Guidance And Counseling - LPU Distance Education (LPUDE)

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Guidance And CounselingDEDU502Edited by:Dr. Kulwinder Pal

funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZGUIDANCE AND COUNSELINGEdited ByDr. Kulwinder Pal

Printed byUSI PUBLICATIONS2/31, Nehru Enclave, Kalkaji Extn.,New Delhi-110019forLovely Professional UniversityPhagwara

ikB ;Øe(SYLLABUS)funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZ(GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING)mís';%1- fo kfFkZ;ksa dks funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZ dh vo/kj.kk dh tkudkjh miyC/ djokukA2- fo kfFkZ;ksa dks funsZ'ku lsokvksa dh izekf.kr rFkk vizekf.kr fof/;ksa ls voxr djokukA3- fo kfFkZ;ksa dks ijke'kZ osQ izdkj rFkk izHkkoh ijke'kZnkrk dh fof'k‘rkvksa ls ifjfpr djokukAObjectives:1. understand the concepts of guidance and counseling.2.understand testing and non-testing techniques in guidance service.3.understand the types of counseling and qualities of an effective counselor.Sr. No.Content1Guidance: Meaning, Nature and Scope, Guidance: Goals and Principles, Need forGuidance with Reference to India2Guidance Services: Concept and Importance; Services: Placement Service, Followup Service3Educational and Vocational Guidance ; Organizing Guidance Services at School andCollege Level4Personal and Group Guidance: Concept, Aims and Methods, Personal Guidance atSchool Level and Personal Guidance at College Level5Counseling: Concept, Need and Goals with Reference to India, Counseling:Principles and Counseling Process6Types of Counseling: Directive Counseling, Non-Directive Counseling, EclecticCounseling, Interview Process in Counseling7Counseling Services: Individual Counseling, Group Counseling8Organizing Counseling Services at School Level, Organizing Counseling Services atCollege Level9Psychotherapy: Meaning and Process, Dealing with Psychological Disturbance,Psychotherapy: Cognitive Approach, Environmental Approach ; Counselor: Role andQualities10Testing and Non-Testing Techniques: Psychological Tests, Case Study, RatingScale, Observation, Interview, Inventories, Problems of Guidance and Counselingin India and their Solutions

fo"k;&lwphbdkbZ (Units)(CONTENTS)1.funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks k2.funsZ'kuμmís'; vkSj fl¼kar3.4.5.6.'kSf{kd ,oa O;kolkf;d funsZ'ku7.(Guidance : Meaning, Nature and Scope)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University1(Guidance : Goals and Principles)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University12Hkkjr osQ lanHkZ esa funsZ'ku dh vko';drk(Need for Guidance with reference to India)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University25funsZ'ku lsok,¡(Guidance Services)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University33lsok,¡% LFkkiu lsok] vuqxkeh lsok(Services: placement service, follow-up service)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University53(Educational and Vocational Guidance)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University68fo ky; rFkk egkfo ky; Lrj ij funsZ'ku lsok,¡ laxfBr djuk(Organizing GuidanceServices at School and College level)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University94(Personal and Group Guidance)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University114fo ky; Lrj ij O;fDrxr funsZ'ku(Personal Guidance at School Level)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University127(Personal Guidance at College Level)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University1348.O;fDrxr ,oa lkewfgd funsZ'ku9.10.egkfo ky; Lrj ij O;fDrxr funsZ'ku11.ijke'kZ % vo/kj.kk] vko';drk rFkk Hkkjr ds lanHkZ esa mís';(Counseling: Concept, Needand Goals with Reference to India)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University12.i "B la[;k (Page No.)ijke'kZ % fl¼kUr vkSj izfØ;k(Counseling: Principles and Process)142152Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University13.ijke'kZ ds izdkj % funs'kkRed ijke'kZ(Types of Counseling : Directive Counseling)158Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University14.ijke'kZ ds izdkj % vfuns'kkRed ijke'kZ(Types of Counseling : Non-Directive Counseling)162Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University15.ijke'kZ ds izdkj % lekgkjd ijke'kZ(Types of Counseling : Non-Directive Counseling)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University16.ijke'kZ esa lk{kkRdkj izfØ;k(Interview Process in Counseling)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University167171

17.ijke'kZ lsok,¡ % O;fDrxr ijke'kZ(Counseling Services : Individual Counseling)177Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University18.ijke'kZ lsok,¡(Counseling Services)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University18219.euks&mipkj(Psychotherapy)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional ��Psychological Disturbance)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University19621.euksfpfdRlk% KkukRed mikxe(Psychotherapy—Cognitive Approach)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University20722.euksmipkjμi;kZoj.kh; mipkj mikxe(Psychotherapy—Environmental Approach)213Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University23.ijke'kZnkrk(Counselor)218Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University24.ijh{k.kkRed rFkk vijh{k.kkRed rduhosaQ% euksoSKkfud ijh{k.k(Testing and Non-testingTechniques: Psychological Tests)Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University25.,dy vè;;u(Case Study)233249Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University26.vuqfLFkfr ekiuh(Rating Scale)264Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University27.fujh{k.k(Observation)271Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University28.lk{kkRdkj(Interview)280Dinesh Kumar, Lovely Professional University29.:ph ijh{k.k(Inventories)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University30.Hkkjr esa funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZ dh leL;k,¡ rFkk mudk lek/ku (Problems of Guidance andCounseling in India and their Solution)Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional University295307

Kulwinder Pal, Lovely Professional UniversitybdkbZ—1% funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks kbdkbZμ1% funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks kuksV(Guidance : Meaning, Nature and ouk(Introduction)1.1funsZ'ku dk vFkZ1.2funsZ'ku dh fo'ks"krk,¡1.3funsZ'ku dh izÑfr1.4funsZ'ku osQ {ks k1.5lkjka'k1.6'kCndks'k1.7vH;kl&iz'u(Review Questions)1.8lanHkZ iqLrosaQ(Further Readings)(Meaning of Guidance)(Characteristics of Guidance)(Nature of Guidance)(Scope of Guidance)(Summary)(Keywords)mís'; (Objectives)bl bdkbZ osQ vè;;u osQ i'pkr fo kFkhZ ;ksX; gksaxsμ funsZ'ku dk vFkZ] fo'ks"krkvksa rFkk mís';ksa dh O;k[;k djus esaA funsZ'ku dh izÑfr rFkk {ks k dk fo'ys"k.k djus esaAizLrkouk (Introduction)lekt osQ vkfndky ls ysdj vc rd osQ fodkl&Øe ij ;fn n f"Vikr djsa rks ;g Kkr gksxk fd orZekulkekftd O;oLFkk ,oa lekt dh lajpuk vfèkd tfVy gks pqdh gSA 'kk'or ewY;ksa osQ izfr vukLFkk] vfuf'prrk,oa vfLFkjrk ij vkèkkfjr n f"Vdks.k O;fDr dh bPNkvksa ,oa vko';drkvksa dh lrr o f¼ ,oa ekuoh; {kerkvksaesa U;wurk] lekt osQ bl Lo:i osQ fy;s mÙkjnk;h dkj.kksa osQ :i esa mHkj dj lkeus vk jgs gSaA bu dkj.kksaosQ ifj.kkeLo:i gh] izk;% izR;sd {ks k esa fofoèk leL;kvksa dk mn; gks jgk gSA ikfjokfjd] lkekftd O;olkf;dvk Fkd] 'kSf{kd vkfn {ks kksa esa] izR;sd O;fDr fdlh u fdlh :i esa leL;k xzLr fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA tUe osQ i'pkr ls gh O;fDr tSls&tSls lekt osQ lEioZQ esa vkrk gS] og Lo;a dks vusd leL;kvksa ls f?kjk gqvk ikrk gSA ?kjesa] lekt esa] fo ky; esa vFkok vius fnup;kZ ls lEcfUèkr dk;ks esa mRiUu leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku osQ fy;s]mls fdlh u fdlh izdkj dh lgk;rk dh vko';drk gksrh gSA funsZ'ku dk mi;ksx] blh mís'; dh iw r esalgk;d gSA vr% lkekftd tfVyrk osQ eè;] O;fDr dks mi;qDr ,oa leqfpr iFk ij vxzlkfjr djus] mldkvfèkdkfèkd fodkl djus rFkk lekt osQ lkFk lek;kstu djus dh Hkkouk ,oa dkS'ky dk fodkl djus gsrq]funsZ'ku dks egRo iznku fd;k tk jgk gSALOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY1

funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZuksV1-1 funsZ'ku dk vFkZ (Meaning of Guidance)funsZ'ku D;k gS\ bl lEcUèk esa leLr fo}ku ,der ugha gSA orZeku ;qx osQ fooknxzLr izR;;ksa esa] ;g ,d,slk izR;; gS] ftls fofHkUu :iksa esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k x;k gS] fiQj Hkh] lkekU;r% funsZ'ku dks ,d ,slh izfØ;kosQ :i esa Lohdkj fd;k tkrk gS] ftlosQ vkèkkj ij fdlh ,d vFkok vusd O;fDr;ksa dks fdlh u fdlh izdkjdh lgk;rk iznku dh tkrh gSA bl lgk;rk osQ vkèkkj ij] leL;kvksa osQ lEcUèk esa foosd;qDr fu"d"kZ fudkyus]okafNr fu.kZ; ysus rFkk vius y{;ksa] mís';ksa dks izkIr djus esa lqxerk gksrh gSA funsZ'ku osQ vkèkkj ij gh] O;fDrdks viuh ;ksX;rkvksa] {kerkvkas] dkS'kyksa rFkk O;fDrxr ls lEcfUèkr fo'ks"krkvksa dk Kku gks tkrk gS rFkk ogLo;a esa fufgr fo'ks"krkvkas dk leqfpr mi;ksx djus esa l{ke gks tkrk gSA funs'Z ku dk mís'; O;fDr dh leL;kvksadk lekèkku djuk ugha gS] vfirq blosQ vkèkkj ij fdlh O;fDr dks bl ;ksX; cuk;k tkrk gS fd og viuhleL;kvksa dk lekèkku djus esa Lo;a gh l{ke gks losQA vusd fo}kuksa us funsZ'ku dks ,d ,slh fof'k"V lsokosQ :i esa gh ifjHkkf"kr fd;k gS] ftlosQ vkèkkj ij thou ls lEcfUèkr fofHkUu leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku osQ fy;slgk;rk iznku dh tkrh gS] bl izdkj fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks viuh leL;kvksa osQ okafNr lekèkku osQ fy;s lgk;rkiznku djuk gh funsZ'ku dh izfØ;k osQ vUrxZr Lohdkj fd;k tkrk gSA O;fDr vFkok lekt ls lEcfUèkr fdlhHkh i{k vFkok {ks k osQ lUnHkZ esa bl izdkj dh lgk;rk iznku dh tkuh laHko gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ fo ky; esa fu;qDrijke'kZnkrk osQ }kjk] fo ky; esa vè;;u djus okys Nk kksa dks vusd izdkj osQ lq ko fn;s tk ldrs gSaA Nk kksadks viuh :fp] ;ksX;rk ,oa vfHko fÙk osQ ikB ;Øe dk p;u djus] uohu 'kSf{kd uhfr;ksa] ikB ;Øeksa] f'k{k.kfofèk;ksa rFkk vfèkxe lalkèkuksa osQ lEcUèk esa vko';d lwpukvksa dk lapkj djus rFkk Nk kksa dks vkRe&funsZ'kudh fn'kk esa izsfjr djus] LorU k vè;;u ij vkèkkfjr fofèk;ksa dk iz;ksx djus esa lgk;rk iznku dj ldrk gS]blh izdkj O;olkf;d funsZ'ku osQ {ks k esa O;olk; gsrq visf{kr ;ksX;rkvksa] dkS'kyksa] {kerkvksa rFkk fo k Fk;ksadh vfHk:fp osQ vkèkkj ij fdlh fof'k"V O;olk; osQ p;u gsrq lq ko fn;s tk ldrs gSaA O;fDr dheuks&'kkjhfjd fo'ks"krkvksa] euks&fodkjksa] laosxkRed vfLFkjrkvksa vkfn dh leqfpr tkudkjh osQ vkèkkj ij O;fDrdks oS;fDrd ,oa lkekftd leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku gsrq lgk;rk iznku dh tkuh laHko gS] bl izdkj dh lgk;rk]oS;fDrd funsZ'ku osQ {ks k esa iznku dh tkrh gSAfunsZ'ku dh izfØ;k osQ vUrxZr] funsZ'ku izkIr djus okys O;fDr esa fufgr fo'ks"krkvksa rFkk 'kSf{kd]O;kolkf;d {ks k esa lEcfUèkr vè;;u vko';d gSA bl lefUor tkudkjh osQ vHkko esa funsZ'ku dh izfØ;kdk lEiUu gks ikuk furkUr vlEHko gSA O;fDr esa fufgr fo'ks"krkvksa dh tkudkjh izkIr djus osQ fy;s O;fDrdh ;ksX;rkvksa] :fp;ksa vkfn dk ekiu djus okys lkèkuksa rFkk ekifu;ksa dh vko';drkvksa dk Kku izkIr djusosQ fy;s lkekftd ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk vè;;u vko';d gksrk gSA O;fDr esa fufgr {kerkvksa] ;ksX;rkvksa vkfn dhtkudkjh izkIr djus osQ fy;s O;fDrRo ij[k] vfHko fÙk ijh{k.k] :fp vuqlwph] cqf¼ ijh{k.k vkfn dk fo'ks"kegRo gSA ; fi leqfpr tkudkjh gsrq iw.kZr;k oSèk ,oa izek.khÑr ijh{k.kksa dks gh fo'oluh; funsZ'ku osQ fy;siz;qDr fd;k tkuk pkfg;s] ijUrq oqQN O;fDrfu"B ;k vkRefu"B lkèkuksa dk iz;ksx Hkh funsZ'ku osQ vUrxZr fd;ktk ldrk gSAoqQN fo}kuksa osQ vuqlkj] funsZ'ku ,oa f'k{kk] nksuksa gh ,d nwljs osQ iwjd gSa buosQ vuqlkj ftl izdkj f'k{kk ,dO;kid izfØ;k gS] mlh izdkj funsZ'ku Hkh ,d O;kid izfØ;k osQ :i esa Lohdkj fd;k tkuk pkfg;sA bl izfØ;kosQ ekè;e ls ckydksa osQ fofHkUu i{kksa osQ fodkl gsrq] mlh izdkj lgk;rk iznku dh tkrh gS] ftl izdkj f'k{kkosQ }kjk ckyd osQ ekufld] HkkokRed ,oa 'kkjhfjd i{k dk fodkl djus gsrq lgk;rk iznku dh tkrh gSA blizdkj funsZ'ku ,d O;kid izfØ;k gS D;ksafd bldk {ks k vlhfer gSA O;fDr osQ thou ls lEc¼ izk;% izR;sd{ks k esa ;g lgk;rk iznku dh tk ldrh gSA blosQ vfrfjDr f'k{kk osQ leku gh funsZ'ku dh izfØ;k Hkhthoui;ZUr lapkfyr jgrh gS] tUe ls ysdj e R;q rd tgk¡ dgha Hkh] ftl :i esa Hkh O;fDr dks lgk;rk izkIr2LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

bdkbZ—1% funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks kgksrh gS] og lgk;rk funsZ'ku osQ vUrxZr gh lfEefyr dh tkrh gS] bl izdkj dh lgk;rk iznku djus okysO;fDr dks funsZ'ku&iznkrk vFkok funsZ'ku&dehZ osQ uke ls lEcksfèkr dj ldrs gSa] fo ky; esa dk;Z djus okysf'k{kd izèkkukpk;Z] lg&dehZ] ifjokj osQ lnL; rFkk lekt esa fe k] lg&ikBh] izopd vkfn O;fDr funsZ'kuiznkrk osQ :i esa gh Lohdkj fd;s tkus pkfg;sAuksVbu rF;ksa osQ vkèkkj ij Li"V gS fd funsZ'ku dh izfØ;k lqèkkjkRed vk;ke osQ LFkku ij fodklkRed vk;keosQ :i esa gh ifjHkkf"kr dh tkuh vfèkd lkFkZd gS] D;ksafd fof'k"V lsok osQ :i esa ;g izfØ;k leL;k&osQfUnzrgksus osQ LFkku ij lsokFkhZ&osQfUnzr gh vfèkd gksrh gSA fof'k"V lsok osQ :i esa vFkkZfir bl vk;ke osQ vusdnks"k gSaA bl :i esa ifjHkkf"kr funsZ'ku dks fo ky; dh vkuq"kafxd lsok osQ :i esa igpkuk tkrk gSA ;g lsokoqQN fof'k"V izdkj osQ ckydksa rd gh lhfer jgrh gS rFkk lkekU; Js.kh osQ ckydksa dks bl izdkj osQ funsZ'kuosQ ekè;e ls dksbZ fo'ks"k lgk;rk izkIr ugha gks ikrh gSA blosQ fof'k"V lsok vk;ke osQ vUrxZr fo ky; esadk;Zjr ijke'kZnkrk dh Hkwfedk gh lokZfèkd egRoiw.kZ le h tkrh gSA blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i] fo ky; esa dk;ZjrvU; O;fDr;ksa dh Hkwfedk izk;% misf{kr Hkh jgrh gSA ;g Hkh mYys[kuh; gS fd bl izfØ;k osQ vUrxZr O;fDrdks ,d ;U k osQ leku le dj lgk;rk iznku dh tkrh gS] tcfd mfpr ;g gS fd O;fDr dks ,d xfr'khyizk.kh osQ :i esa gh lgk;rk iznku djus dh O;oLFkk dh tkuh pkfg;sA,d vU; vk;ke osQ vkèkkj ij funsZ'ku dks lgk;rk iznku djus okyh izfØ;k osQ :i esa izn 'kr fd;k tkrkgS ftlosQ vUrxZr funs'Z ku dk mÙkjnkf;Ro lHkh dk Lohdkj fd;k tkrk gS ;k fdlh dk Hkh ughaA f'k{kd ;ksX;rk]:fp] {kerk] fuiq.krk bR;kfn dks] bl izdkj osQ funsZ'ku esa fo'ks"k egRo iznku fd;k tkrk gSAfunsZ'ku dk mís'; O;fDr dh leL;kvksa dk lekèkku djuk ugha gS] vfirq blosQ vkèkkj ij fdlhO;fDr dks bl ;ksX; cuk;k tkrk gS fd og viuh leL;kvksa dk lekèkku djus esa Lo;a gh l{kegks losQAfunsZ'ku osQ mijksDr vFkZ dks Li"V djus osQ vfrfjDr] blosQ vk'k; osQ lUnHkZ esa oqQN ifjHkk"kkvksa dk Hkh mYys[kfd;k tk ldrk gSA ; fi funsZ'ku dh dksbZ loZekU; ifjHkk"kk vHkh rd izLrqr ugha dh tk ldrh gS] ijUrqfiQj Hkh] bu ifjHkk"kkvksa osQ vkèkkj ij funsZ'ku osQ vFkZ dks le us esa lgk;rk izkIr gks losQxhA bl izdkj dhoqQN ifjHkk"kk,¡ vxzfyf[kr gSaμ'kysZ gSefju (Shirley Hamrin) osQ 'kCnksa esaμ¶O;fDr osQ Lo;a oQks igpkuus esa bl izdkj lgk;rk iznku djuk]ftlls og vius thou esa vkxs c losQ] bl izfØ;k dks funsZ'ku dgk tkrk gSA ysL:Vj Mh- Øks rFkk ,ykbZl Øks (Lester D. Crow and Alice Crow)μus viuh iqLrd ,u bUVªksMD'kuVw xkbMSUl* esa funsZ'ku dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs gq, fy[kk gSμ¶funsZ'ku ls rkRi;Z] funsZ'ku osQ fy;s Lo;a fu.kZ; ysusdh vis{kk fu.kZ; dj nsuk ugha gS vkSj u gh nwljs osQ thou dk cks ksuk gSA blosQ foijhr] ;ksX; ,oa izf'kf{krO;fDr }kjk] nwljs O;fDr dks] pkgs og fdlh Hkh vk;q oxZ dk gks] viuh thou fØ;kvksa dks Lo;a xfBr djus]vius futh n f"Vdks.k fodflr djus] vius fu.kZ; Lo;a ys ldus rFkk viuk Hkkj Lo;a ogu djus esa lgk;rkdjuk gh okLrfod funsZ'ku gSA “Guidance is not giving directions. It is not the imposition of one person’s point of view uponanother person. It is not making decisions for an individual which he should make for himself.It is not carrying the burdens of another’s life. Rather, guidance is assistance made available bepersonally qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any age to helphim manage his own life active, development his own point of view, make this own decisions,and carry out his own burden.”–Crow and CrowLOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY3

funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZuksVvkFkZj ts- tkSUl osQ 'kCnksa esaμ¶funsZ'ku ,d izdkj dh lgk;rk gS ftlosQ vUrxZr] ,d O;fDr] nwljs O;fDr dksmlosQ le{k vk, fodYiksa osQ p;u] lek;kstu ,oa leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku osQ izfr lgk;d gksrk gSA ;g funsZ'kuizkIr djus okys O;fDr esa Lokèkhurk dk izo fÙk ,oa vius mÙkjnk;h cuus dh ;ksX;rk esa o f¼ ykrh gSA ;g fo ky;vFkok ifjokj dh ifjfèk esa vkc¼ u jgdj ,d lkoZHkkSe lsok dk :i èkkj.k dj ysrh gSA ;g thou osQ izR;sd{ks k ;Fkk ifjokj] O;kikj ,oa m ksx] ljdkj] lkekftd thou] vLirky o dkjkx gksa esa O;Dr gksrh gSA oLrqr%funsZ'ku dk {ks k] izR;sd ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa fo eku gksrh gS] tgk¡ bl izdkj osQ O;fDr gksa ftUgsa lgk;rk dhvko';drk gks vkSj tgk¡ lgk;rk iznku djus dh ;ksX;rk j[kus okys O;fDr gksaA “Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments andin solving problems. Guidance aims at wading the recipient to grow in his independence andability to be responsible for himself. It is a service that is universal not confined to the schoolor the family. It is found in all phases of life in the time, in business and industry, in government.In social life, in hospitals and in prisons indeed it is present where there are people who needhelp and wherever there are people who can help”–Arthur J. HonesxkbMsUl desVh vkWiQ lkWYV flVh LowQyμus funsZ'ku dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs gq, fy[kk gS fdμ¶okLrfod vFkZesa izR;sd izdkj dh f'k{kk osQ vUrxZr] fdlh u fdlh izdkj dk funsZ'ku izkIr gSA blosQ }kjk f'k{kk dks oS;fDrdcukus dh ps"Vk izdV gksrh gSA bldk vfHkizk; ;g gS fd izR;sd f'k{kd dk ;g mÙkjnkf;Ro gS fd og viusNk k dh :fp;ksa] ;ksX;rkvksa ,oa Hkkoukvksa dks le s og mldh vko';drkvksa dh larqf"V osQ fy;s] 'kSf{kddk;ZØeksa esa vuqowQy ifjorZu yk;saA nwljs vFkZ esa] funsZ'ku dks ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh lsokvksa dh Ük a[kyk dgktkrk gSA blosQ vUrxZr] fo ky;h dk;ZØe dks izHkkoh cukus osQ fy;s os fØ;k;sa lfEefyr gSaA blosQ vUrxZr]fo ky;h dk;ZØe dks izHkkoh cukus osQ fy;s os fØ;k;sa lfEefyr dh tkrh gSa tks Nk kksa dh vko';drkvksa dksiwjk dj losaQA blosQ vUrxZr] fuEufyf[kr ;kstuk;sa mYys[kuh; gSaμ(1) Nk kksa dh okLrfod vko';drkvksa ,oa leL;kvksa dh tkudkjh izkIr djukA(2) Nk kksa osQ lEcUèk esa izkIr lwpukvksa osQ vkèkkj ij mudh oS;fDrd vko';drkvksa osQ vuqns'ku dksvuqowQfyr djus esa lgk;rk izkIr djukA(3) f'k{kdksa esa ckyd dh o f¼ ,oa fodkl osQ lEcUèk esa] vfèkdkfèkd vocksèk dh {kerk dk fodkl djukA(4) fof'k"V lsok;sa ;FkkμvfHkfoU;kl] oS;fDrd rkfydk] micksèku O;kid lwpuk ,oa lewg funsZ'ku ls oafprNk kksa osQ vuqorZu bR;kfn dk izkoèkku djukA(5) dk;ZØe dh liQyrk Kku djus okys 'kksèkksa dk lapkyuAMCY;w- ,y- fjUdy o vkj- ,y- fxyØLV osQ vuqlkjμ¶funsZ'ku dk vk'k; gSμNk k esa mi;qDr ,oa izkIrgks ldus ;ksX; mís';ksa osQ fuèkkZj.k dj ldus rFkk mUgsa izkIr djus gsrq okafNr ;ksX;rkvksa dk fodkl dj ldusesa lgk;rk iznku djuk ;k izsfjr djukA blosQ vko';d vax bl izdkj gSaμmís';ksa dk fu:i.k] vuqowQy vuqHkoksadk izkoèkku djuk] ;ksX;rkvksa dk fodkl djuk rFkk mís';ksa dh izkfIr djukA cqf¼eÙkkiw.kZ funsZ'ku osQ vHkkoesa f'k{k.k dks mÙke f'k{kk dh Js.kh esa ugha j[kk tk ldrk gS rFkk vPNs f'k{k.k osQ vHkko esa fn;k x;k funsZ'kuHkh viw.kZ gksrk gSA bl izdkj f'k{k.k ,oa funsZ'ku ,d nwljs osQ iwjd gSaA “Guidance means to stimulate and helps the students to set up worthwhile. Achievable purposeand develop abilities, which will make it possible form to achieve his purposes. The essentialselements are the setting up of purpose, the provision of experiences, the development ofabilities, and the achievement of purposes. Teaching withoug intelligent guidance can not begood teaching is incomplete. Teaching and guidance are inseparable.”–Rinkal and guilcrust4LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

bdkbZ—1% funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks kvesfjdk dh us'kuy oksosQ'kyu xkbMsUl ,slksfl,'ku us funsZ'ku dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs gq, fy[kk gSμ¶funsZ'kuog izfØ;k gS] ftlosQ }kjk O;fDr dks fodflr djus] vius lEcUèk esa i;kZIr ,oa lefUor djus rFkk dk;Z{ks k esa viuh Hkwfedk dks le us esa lgk;rk izkIr gksrh gSA lkFk gh blosQ }kjk O;fDr viuh bl èkkj.kk dks;FkkFkZ esa ifjo rr dj nsrk gSA uksVGuidance is the process of helping persons to develop and acept and integrated and adequatepicture of himself and of his role in the world of work, to test this concept against reality andto convert it into reality with satisfaction to himself and benefit to society.”–A.N.V.G. Associationek;lZ osQ vuqlkjμ¶funsZ'ku] O;fDr dh tUetkr 'kfDr;ksa o izf'k{k.k ls v tr {kerkvksa dks lajf{kr j[kusdk ,d ewy iz;kl gSA bl laj{k.k osQ fy;s og O;fDr dks mu leLr lkèkuksa ls lEiUu cukrk gS] ftlls ogviuh rFkk lekt dh lUrqf"V osQ fy;s] viuh mPpre 'kfDr;ksa dk vUos"k.k dj losaQA Vsªlyj osQ erkuqlkjμ¶funsZ'ku og gS] ftlesa izR;sd O;fDr dks viuh ;ksX;rkvksa ,oa :fp;ksa dks le us] mUgsa;FkklEHko fodflr djus] mUgsa thou y{;ksa ls la;qDr djus rFkk vUrr% viuh lkekftd O;oLFkk osQ okaNuh;lnL; dh n f"V ls ,d iw.kZ ,oa ifjiDo vkRe&funsZ'ku dh fLFkfr rd igq¡pus esa lgk;d gksrk gSA yisQoj dh n f"V esaμ¶funsZ'ku] 'kSf{kd izfØ;k dh ml O;ofLFkr ,oa xfBr voLFkk dks dgk tkrk gS tks;qok oxZ dks vius thou esa Bksl fcUnq o fn'kk iznku djus dh {kerk dks c kus esa lgk;rk iznku djrkgS ftlls mldh O;fDrxr vuqHko esa le f¼ osQ lkFk&lkFk vius iztkrkfU kd lekt esa viuk futh ;ksxnkulEHko gks losQA LVªIl ,oa fy.MfDoLV osQ vuqlkjμfunsZ'ku O;fDr osQ vius fy;s ,oa lekt osQ fy;s vfèkdre ykHknk;dfn'kk esa mldh lEHkkfor] vfèkdre {kerk rd fodkl esa lgk;d rFkk fujurj pyus okyh izfØ;k gSA Lo&ewY;kadu (Self Assessment)1-lgh fodYi pqfu, (Multiple Choice Questions)μ(i) funsZ'ku izfØ;k gksrh gSμ(a) cky osQfUnzr(b) mís'; osQfUnzr(c) leL;k osQfUnzr(d) mijksDr lHkhA(ii) funsZ'ku izfØ;k dk mís'; gksrk gSμ(a) O;fDrRo dk fodkl(b) lkekthdj.k(c) ukxfjdrk dk fodkl(d) mijksDr lHkhA(iii) funsZ'ku dh O;oLFkk dh tkrh gSμ(a) leL;k dh tkudkjh(b) lgk;rk djus(c) vuqlj.k djus(d) mijksDr lHkhA(iv) funsZ'ku ,d lgk;d izfofèk gSμ(a) f'k{k.k dh(b) vuqns'ku dh(c) izf'k{k.k dh(d) mijksDr lHkh dhA(v) funsZ'ku ,d lqO;ofLFkr izfØ;k gSμ(a) vkSipkfjd(b) vukSipkfjd(c)nksuksa gh(d)mijksDr dksbZ ughaALOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY5

funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZuksV1-2 funsZ'ku dh fo'ks"krk;sa (Characteristics of Guidance)mijksDr ifjHkk"kkvksa osQ funsZ'ku dh fo'ks"krkvksa] dk;ks ,oa mís';ksa dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gSA funsZ'ku dh izeq[kfo'ks"krk;sa fuEukafdr gSaμ(1) funsZ'ku thou esa vkxs c us esa lgk;d gksrh gSA f'k{k.k dh Hkk¡fr funsZ'ku Hkh fodkl dh izfØ;k gSA(2) funsZ'ku }kjk O;fDr dks vius fu.kZ; Lo;a ys ldus esa l{ke cukuk gS rFkk viuk Hkkj Lo;a ogu djusesa lgk;rk djuk gSA(3) blosQ vUrxZr ,d O;fDr] nwljs O;fDr dks mldh leL;kvksa ,oa lek;kstu osQ fodYiksa osQ p;u esalgk;d gksrk gSA ;g thou osQ izR;sd {ks k dh leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku esa lgk;rk iznku djrh gSA(4) funsZ'ku f'k{kk dh izfØ;k osQ vUrxZr O;kIr gksrk gSA izR;sd f'k{kk dks vius Nk k dh :fp;ksa] ;ksX;rkvksa,oa {kerkvksa dks le dj muosQ vuqoQw y lh[kus dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks izLrqr djs ftlls mudh vko';drkvksadh lUrqf"V dh tk losQA(5) funsZ'ku esa Nk kksa dh oS;fDrd vko';drkvksa osQ vuq:i vuqns'ku dks vuqowQfyr djus esa lgk;rk iznkudjrh gSA(6) izHkko'kkyh f'k{k.k rFkk vuqns'ku esa funsZ'ku izfØ;k fufgr gksrh gSA cqf¼eÙkkiw.kZ funsZ'ku osQ vHkko esaf'k{k.k izfØ;k viw.kZ gksrh gSA(7) funsZ'ku }kjk O;fDr dks fodflr djus] vius lEcUèk esa i;kZIr ,oa lefUor tkudkjh djkus rFkkO;olkf;d thou esa viuh Hkwfedk dks le us esa lgk;rk iznku djuk gSA(8) funsZ'ku O;fDr dh tUetkr ;ksX;rkvksa o 'kfDr;ksa rFkk izf'k{k.k ls vusd dkS'kyksa dks lajf{kr j[kus dkewy iz;kl gSA(9) funsZ'ku O;fDr osQ vius fy;s ,oa lekt osQ fy;s vfèkd ykHknk;d fn'kk esa mldh vfèkdre {kerk osQfodkl esa fujUrj lgk;d gksrk gSA(10) funsZ'ku] f'k{kk izfØ;k dh og voLFkk gS ftlesa Nk k dks mldh ;ksX;rkvksa ,oa {kerkvksa osQ vuq:ivè;;u ikB ;Øekas osQ p;u esa rFkk jsktxkj osQ p;u esa lgk;rk iznku djrk gSAfunsZ'ku dh fo'ks"krkvksa ls Kkr gksrk gS fd funsZ'ku ekuo thou osQ fodkl ,oa lek;kstu dh egRoiw.kZ izfØ;kgS tks thou i;ZUr fujarj pyrh gSA funsZ'ku f'k{kk dk vfHkUu vax gSA O;fDr dh lHkh izdkj dh leL;kvksa rFkklek;kstu osQ lekèkku esa lgk;d gksrh gSA funsZ'ku f'k{kk dh lgk;d izfofèk gSAO;fDr dh euks&'kkjhfjd fo'ks"krkvksa] euksa&fodkjksa] laosxkRed vfLFkjrkvksa vkfn dhleqfpr tkudkjh osQ vkèkkj ij O;fDr dks oS;fDrd ,oa lkekftd leL;kvksa osQlekèkku gsrq lgk;rk iznku dh tkuh laHko gS] bl izdkj dh lgk;rk] oS;fDrdfunsZ'ku osQ {ks k esa iznku dh tkrh gSA1-3 funsZ'ku dh izÑfr (Nature of Guidance)funsZ'ku ,d ,slh egRoiw.kZ izfØ;k gS tks ekuoh; thou esa] ,d fof'k"V lsok osQ :i esa viuk ;ksxnku nsrhgSA bl izfØ;k osQ vUrxZr ,d vfèkd ;ksX;] fuiq.k vFkok l{ke O;fDr vius ls de ;ksX;] voqQ'ky vFkok6LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

bdkbZ—1% funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks kvl{ke O;fDr dks lgk;rk iznku djrk gS] lq koksa osQ :i esa] oSpkfjd Lrj ij iznku dh tkus okyh ;g lgk;rkfdlh Hkh {ks k esa iznku dh tk ldrh gSA funsZ'ku dh ;g fo'ks"krk gS fd bl izfØ;k osQ vUrxZr] O;fDr ijoqQN Fkksius osQ LFkku ij mlosQ LokHkkfod fodkl dks gh egRo iznku fd;k tkrk gS rFkk O;fDr dks fodkliFk ij vxzlkfjr djus esa lgk;rk iznku djuk gh bl izfØ;k dk egRoiw.kZ mís'; gksrk gSA bl izdkj lq koijd lgk;rk osQ vkèkkj ij O;fDr dh liQyrk dh lEHkkoukvksa esa o f¼ djuk rFkk O;fDr ,oa lekt dkdY;k.k djus gsrq funsZ'ku lsokvksa dk vR;fèkd egRo gSAuksVnk'kZfud] lkekftd ,oa euksoSKkfud rhuksa izdkj ls funsZ'ku dk egRo gksrk gSA bu rhuksa {ks kksa ls lEcfUèkrvkèkkjksa vFkok fl¼kUrksa dk è;ku j[kdj gh bl izfØ;k dk lapkyu fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] nk'kZfud n f"Vls O;fDr osQ lexz vFkok lok xh.k rFkk lefUor fodkl ij cy fn;k tkrk gS rFkk euksoSKkfud fl¼kUrksa osQvuqlkj O;fDr osQ LokHkkfod rFkk oS;fDrd fofHkUurkvksa ij vkèkkfjr fodkl dks egRo iznku fd;k tkrk gSAfunsZ'ku dh izfØ;k osQ ekè;e ls ftrus Hkh iz;kl fd, tkrs gSa mu leLr iz;klksa dk mís'; O;fDr dk lexz,oa lefUor fodkl djuk gh gSA lkFk gh funs'Z ku osQ vUrxZr iznku dh tkus okyh lq kokRed lgk;rk] oS;fDrdfofHkUurkvksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj gh iznku dh tkrh gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd bl izfØ;k esa O;fDr osQ lgt ,oaLokHkkfod fodkl dks gh izeq[krk iznku dh tkrh gSA bl izdkj lkekftd vko';drkvksa] vis{kkvksa] ekU;rkvkas]ekun.Mksa] ewY;ksa vkfn osQ vkèkkj ij O;fDr dks fodflr gksus esa lgk;rk iznku djuk Hkh funsZ'ku dk ,degRoiw.kZ mís'; gSA funsZ'ku osQ }kjk lek;kstu dh {kerk osQ fodkl esa lgk;d gksuk rFkk lkekftd leL;kvkas,oa lkekftd vko';drkvksa ls O;fDr dks ifjfpr djkdj] lekt dY;k.k dh fn'kk eas izsfjr djuk] ;g fl¼djrk gS fd funsZ'ku osQ vUrxZr] lekt'kkL kh; vkèkkjksa dks Hkh leku :i ls egRo iznku fd;k tkrk gSA vr%;g ,d ,slh izfØ;k gS] ftlesa Kku dh rhuksa 'kk[kkvksa (n'kZu] euksfoKku ,oa lekt'kkL k) ls lEcfUèkrlS¼kfUrd vkèkkjksa dks lefUor egRo iznku fd;k tkrk gSAfunsZ'ku dh mijksDr izÑfr osQ vkèkkj ij mldh oqQN izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ Li"V gksrh gSaA bu fo'ks"krkvksa dk mYys[kfuEufyf[kr gSaμ(1) funsZ'ku dh mijksDr i¼fr O;fDr ,oa lewg nksuksa ls gh lEcfUèkr gksrh gSA(2) funsZ'ku dk Lo:i cgq&i{kh; gksrk gSA(3) funsZ'ku osQ lEcUèk esa fofoèk izdkj dh tkudkjh izkIr djus osQ fy,] fofHkUu fofèk;ksa ,oa izfofèk;ksa dkiz;ksx la;qDr :i ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA(4) funsZ'ku dk lEcUèk O;fDr osQ lexz i{kksa osQ fodkl ls gksrk gSA(5) O;fDrfu"B (Subjective) ,oa oLrqfu"BvUrxZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA(Objective)nksuksa gh izdkj osQ ijh{k.kksa dk iz;ksx] funsZ'ku osQ(6) funsZ'ku osQ vkèkkj ij O;fDr ,oa lekt] nksuksa dh gh izxfr ,oa fodkl gsrq iz;kl fd;k tkrk gSA(7) ;g leL;k osQfUnzr(Problem Centered),oa izkFkhZ osQfUnzr(Client Centered)izfØ;k gSA(8) O;fDr dks vkRe&funsZ'ku osQ ;ksX; cukuk gh bl izfØ;k dk izeq[k mís'; gSA(9) ;g fofHkUu {ks kksa esa lek;kstu dh {kerk dk fodkl djus esa lgk;d gSA(10) bl izfØ;k dk rkRdkfyd mís';] O;fDr dh rkRdkfyd leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku esa lgk;rk djuk gSA1-4 funsZ'ku osQ {ks k (Scope of Guidance)O;fDr osQ thou ls lEcfUèkr izR;sd {ks k esa fdlh u fdlh izdkj dh leL;k dk gksuk LokHkkfod gSA buleL;kvksa dk lekèkku fd;s fcuk izxfr&iFk ij fujarj vkxs c rs jguk furkUr vlEHko gSA dksbZ Hkh O;fDrLOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY7

funsZ'ku rFkk ijke'kZuksVftl {k.k bu leL;kvksa dk lekèkku djus dh fn'kk esa grksRlkfgr gks tkrk gS] mlh {k.k mldh izxfr vo:¼gks tkrh gSA bl n f"V ls leL;k lekèkku dh {kerk dk fodkl fdruk vfèkd egRoiw.kZ gS] bldk lgt ghvuqeku yxk;k tk ldrk gSA funsZ'ku ,d ,slh izfØ;k gS tks O;fDr esa bl {kerk dk fodkl djus esa lokZfèkdlgk;d gS] lkFk gh ;g Hkh mYys[kuh; gS fd thou ls lEcfUèkr izk;% izR;sd {ks k esa mRiUu gksus okyh leL;kvksadk lekèkku djus dh ;ksX;rk dk fodkl djus esa funsZ'ku lgk;d gSA bl vkèkkj ij funsZ'ku osQ {ks k dh dYiukdjuk dfBu ugha gSA oLrqr% tgk¡&tgk¡ Hkh leL;k gS ogk¡] funsZ'ku iznku djus dh lEHkkouk fufgr gSA vr%funsZ'ku dk {ks k vR;ar O;kid gSA fiQj Hkh bl izfØ;k dk {ks k izeq[k :i ls f'k{kk] O;olk; ,oa oS;fDrdleL;kvksa osQ lekèkku rd gh lhfer jgrk gSA fo'ks"kdj Hkkjr esa funsZ'ku lsokvksa dk dk;Z {ks k vHkh rd lhfergh gSA'kSf{kd funsZ'ku osQ {ks k esa funsZ'ku izfØ;k dk mi;ksx vusd izdkj ls fd;k tkrk gS ;Fkkμ(1) okafNr ikB ;Øeij vkèkkfjr fo"k;ksa dk p;u djus esa (2) ikB ;&lgxkeh fØ;kvksa osQ p;u gsrq (3) uohu ikB ;Øe osQ lEcUèkesa fu.kZ; ysus esa (4) vfèkxe izfØ;k osQ fujUrj] visf{kr miyfCèk Lrj cuk;s j[kus dh n f"V ls (5) jk"Vªh;,drk ij vkèkkfjr dk;ZØeksa esa Hkkx ysus gsrq izsfjr djus dh n f"V ls (6) viO;; ,oa vojksèku dh leL;kdk lekèkku djus osQ fy;s (7) izkS f'k{kk ij vkèkkfjr dk;ZØeksa dh fn'kk esa izsfjr djus gsrq] vkfnA'kSf{kd {ks k osQ leku gh O;kolkf;d {ks k esa Hkh funsZ'ku dh Hkwfedk dk fo'ks"k egRo gSA bl {ks k esa ;g izfØ;kvusd n f"Vdks.k ls lgk;d gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZμ(1) ;ksX;rkuqowQy O;olk; dk p;u djus esa (2) O;kolkf;d {ks kesa gksus okys ifjorZuksa ls ifjfpr djkus osQ fy, (3) O;olkf;d voljksa esa fofoèkrk dh n f"V ls (4) Je,oa m ksx dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa okafNr ifjorZu djus osQ fy, (5) fof'k"Vhdj.k dh fn'kk esa izsfjr djus gsrq rFkk(6) uo&fodflr rduhdh ls ifjfpr djkus osQ fy,] vkfnAblh izdkj oS;fDrd leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku gsrq Hkh funsZ'ku dk O;kid mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS] ;Fkkμ(1)ladV dkyhu fLFkfr osQ fujUrj ekufld ,oa laosxkRed lUrqyu cuk, j[kus esa (2) O;fDrxr leL;k dklekèkku djus gsrq okafNr fu.kZ; 'kfDr dk fodkl djus esa (3) O;fDr lek;kstu esa o f¼ djus gsrq (4)ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ ls eqDr gksus esa (5) ikfjokfjd thou esa lek;kstu dh n f"V ls (5) vodk'k osQ le; dklnqi;skx djus osQ fy,] bR;kfnA'kSf{kd] O;olkf;d ,oa oS;fDrd {ks kksa esa funsZ'ku dh mijksDr Hkwfedk ls ;g Li"V gks tkrk gS fd funsZ'ku dk{ks k vfèkd O;kid gSA bu {ks kksa ls lEcfUèkr leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku esa O;fDr dks l{ke cukus osQ vfrfjDr;g Hkh mYys[kuh; gS fd bu leL;kvksa osQ lekèkku gsrq O;fDr dks l{ke cukus osQ fy, ,d funsZ'ku iznkudjus okys O;fDr dks vusd fo"k;ksa osQ lefUor vè;;u dh vko';drk gksrh gSA fo'ks"kdj euksfoKku]lekt'kkL k ,oa n'kZu dk vè;;u] ,d funsZ'ku iznkrk osQ fy, ije vko';d gSA lekt dh vko';drkvksa]ifjfLFkfr;ksa ,oa rkRdkfyd leL;kvksa dk vè;;u rFkk O;fDr osQ fodkl dh izfØ;k dks le kus osQ mijkargh ;g lEHko gks ldrk gS fd dksbZ O;fDr funsZ'ku iznku djus dh fn'kk esa dkS'ky izkIr dj losQA blosQ lkFkgh ;g Hkh vko';d gS fd mls funsZ'ku dh fofèk ,oa O;fDr dh tkudkjh iznku djus okys ijh{k.kksa osQ iz'kkluo vkdyu dk leqfpr Kku gksAfofo/ {ks kksa esa funsZ'ku dh mi;ksfxrk fyf[k,A8LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

bdkbZ—1% funsZ'ku % vFkZ] izÑfr rFkk {ks kLo&ewY;kadu (Self Assessment)uksV2- fjDr LFkkuksa dh iw r djsa (Fill in the blanks)μ1. funsZ'ku izfØ;k O;fDr dh ------------------------ djrh gSA2. funsZ'ku ------------------------ dh ,d izfØ;k gSA3. funsZ'ku dh izfØ;k ------------------------ osQfUnzr gksrh gSA4. funsZ'ku dh izfØ;k ls ----

1. understand the concepts of guidance and counseling. 2. understand testing and non-testing techniques in guidance service. 3. understand the types of counseling and qualities of an effective counselor. Sr. No. Content 1 Guidance: Meaning, Nature and Scope, Guidance: Goals and Principles, N

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