Common Vocabulary In Urdu And Turkish Language: A Case Of .

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Common Vocabulary in Urdu and TurkishLanguage: A Case of HistoricalOnomasiologyMaría Isabel Maldonado GarcíaMustafa YapiciThe current study must be framed within the discipline ofapplied and historical linguistics and historical onomasiology.One hundred and fifty apparent cognates in Turkish and Urdulanguages will be analyzed in order to confirm their origin as wellas lexical similarity through their distance. This research work hasthe purpose of discovering whether the similar terms analyzed inthis study are cognates or rather loanwords that Turkish and Urduhave borrowed from different languages. In addition, the level ofsimilarity through etymological, lexical and semantic comparativeanalysis will be revealed with the same purpose.Turkish LanguageTurkish is a member of the Altaic family of languages.According to Ethnologue its classification is Altaic, Turkic,Southern, Turkish and it is spoken by approximately 50 millionpeople, not only in Turkey, where it is the national language, butalso in Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.1

194Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1Table 1Altaic Languages- Turkish2During the Ottoman Empire which lasted more than 600years, the Turkish language flourished as the language of theadministration, receiving loanwords from Arabic and Persian.The language was then named Ottoman Turkish, actually a formalversion of the everyday spoken Turkish of the time. Some ofAtaturk’s reforms included a new Turkish alphabet. However,“the aim of the Turkish language reform was to eliminate the Arabic andPersiangrammatical features and the many thousands of Arabic andPersian borrowings that had long been a part of the language.” (1999,2)3. The borrowing of Persian words was without any doubt of aconsiderable importance. Arabic on the other hand had a largerinfiltration, due to two main factors; a religious factor since it isthe language of the Quran and the other because Persian languagehad itself borrowed innumerable terms from Arabic and when anArabic term was borrowed it brought with it the complete familyof that very term (1999, 6)4. The new Turkish as proposed byAtatürk, aimed to eliminate the Persian and Arabic borrowings

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language195from the Turkish language. In this manner, Suleyman Pasha wasthe first to publish a grammar of the new Turkish language whichwas titled Ilm-I Sarf-i Türki in 1874. Turkish language alsostopped being called Ottoman by virtue of the Constitution of1876 and retained its official status as Turkish language. The firstdictionary of Turkish Language Kamus-i-Türki (1900) of twovolumes was written by Şemseddin Sami which was an attempt torid Turkish language of its Arabic and Persian elements.Turkish had utilized a Perso-Arabic script for thousands ofyears. Şemseddin Sami with Abdul Bey, his brother, created analphabet composed by 36 letters from Latin and Greek. After thismove, an Alphabet Commission was created which took severalsteps for ridding all remains of Persian and Arabic from theTurkish language by changing the pronunciation of the Arabicsounds. Another step taken by Atatürkwas to propose Turkishsubstitutes for the Arabic and Persian terms on the newspapersand let the public comment on them. A Language Society wascreated in 1931 as well, following the wishes of Atatürk, and itspurpose was not only ridding the Turkish language from thePersian and Arabic influence it had enjoyed until then. Theaftermath of this linguistic reform was a modernization effort.The aim of this effort included the thought that at some point inthe future, when the new generations would learn the new scriptthey would be unable to read the old script and the works in thenew script would be controlled by the government. At the sametime, since the old script would not be read, the old Islamic worksin Arabic and Persian would progressively lose their influence,achieving the modernization Atatürk so much craved. TheLanguage Society was to exist even after Ataturk’s governmentand for this reason, it was made a non-governmental entity.As the language reform achieved a substantial amount ofobjectives in a short span of time, it cannot be said that it was nota successful attempt. However, a large number of terms fromArabic and Persian still remain an essential part of the Turkish

196Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1language through a considerable part of the rich Ottomanlinguistic heritage has forever been lost. It is perhaps due to thiscontradiction that Geoffrey termed the reform a catastrophic success(1999).Urdu LanguageUrdu is a South Asian language from the Indo-Europeanfamily, and within the central zone’s Indo-Iranian branch.Ethnologue classifies it as Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, IndoAryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani5. It has 193,238, 868 speakers in Pakistan where it is the official languagealong with English, although other languages and dialects arespoken in the country such as Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Pashto,Balochi, etc.6 Because of the neighborhood relationship in thesegeographies, Turkish has lots of similar words with Urdu,Chinese, Persian, Arabic, and other languages.In fact, the evolution of Urdu language started with contactwith Persian and Arabic due to the invasions on India by Persianand Turkic armies in the 11th century and afterwards. It continuedfrom the Delhi Sultanate (1206 to 1526) and later on during theMughal Empire (1526 to 1858). Already in 1908 Dowson said“Urdu abounds with Arabic derivatives which have brought with them thegrammatical powers of their original language” (1908, 18)7.Interestingly enough, the word Urdu, derives from theTurkish ordu, which means army. Urdu language is written inutilizing the Persian alphabet to, Nastaliq style. Both languageshave received Persian loanwords due to the closeness among thecountries. Iran shares borders with Pakistan as well as Turkeywhich facilitated the expansion of the Farsi terminology.

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language197Table 2Indoeuropean Languages -Urdu8The expansion of Islam and Saudi Arabia’s proximity to bothcountries facilitated the spread of Arabic as the language of Quranand a new form of life which included innumerable words for thenew realities which could only be named using the original termsin Arabic.Like in Turkish, there have been purists attempts which triedto rid Urdu of Persian and Sanskrit loanwords. According toMaldonado (2013)9, the new vocabulary of Urdu is derived mainlyfrom Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit, although also from Prakrit witha minimum influence from other languages.

198Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1This map illustrates the closenessamong Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia.Cognates or loanwords?The main purpose of this study is to figure out whether thesets which will be analyzed in this study are cognates orloanwords. For Whitley, “a given word W from Language X and aword W from Language Y are termed cognates if and only if they havebeen inherited from the same ancestor language of X and Y”, and if theirsimilarity is a coincidence they are not considered true cognates(2002, 305)10.Holmes & Ramos define cognates as “ítems ofvocabulary in two languages which have the same roots and can berecognized as such” (1993, 88)11.On the other hand, “The best-known generalization about lexicalborrowing is the constraint that core vocabulary is very rarely (or never)borrowed”. (2009, 36)12 Of the same opinion are Hock & Joseph(1996)13 as well as Thomason (2001)14. Loanwords can berecognized if their form and meanings have considerablesimilarities with the form and meanings of a word in anotherlanguage from which it could have been received due to a possiblehistorical event and scenario having in consideration the exclusion

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language199the chance for descent from a common ancestor and if there is asource word to which it can be traced orlinked. (Haspelmath &Tadmor, 2009)15. Thurgood (1999)16 adds to the equation thesimilarity of the phonemes through which they can be recognized.Language contact does not require complete bilingualism, ormultilingualism either, rather, the utilization or presence of twolanguages in one location, at the same time. For Maldonado(2013)17 one of the relevant aspects of semantic relations or lexicalsolidarities apart from etymology is synonymy. Synonymy willplay a vital role in the identification process. In this case we willhave to reveal whether the sets have a common origin or not andif they do, whether they actually belong to the language itself orare in fact borrowings from the same language. At this point wewill proceed to the analysis of the Turkish-Urdu sets, of term.1. MethodologyThe sample of our investigation consists of 150 sets of Turkishand Urdu terms. The degree of similarity with reference todifferent aspects of linguistics will be assessed. These aspectsinclude:1. Identification of the Turkish-Urdu Sets.2. Etymological Aspects. The etymology of each wordin Turkish language will be extracted and comparedwith its counterpart in Urdu language in order tocontrast the origins of both terms and verify whether,in fact, they are loanwords received from the samelanguage directly, they have been received throughanother language or rather, the terms are cognates.3. Interlingual Synonymy Related Aspects.3.1 Semantic analysis. Definitions will be compared inorder to find out if the loanwords are synonymic ornot.

200Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.13.2 Phonetic analysis. The phonetics of the word pairswill be compared under the following parameters:a. There is no difference in phonetics.b. The difference is one or two sounds, usually at theend.c. The difference is found in two or more differentsounds, sometimes at the initial position.d. The difference is more than half of sounds.e. The difference is based on that most of the sounds aredifferent and have an uneven layout.f. The Levenshtein distance will also be used as a factorto determine the level of phonetic similarity amongthe loanwords.2. Results1. Identification of the Turkish-Urdu Sets.The identification of the 150 sets of terms was performedduring our interaction with Pakistani individuals as well asstudents of Turkish language. One hundred and fifty pairs ofterms were identified and selected due to the fact thay theypresented similarity in terms of semantics and phonetics in bothlanguages.The list of terms is as follows:Table 3List of Terms with Phonetic Equivalence123456TurkishUrduTurkish PhoneticsUrdu Phoneticsacizadiadilafiyetafitapagah ﻋﺎﺟﺰ یﻋﺎد ﻋﺪل تیﻋﺎف آﻓﺘﺎب آﮔﺎﮦ ][ɑ:ftʌb][ɑ:gɑ:h]

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish d آﺧﺮ اﺣﻮال ﻋﺎﻗﺒـــﺖ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ اﻻؤ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠــہ ﻋﺎرف ارض آﺳﻤﺎن ﻋﺬاب یﺑــﺎق ﺑﻌـــﺾ ﺑﻠﮑــــــہ ﺑـــﺮادر ﺑﻘﭽــــہ ﺑُﻠﺒﻞ ﺟﻼد ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺖ تیﺟﻤﻊ ﺟﻨﺖ ﺟﺮاح ﺟﻤﮩﻮر ﺟﻤﻠـہ ﭼﺸﻤہ ﭼﻮﻧﮑـــہ دﻻﻟـــﺖ درﺟہ درس داﺳـــﺘﺎن ﮔــﺮید تیاﮨﻢ اﻣﺮ ریام اﻣــﻼک اﺷﺮف اول تیاول یﻓــﺎن ﻓﺎﻋــﺪﮦ ﻓﻠﺴــــــﻔہ ﻓﻨـــﺎ ﻓــﺮاخ ﻓﺮﻣــﺎن ﻓــﺮد ﻓﺴـــﺎد rs][dɛstɑ:n][di: ɛr][ɛhɛmnɪyɛt][ɛmɪr][ɛmi: yʌt][ʌmr][ɛmi: mʌn][fɛrd][fɛsɑ:d]

tan Vision Vol. 15 inLanetLazimlezizLutufmacburi ﻓﺘﻨـــــہ ﻏﻔﻠـــﺖ ﻏﺎﺋــﺐ ﺧــﺒﺮ ﻓــہیﺧﻞ ﺧﺎن راتیخ ﺧﻮش ﺧﺮﻣﺎ ﺧﺪا اِﺻﺮار ﺟﺎدیا اِﺣﺴﺎن اِﻣﺪاد اﻣﮑــﺎن اﻣﺘﺤــﺎن تیﻋﻨـﺎ ﮔﻮﺷـــہ ﮐــﻦیل ﻟﻌﻨـــﺖ ی ﻻزم ذیﻟــﺬ ﻟﻄــﻒ یﻣﺠﺒــﻮر emüşkülNabizNakilnakliyeNazarNefis ﻣﻐﺮب ﻣﺨﻠــﻮق ﻣﺨﻤﻮر ﻣﺤﺮ و تی ﻣﺤﺸﺮ ﻣﺤﺼــﻮل ﻣﺤﺴﻮس ﻣﺤﺰن ﻣﻘــﺎم ﻣﻌﻠــﻮم ﻣﻌﺼـــﻮم ﻣﺠﺒــﻮر ﻣﺪد ﻣﮑﺘــــﻮب ﻣﻨــﺖ ﻣﻌﺠﺰﮦ ﻣﺸـــﮑﻞ ﻧﺒــــﺾ ﻧﻘـــﻞ ﮦیﻧــﮏ ﻧﻈــﺮ ﻧﻔـــﺲ ]

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish niteselliümitüstâdvaatVakitVatanVefavekil ﻧﮩــﺮ ﻧﺴــﻞ ﻧﺰاﮐـــﺖ ﻧﺰﻟـــہ ﻧﮑـــﺎح ﻧﺴــــﺒﺖ ازین تین ﻧﻤﻮﻧــــہ ﭘـــﺎک ﺑــﺎزار ریﭘــﻦ یراض رﻧــﮓ رﺳـــﺎﻟہ روح ﺳﺎز ﺳـــﻔﺮ ﺳﺮ ﻧــہیس ﺳـــﺮﮐہ ﺳﻮز ﺳـﻮال یﺻــﺮاح ﺳﺎس تیﺷﺨﺺ ﺷــــﺒﻨﻢ ﺷـﮩﺮ دیﺷـہ ﺷــﮩﺰادﮦ ﺷـــﮑﺮ تیﺷـــﮑﺎ ﺷــہیش ﻃﺎﻗــﺖ ریﺗﻘــــﺪ ﺗﻤــﺎم ﻃﺮف ﺗﻤﻨــــﺎ یﺗﺴـــﻞ دیام اﺳـــﺘﺎد وﻋﺪﮦ وﻗــﺖ وﻃﻦ وﻓــﺎ لیوک [nɪsbɛt][nɪyɑ:z][nɪyɛt][ ][nɪkɑ:h][nɪsbɛt][nɪyɑ:z][nɪyɛt][ ɛkɪl]

204145146147148149150Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1yaniYarziyadezamanezeminzor یﻋﻦی اری ادﮦیز زﻣﺎﻧــہ نیزم زور [zɒr]2. Etymological Aspects:The origin of the termswill be a determining factor inrevealing whether the terms are cognates or loanwords. For thispurpose an etymological analysis18 has been performed.Theresults are as follows:Table 4Terms with Etymology in Arabic LanguageTurkishUrduTurkish PhoneticsUrdu PhoneticsEtymologyof TurkishEtymologyof Urdu1aciz ﻋﺎﺟﺰ [ɑ:dʒɪz][ɑ:dʒɪz]ArabicArabic2adi یﻋﺎد [ɑ:dɪ][ɑ:dɪ]ArabicArabic3adil ﻋﺪل [ɑ:dɪl][ɑ:dəl]ArabicArabic4afiyet تیﻋﺎف [ɑ:fɪyɛt][ɑ:fɪyət]ArabicArabic5ahir آﺧﺮ [ɑ:hɪr][ɑ:khɪr]ArabicArabic6ahval اﺣﻮال [ahvɑ:l][ahvɑ:l]ArabicArabic7akibet ﻋﺎﻗﺒـــﺖ [ɑ:qɪbɛt][ɑ:qɪbʌt]ArabicArabic8alem ﻋﺎﻟﻢ [ɑ:lɛm][ɑ:lɛm]ArabicArabic9amel ﻋﻤﻞ [ʌmɛl][ʌmʌl]ArabicArabic1011amelearif ﻋﻤﻠــہ ﻋﺎرف rabicArabic12Arş ارض [ʌrʃ][arz]ArabicArabic13azap ﻋﺬاب [ʌzɑ:p][ʌzʌb]ArabicArabic14baki یﺑــﺎق [bɑ:ki:][bɑ:ki:]ArabicArabic15bazı ﺑﻌـــﺾ [bɑ:zə][bɑ:z]ArabicArabic16cellat ﺟﻼد [dʒɛllʌt][dʒɛllʌd]ArabicArabic17cemaat ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺖ [dʒɛmɑ:t][dʒɛmɑ:t]ArabicArabic18cemiyet تیﺟﻤﻊ [dʒɛmɪyɛt][dʒʌmɪyʌt]ArabicArabic19Cennet ﺟﻨﺖ [dʒɛnnɛt][dʒʌnnʌt]ArabicArabic20cerrah ﺟﺮاح [dʒɛrrʌh][dʒɛrrʌh]ArabicArabic21cumhur ﺟﻤﮩﻮر [dʒʊmhu:r][dʒʊmhu:r]ArabicArabic

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language20522cümle ﺟﻤﻠـہ [dʒʊmlɛ][dʒʊmlɛ]ArabicArabic23delalet دﻻﻟـــﺖ [dɛlɑ:lɛt][dɛlɑ:lɛt]ArabicArabic24derece درﺟہ [dɛrɛdʒɛ][dʌrɛdʒɑ:]ArabicArabic25ders درس [dɛrs][dɛrs]ArabicArabic26ehemniyet تیاﮨﻢ [ɛhɛmnɪyɛt][ɑ:hmɪyʌt]ArabicArabic27emir ریام [ɛmi: r][ɛmi: r]ArabicArabic28emlak اﻣــﻼک [ɛmlʌk][ɛmlʌk]ArabicArabic29eşref اﺷﺮف [ɛʃrɛf][ɛʃrɛf]ArabicArabic30evvel اول [ɛvvɛl][ɛvvɛl]ArabicArabic31evveliyat تیاول [ɛvvɛlɪyɑ:t][ɛvvɛlɪyɑ:t]ArabicArabic32fani یﻓــﺎن [fɑ:ni:][fɑ:ni:]ArabicArabic33Fayda ﻓﺎﻋــﺪﮦ [fʌydʌ][fʌydʌ]ArabicArabic34felsefe ﻓﻠﺴــــﻒ ﮦ [fɛlsɛfɛ][fɛlsɛfɛ]ArabicArabic35fena ﻓﻨـــﺎ [fɛnɑ:][fɛnɑ:]ArabicArabic36fert ﻓــﺮد [fɛrt][fɛrd]ArabicArabic37fesad ﻓﺴـــﺎد [fɛsɑ:d][fɛsɑ:d]ArabicArabic38fitne ﻓﺘﻨـــــہ [fɪtnɛ][fɪtnʌ]ArabicArabic39gaflet ﻏﻔﻠـــﺖ [gʌflɛt]GhaflatArabicArabic40gaip ﻏﺎﺋــﺐ [gɑ:ɪp]GaybArabicArabic41haber ﺧــﺒﺮ [hʌbɛr]KhabarArabicArabic42halife ﻓــہیﺧﻞ [hʌli:fɛ]KhaliifaaArabicArabic43hayrat راتیخ [hʌyrɑ:t][Kkhʌyrɑ:t]ArabicArabic44ısrar اِﺻﺮار [əsrʌr][əsrʌr]ArabicArabic45icat ﺟﺎدیا [i:jʌt][i:jʌd]ArabicArabic46ihsan اِﺣﺴﺎن [ɪhsʌn][ɪhsɑ:n]ArabicArabic47imdat اِﻣﺪاد [ɪmdʌt][ɪmdʌd]ArabicArabic48imkan اﻣﮑــﺎن [ɪmkɑ:n][ɪmkɑ:n]ArabicArabic49Imtihan اﻣﺘﺤــﺎن [ɪmtɪhɑ:n][ɪmtɪhɑ:n]ArabicArabic50inayet تیﻋﻨـﺎ [ɪnɑ:yɛt][ɪnɑ:yɛt]ArabicArabic51Lanet ﻟﻌﻨـــﺖ [lɑ:nɛt][lɑ:nɛt]ArabicArabic52Lazim ی ﻻزم [lɑ:zəm][lɑ:zmɪ]ArabicArabic53leziz ذیﻟــﺬ [lɛzi:z][lɛzi:z]ArabicArabic

206Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.154Lutuf ﻟﻄــﻒ [lʊtu:f][lʊtf]ArabicArabic55Macburi یﻣﺠﺒــﻮر [mɛdʒbu:rɪ][mɛdʒbu:rɪ]ArabicArabic56Magrip ﻣﻐﺮب [mʌgrɪb][mʌgrɪb]ArabicArabic57Mahluk ﻣﺨﻠــﻮق [mʌhlu:k][mʌkhlu:k]ArabicArabic58Mahmur ﻣﺨﻤﻮر [mʌhmu:r][mʌhmu:r]ArabicArabic59Mahrumiyet تیﻣﺤﺮ و م er ﻣﺤﺸﺮ [mʌhʃɛr][mʌhʃɛr]ArabicArabic61Mahsul ﻣﺤﺼــﻮل [mʌhsu:l][mʌhsu:l]ArabicArabic62Mahsus ﻣﺤﺴﻮس [mʌhsu:s][mʌhsu:s]ArabicArabic63Mahzen ﻣﺤﺰن [mʌhzɛn][mʌhzʌn]ArabicArabic64Makam ﻣﻘــﺎم [mʌkɑ:m][mʌkɑ:m]ArabicArabic65Malum ﻣﻌﻠــﻮم [mɑ:lu:m][mɑ:lu:m]ArabicArabic66Masum ﻣﻌﺼـــﻮم [mɑ:su:m][mɑ:su:m]ArabicArabic67Mecbur ﻣﺠﺒــﻮر [mɛdʒbu:r][mɛdʒbu:r]ArabicArabic68Medet ﻣﺪد [mɛdɛt][mɛdɛd]ArabicArabic69Mektup ﻣﮑﺘــــﻮب [mɛktʊp][mɛktʊb]ArabicArabic70Mucize ﻣﻌﺠﺰﮦ [mu:jɪzɛ][mu:jzʌ]ArabicArabic71Müşkül ﻣﺸـــﮑﻞ [muʃkul][muʃkɪl]ArabicArabic72Nabiz ﻧﺒــــﺾ [nʌbəz][nʌbz]ArabicArabic73Nakil ﻧﻘـــﻞ [nʌkɪl][nʌkəl]ArabicArabic74Nakliye ﮦیﻧــﮏ [nʌklɪyɛ][nʌklɪyɑ:]ArabicArabic75Nazar ﻧﻈــﺮ [nʌzɑ:r][nʌzɑ:r]ArabicArabic76Nefis ﻧﻔـــﺲ [nɛfɪs][nʌfs]ArabicArabic77Nehir ﻧﮩــﺮ [nɛhi:r][nʌhr]ArabicArabic78Nesil ﻧﺴــﻞ [nɛsɪl][nʌsəl]ArabicArabic79Nezle ﻧﺰﻟـــہ [nɛzlɛ][nɛzlɛ]ArabicArabic80Nikah ﻧﮑـــﺎح [nɪkɑ:h][nɪkɑ:h]ArabicArabic81Nisbet ﻧﺴــــﺒﺖ [nɪsbɛt][nɪsbɛt]ArabicArabic82Niyet تین [nɪyɛt][nɪyɛt]ArabicArabic83razı یراض [rɑ:zə][rɑ:zə]ArabicArabic84Risale رﺳـــﺎﻟہ [rɪsɑ:lɛ][rɪsɑ:lʌ]ArabicArabic85Ruh روح [rʊh][rʊh]ArabicArabic

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language20786sefer ﺳـــﻔﺮ [sɛfɛr][sɛfɛr]ArabicArabic87Sual ﺳـﻮال [sʊɑ:l][sɒwɑ:l]ArabicArabic88Sürahi یﺻــﺮاح [sʊrɑ:hɪ][sʊrɑ:hɪ]ArabicArabic89Şahsiyet ﺷﺨﺺ تی [ʃʌhsɪyɛt][ʃʌkhsɪyɛt]ArabicArabic90Şehit دیﺷـہ [ʃɛhit][ʃɛhid]ArabicArabic91Şikayet یﺷـــﮑﺎ ت [ʃɪkɑ:yɛt][ʃɪkɑ:yɛt]ArabicArabic92takat ﻃﺎﻗــﺖ [tɑ:kʌt][tɑ:kʌt]ArabicArabic93takdir ریﺗﻘــــﺪ [tʌkdɪr][tʌkdɪr]ArabicArabic94tamam ﺗﻤــﺎم [tʌmɑ:m][tʌmɑ:m]ArabicArabic95taraf ﻃﺮف [tʌrʌf][tʌrʌf]ArabicArabic96temenni ﺗﻤﻨــــﺎ [tɛmɛnnɪ][tɛmʌnnʌ]ArabicArabic97teselli یﺗﺴـــﻞ [tɛsɛllɪ][tɛsɛllɪ]ArabicArabic98vaat وﻋﺪﮦ [vʌʌt][vɑ:dʌ]ArabicArabic99Vakit وﻗــﺖ [vʌki:t][wʌkt]ArabicArabic100Vatan وﻃﻦ [vʌtʌn][vʌtʌn]ArabicArabic101Vefa وﻓــﺎ [vɛfʌ][wɛfʌ]ArabicArabic102vekil لیوک [vɛkɪl][wɛkɪl]ArabicArabic103yani یﻋﻦی [yɑ:nɪ][yɑ:nɪ]ArabicArabic104ziyade ادﮦیز [zɪyɑ:dɛ][zɪyɑ:dɛ]ArabicArabic105zamane زﻣﺎﻧــہ [zʌmanɛ][zʌmanʌ]ArabicArabicTable 5Terms with Etymology in Persian LanguageEtymologyEtymologyof Urduof TurkishwordsTurkishUrduTurkish PhoneticsUrdu Phonetics1afitap آﻓﺘﺎب [ɑ:fɪtʌp][ɑ:ftʌb]PersianPersian2agah آﮔﺎﮦ [ɑ:gɒh][ɑ:gɑ:h]PersianPersian3asuman آﺳﻤﺎن [ɑ:sʊmʌn][ɑ:smɑ:n]PersianPersian4birader ﺑـــﺮادر [bɪra:dɛr][bɪra:dɛr]PersianPersian5bülbül ﺑُﻠﺒﻞ [bʊlbʊl][bʊlbʊl]PersianPersian6çeşme ﭼﺸﻤہ [tʃɛʃmɛ][tʃʌʃmɛ]PersianPersian

208Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.17çünkü ﭼﻮﻧﮑـــہ [tʃʊnkʊ][tʃu:nkɪ]PersianPersian8destan داﺳـــﺘﺎن [dɛstɑ:n][dɛstɑ:n]PersianPersian9diğer ﮔــﺮید [di: ɛr][di:gɛr]PersianPersian10ferman ﻓﺮﻣــﺎن [fɛrmʌn][fʌrmʌn]PersianPersian11hoş ﺧﻮش [houʃ][khʊʃ]PersianPersian12hurma ﺧﺮﻣﺎ [hʊrmʌ][khʊrmʌ]PersianPersian13hüda ﺧﺪا [hʊdɑ:][khʊdɑ:]PersianPersian14köşe ﮔﻮﺷـــہ [kɜ:ʃɛ][gɒshʌ]PersianPersian15lakin ﮐــﻦیل [lɑ:kɪn][lɛkɪn]PersianPersian16nezaket ﻧﺰاﮐـــﺖ [nɛzɑ:kɛt][nɛzɑ:kɛt]PersianPersian17niyaz ازین [nɪyɑ:z][nɪyɑ:z]PersianPersian18numune ﻧﻤﻮﻧــــہ [ nʊmu:ne][ nʊmu:ne]PersianPersian19pak ﭘـــﺎک [pʌk][pʌk]PersianPersian20pazar ﺑــﺎزار [pʌzɑ:r][bʌzɑ:r]PersianPersian21peynir ریﭘــﻦ [peɪni:r][pʌni:r]PersianPersian22renk رﻧــﮓ [rɛnk][rɛng]PersianPersian23saz ﺳﺎز [sʌz][sʌz]PersianPersian24ser ﺳﺮ [sɛr][sɛr]PersianPersian25sine ﻧــہیس [sɪnɛ][sɪnɛ]PersianPersian26sirke ﺳـــﺮﮐہ [sɪrkɛ][sɪrkɛ]PersianPersian27söz ﺳﻮز [sɜ:z][sɜ:z]PersianPersian28şebnem ﺷــــﺒﻨﻢ [ʃɛbnɛm][ʃɛbnɛm]PersianPersian29şehir ﺷـﮩﺮ [ʃɛhi:r][ʃɛhr]PersianPersian30şehzade ﺷـﮩﺰادﮦ [ʃɛhzɑ:dɛ][ʃɛhzɑ:dʌ]PersianPersian31şeker ﺷـــﮑﺮ [ʃɛkɛr][ʃʌkkʌr]PersianPersian32şişe یش ﺷــہ [ʃɪʃɛ][ʃɪʃɛ]PersianPersian33ümit دیام [ʊmi:t][ʊmi:d]PersianPersian34üstâd اﺳـــﺘﺎد [ʊstʌd][ʊstʌd]PersianPersian35yar اری [yɑ:r][yɑ:r]PersianPersian

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language36zemin نیزم 37zor زور sianPersianTable 6Terms with Etymology in Turkish LanguageTurkish1alev2bohça3hanUrdu اﻻؤ ﺑﻘﭽــــہ ﺧﺎن TurkishPhoneticsUrduPhoneticsEtymology ofTurkish termsEtymologyof shTable 7Terms with Etymology in Arabic Loaned From Persian tics ﺑﻠﮑــــــہ [bɛlkɪ][bɛlkɪ]Etymology ofTurkishPersianArabicEtymology ofUrdu wordsPersian-ArabicTable 8Terms with Differing EtymologyTurkish1emir2Minnet31ŞahısUrdu اﻣﺮ ﻣﻨــﺖ ﺳﺎ س TurkishUrduferah ﻓــﺮاخ TurkishPhoneticsUrduPhoneticsEtymology ofTurkish termsEtymology ofUrdu onetics[fɛrɛh]UrduPhoneticsEtymologyof Turkish[fɛrʌkh]ArabicSanskritEtymology of UrduwordsPersian3. Interlingual Synonymy Related Aspects2.1 Semantic analysis: At this point the synonymy of the termswill be verified:

210Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1Table 9Semantic ComparisonsTurkishUrduTurkish PhoneticsUrdu accustomjust, fair,impartial1aciz ﻋﺎﺟﺰ [ɑ:dʒɪz][ɑ:dʒɪz]2adi یﻋﺎد [ɑ:dɪ][ɑ:dɪ]3adil ﻋﺪل [ɑ:dɪl][ɑ:dəl]4afiyet تیﻋﺎف [ɑ:fɪyɛt][ɑ:fɪyət]well being5afitap آﻓﺘﺎب [ɑ:fɪtʌp][ɑ:ftʌb]Sun6agah آﮔﺎﮦ [ɑ:gɒh][ɑ:gɑ:h]7ahir آﺧﺮ [ɑ:hɪr][ɑ:khɪr]8ahval اﺣﻮال ences9akibet ﻋﺎﻗﺒــــﺖ [ɑ:qɪbɛt][ɑ:qɪbʌt]Aftermath10alem ﻋﺎﻟﻢ [ɑ:lɛm][ɑ:lɛm]world,universe11alev اﻻؤ [ʌlɛv][ʌloʊ]blaze, flame12amel ﻋﻤﻞ [ʌmɛl][ʌmʌl]action,process13amele ﻋﻤﻠــہ [ʌmɛlɛ][ʌmlɑ:]staff, workman14arif ﻋﺎرف [ɑ:rɪf][ɑ:rɪf]Mystic15Arş ارض [ʌrʃ][arz]Earth16asuman آﺳﻤﺎن [ɑ:sʊmʌn][ɑ:smɑ:n]Sky17azap ﻋﺬاب [ʌzɑ:p][ʌzʌb]torment,anguish, torture18baki یﺑــﺎق [bɑ:ki:][bɑ:ki:]Remaining19bazı ﺑﻌـــﺾ [bɑ:zə][bɑ:z]some, certain20belki ﺑﻠﮑــــــہ [bɛlkɪ][bɛlkɪ]rather, but21birader ﺑـــﺮادر [bɪra:dɛr][bɪra:dɛr]Brother2bohça ﺑﻘﭽــــہ [bɒhtʃʌ][bʊktʃʌ]pack, bundle23bülbül ﺑُﻠﺒﻞ [bʊlbʊl][bʊlbʊl]Nightingale24cellat ﺟﻼد [dʒɛllʌt][dʒɛllʌd]Executioner25cemaat ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺖ [dʒɛmɑ:t][dʒɛmɑ:t]group, class,society26cemiyet تیﺟﻤﻊ inglast, coming atthe end, final

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language21127cennet ﺟﻨﺖ [dʒɛnnɛt][dʒʌnnʌt]heaven,paradise28cerrah ﺟﺮاح [dʒɛrrʌh][dʒɛrrʌh]Surgeon29cumhur ﺟﻤﮩﻮر [dʒʊmhu:r][dʒʊmhu:r]30cümle ﺟﻤﻠـہ [dʒʊmlɛ][dʒʊmlɛ]31çeşme ﭼﺸﻤہ [tʃɛʃmɛ][tʃʌʃmɛ]32çünkü ﭼﻮﻧﮑـــہ [tʃʊnkʊ][tʃu:nkɪ]Because33delalet دﻻﻟـــﺖ [dɛlɑ:lɛt][dɛlɑ:lɛt]mediate,portend34derece درﺟہ [dɛrɛdʒɛ][dʌrɛdʒɑ:]rank, degree35ders درس [dɛrs][dɛrs]lesson, lecture36destan داﺳـــﺘﺎن [dɛstɑ:n][dɛstɑ:n]fable, legend37diğer ﮔــﺮید [di: ɛr][di:gɛr]Other38ehemniyet تیاﮨﻢ [ɛhɛmnɪyɛt][ɑ:hmɪyʌt]importance39emir اﻣﺮ [ɛmɪr][ʌmr]immortal40emir ریام [ɛmi: r][ɛmi: r]commander41emlak اﻣــﻼک [ɛmlʌk][ɛmlʌk]property,estate42eşref اﺷﺮف [ɛʃrɛf][ɛʃrɛf]pre-eminent43evvel اول [ɛvvɛl][ɛvvɛl]44evveliyat تیاول [ɛvvɛlɪyɑ:t][ɛvvɛlɪyɑ:t]45fani یﻓــﺎن [fɑ:ni:][fɑ:ni:]46fayda ﻓﺎﻋــﺪﮦ [fʌydʌ][fʌydʌ]benefit, use47felsefe ﻓﻠﺴــــــﻔہ [fɛlsɛfɛ][fɛlsɛfɛ]philosophy48fena ﻓﻨـــﺎ [fɛnɑ:][fɛnɑ:]perish49ferah ﻓــﺮاخ [fɛrɛh][fɛrʌkh]50ferman ﻓﺮﻣــﺎن [fɛrmʌn][fʌrmʌn]51fert ﻓــﺮد [fɛrt][fɛrd]52fesad ﻓﺴـــﺎد [fɛsɑ:d][fɛsɑ:d]53fitne ﻓﺘﻨـــــہ [fɪtnɛ][fɪtnʌ]sedition, strife54gaflet ﻏﻔﻠـــﺖ p ﻏﺎﺋــﺐ e,clausespring,fountainfirst, earliest intime and ,richnessedict, order,commandperson,individualmischief,instigate

212Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.156haber ﺧــﺒﺮ [hʌbɛr]khabarnews,information57halife ﻓــہیﺧﻞ [hʌli:fɛ]khaliifaaCaliph58han ﺧﺎن [hʌn][khʌn]title of rulersand officers incentral Asia59hayrat راتیخ [hʌyrɑ:t][Kkhʌyrɑ:t]Charity60hoş ﺧﻮش [houʃ][khʊʃ]please, delight61hurma ﺧﺮﻣﺎ [hʊrmʌ][khʊrmʌ]Date62hüda ﺧﺪا [hʊdɑ:][khʊdɑ:]Almighty, God63ısrar اِﺻﺮار [əsrʌr][əsrʌr]64icat ﺟﺎدیا [i:jʌt][i:jʌd]65ihsan اِﺣﺴﺎن [ɪhsʌn][ɪhsɑ:n]Beneficence66imdat اِﻣﺪاد [ɪmdʌt][ɪmdʌd]help, aid67imkan اﻣﮑــﺎن [ɪmkɑ:n][ɪmkɑ:n]68imtihan اﻣﺘﺤــﺎن [ɪmtɪhɑ:n][ɪmtɪhɑ:n]69inayet تیﻋﻨــﺎ [ɪnɑ:yɛt][ɪnɑ:yɛt]70köşe ﮔﻮﺷـــہ [kɜ:ʃɛ][gɒshʌ]corner, angle71lakin ﮐــﻦیل [lɑ:kɪn][lɛkɪn]however, but,yet72Lanet ﻟﻌﻨـــﺖ [lɑ:nɛt][lɑ:nɛt]Curse73Lazim ی ﻻزم 74leziz ذیﻟــﺬ [lɛzi:z][lɛzi:z]tasty, delicious75Lutuf ﻟﻄــﻒ [lʊtu:f][lʊtf]Enjoy76macburi یﻣﺠﺒــﻮر 77magrip ﻣﻐﺮب [mʌgrɪb][mʌgrɪb]West78mahluk ﻣﺨﻠــﻮق [mʌhlu:k][mʌkhlu:k]Creature79mahmur ﻣﺨﻤﻮر [mʌhmu:r][mʌhmu:r]sleepy,drowsy80mahrumiyet تیﻣﺤﺮ و م er ﻣﺤﺸﺮ [mʌhʃɛr][mʌhʃɛr]the lastjudgement,huge crowd82mahsul ﻣﺤﺼــﻮل [mʌhsu:l][mʌhsu:l]result, product83mahsus ﻣﺤﺴﻮس [mʌhsu:s][mʌhsu:s]especial,reserved ibility,chancetest,examinationgrace,kindness

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language213especially84mahzen ﻣﺤﺰن [mʌhzɛn][mʌhzʌn]celler, granary85makam ﻣﻘــﺎم [mʌkɑ:m][mʌkɑ:m]position, rank86malum ﻣﻌﻠــﻮم [mɑ:lu:m][mɑ:lu:m]Know87masum ﻣﻌﺼـــﻮم [mɑ:su:m][mɑ:su:m]Innocent88mecbur ﻣﺠﺒــﻮر [mɛdʒbu:r][mɛdʒbu:r]89medet ﻣﺪد [mɛdɛt][mɛdɛd]90mektup ﻣﮑﺘــــﻮب [mɛktʊp][mɛktʊb]Letter2minnet ﻣﻨــﺖ [mɪnnɛt][mənnʌt]a vow, apromise92mucize ﻣﻌﺠﺰﮦ [mu:jɪzɛ][mu:jzʌ]Miracle93müşkül ﻣﺸـــﮑﻞ [muʃkul][muʃkɪl]Difficult94Nabiz ﻧﺒــــﺾ [nʌbəz][nʌbz]Pulse95Nakil ﻧﻘـــﻞ [nʌkɪl][nʌkəl]96nakliye ﮦیﻧــﮏ [nʌklɪyɛ][nʌklɪyɑ:]97Nazar ﻧﻈــﺮ [nʌzɑ:r][nʌzɑ:r]look, glance98Nefis ﻧﻔـــﺲ [nɛfɪs][nʌfs]self, essence,one desire99Nehir ﻧﮩــﺮ [nɛhi:r][nʌhr]Canal100Nesil ﻧﺴــﻞ [nɛsɪl][nʌsəl]Generation101nezaket ﻧﺰاﮐـــﺖ [nɛzɑ:kɛt][nɛzɑ:kɛt]Politeness102Nezle ﻧﺰﻟـــہ [nɛzlɛ][nɛzlɛ]Flu103Nikah ﻧﮑـــﺎح [nɪkɑ:h][nɪkɑ:h]civil wedding,marriage104Nisbet ﻧﺴــــﺒﺖ [nɪsbɛt][nɪsbɛt]Proportion105Niyaz ازین [nɪyɑ:z][nɪyɑ:z]106Niyet تین [nɪyɛt][nɪyɛt]107numune ﻧﻤﻮﻧــــہ [ nʊmu:ne][ nʊmu:ne]model, sample108pak ﭘـــﺎک [pʌk][pʌk]Pure109pazar ﺑــﺎزار [pʌzɑ:r][bʌzɑ:r]Market110peynir ریﭘــﻦ [peɪni:r][pʌni:r]Cheese111razı یراض [rɑ:zə][rɑ:zə]agree g,copying,transfertransport,means oftransportsupplication,entreatyintention,purpose, aim

214Pakistan Vision Vol. 15 No.1112renk رﻧــﮓ [rɛnk][rɛng]113risale رﺳـــﺎﻟہ [rɪsɑ:lɛ][rɪsɑ:lʌ]114ruh روح [rʊh][rʊh]115saz ﺳﺎز [sʌz][sʌz] ﺳـــﻔﺮ [sɛfɛr][sɛfɛr]116sefercolor,complexiona squadron--amagazineSoula musicalinstrumentjourney,voyagehead (bodypart)117ser ﺳﺮ [sɛr][sɛr]118sine ﻧــہیس [sɪnɛ][sɪnɛ]chest, breast119sirke ﺳـــﺮﮐہ [sɪrkɛ][sɪrkɛ]Vinegar120söz ﺳﻮز [sɜ:z][sɜ:z]burning, heat,passion121sual ﺳـﻮال [sʊɑ:l][sɒwɑ:l]Question122sürahi یﺻــﺮاح [sʊrɑ:hɪ][sʊrɑ:hɪ]a goblet, longneck flask123şahıs ﺳﺎس [ʃʌhəs][ʃʌhs]mother-in-law124şahsiyet ﺷﺨﺺ تی [ʃʌhsɪyɛt][ʃʌkhsɪyɛt]Personality125şebnem ﺷــــﺒﻨﻢ [ʃɛbnɛm][ʃɛbnɛm]Dew126şehir ﺷـﮩﺮ [ʃɛhi:r][ʃɛhr]City127şehit دیﺷـہ [ʃɛhit][ʃɛhid]martyr128şehzade ﺷــﮩﺰادﮦ [ʃɛhzɑ:dɛ][ʃɛhzɑ:dʌ]prince129şeker ﺷـــﮑﺮ [ʃɛkɛr][ʃʌkkʌr]sweet130şikayet تیﺷـــﮑﺎ [ʃɪkɑ:yɛt][ʃɪkɑ:yɛt]complain131Şişe ﺷہیش [ʃɪʃɛ][ʃɪʃɛ]Glass132takat ﻃﺎﻗــﺖ [tɑ:kʌt][tɑ:kʌt]strength133takdir ریﺗﻘــــﺪ [tʌkdɪr][tʌkdɪr]destiny134tamam ﺗﻤــﺎم f ﻃﺮف [tʌrʌf][tʌrʌf]side, direction136temenni ﺗﻤﻨــــﺎ [tɛmɛnnɪ][tɛmʌnnʌ]137teselli یﺗﺴـــﻞ [tɛsɛllɪ][tɛsɛllɪ]138ümit دیام [ʊmi:t][ʊmi:d]139üstâd اﺳـــﺘﺎد [ʊstʌd][ʊstʌd]heartfelt wish,earnest acher,master

Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language215140vaat وﻋﺪﮦ [vʌʌt][vɑ:dʌ]promise141vakit وﻗــﺖ [vʌki:t][wʌkt]Time142vatan وﻃﻦ [vʌtʌn][vʌtʌn]native country143Vefa وﻓــﺎ [vɛfʌ][wɛfʌ]sincerity,fulfilling apromise144vekil لیوک [vɛkɪl][wɛkɪl]lawyer145yani یﻋﻦی [yɑ:nɪ][yɑ:nɪ]I mean, inother words146Yar اری [yɑ:r][yɑ:r]Friend147ziyade ادﮦیز [zɪyɑ:dɛ][zɪyɑ:dɛ]Much148zamane زﻣﺎﻧــہ [zʌmanɛ][zʌmanʌ]Today149zemin نیزم [zɛmɪn][zʌmɪn]land, floor150

will proceed to the analysis of the Turkish-Urdu sets, of term. 1. Methodology The sample of our investigation consists of 150 sets of Turkish and Urdu terms. The degree of similarity with reference to different aspects of linguistics will be assessed. These aspects include: 1. Identification of File Size: 530KB