guidelines and methodologies for the architecture design of the VTMS for HEVs, which are used to improve the performance of the VTMSand the fuel economy of the vehicle. For the numerical simulations, a comprehensivemodel of the VTMS for HEVs which can predict the thermal response of the VTMS during transient operations is developed. The comprehensive VTMS model consists of thevehicle cooling system model and climate control system model. A vehicle powertrainmodel for HEVs is also developed to simulate the operating conditions of the powertraincomponents because the VTMS components interact with the powertrain components.Finally, the VTMS model and the vehicle powertrain model are integrated to predictthermal response of the VTMS and the fuel economy of the vehicle under various vehicledriving conditions.The comprehensive model of the VTMS for HEVs is used for the study on the architecture design of the VTMS for a heavy duty series hybrid electric vehicle. Integrated simulation is conducted using three VTMS arch

A Comprehensive Thermal Management System Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Sungjin Park A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Mechanical Engineering) in The University of Michigan 2011 Doctoral Committee: Professor Dionissios N. Assanis, Co-Chair Assistant Professor Dohoy Jung, Co-Chair Professor Huei Peng Professor .

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