The Efficiency Of Teaching Listening And Speaking Skills .

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Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(3): 802-808, 2020DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080310http://www.hrpub.orgThe Efficiency of Teaching Listening andSpeaking Skills to Develop Students'Communicative CompetencesAsep Maulana1,*, Izzuddin Musthafa2, Titin Nur Hayati31Department of Arabic Language, Faculty of Education, Cipasung, West Java, Indonesiaof Arabic Language, Graduate Program, State Islamic University of Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia3Department of Arabic Language,Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia2DepartmentReceived October 20, 2019; Revised January 10, 2020; Accepted January 17, 2020Copyright 2020 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under theterms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International LicenseAbstractThis research aims at discovering theteaching method, by which students’ communicativecompetencies can be developed. The detailed objectives ofthe study are: designing a communicative method forteaching listening and speaking at Syekh Nurjati Islamicstate university -Cirebon-. In addition, the research alsoendeavors to determine methods of application, itsconstituents, obstacles, range of effectivity, advantages anddisadvantages. To achieve such objectives, the researcherused the mixed methods on the concurrent embeddeddesign, which combines quantitative and qualitativeresearch. The research is founded on three basic theories,among which are: teaching motor performance, teachingskills and language as a means of communication. Thefindings revealed that designing the ctive-constructive approach. In applying the method,several teaching techniques, such as: dialogue, informationexchange, role play, lecturing, debating, and discussion,were used. The pillars of this teaching method are: using abook based on the communicative approach and creating apositive impression in the students with regard to teaching.Among the obstacles are: introversion of some students:enabling communicative teaching of developing students’communicative competence in the skill of listening andspeaking in order to perfect comprehensive competence bysecuring extra time.KeywordsTeaching Listening and Speaking,Communicative Approach, Communicative Competences1. IntroductionTeaching a second language is not an essay task as allbelieve. It is full of obstacles that pop up from time to time(1-5).In light of the comprehensive vision and thedevelopment of Arabic, the major goal of teaching Arabicis not only confined to understand verses of the Quran andbooks of heritage, but also to be a means of communicationas well. Thus, to deal with other nations, Moslems needlanguage skills rather than: contrastive [6]. They need it tocommunicate with others in order to carry their ideas,feelings and ideology to them, whether verbally or inwriting [7]. Arabic, being the language of the Quran andHadith, acts as a means of communicative performance andinformation exchange among Moslems throughout theworld [8].Arabic is the language of teaching, social interaction,economic transaction and culture for the majority of peoplein this world [9]. In 1973 it was chosen to be one of theofficial languages used in the United Nations besidesEnglish, French, German and Chinese. Such kind of thingsimproved its status worldwide and prompted creatingeducational formal and non-formal institutions to teachArabic and to develop communicative competencies tocope with modernization and globalization which dictatelearning Arabic for the sake of professionalism andpracticality [10]. Thus, learning Arabic enables learners toorally communicate with others abroad and help thempursue their studies in the Middle East. After graduation,those learners will eventually be qualified to teach inIndonesian Universities. It thus became part of languageunion between Arabism and Islam.Therefore, learning Arabic for the sake ofcommunication is very essential for personal social life.Schramm [11] pointed out that the two wordscommunication and society are identical and inseparablewithout which the society can’t be formed. In fact, the

Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(3): 802-808, 2020society can’t develop without communication.The basic biological theory emphasized that there aretwo needs which urge humans to communicate with others:the need to survive and the need to adapt themselves totheir environment.Harold D. Lasswell concentrated on three fundamentalduties which motivated people’s communication: Thedesire to control environment and to keep away fromwhatever endangers it. Second, the attempt to adaptthemselves to nature which implies communication thathelps the society to live happily in peace. Third, throughcommunication the society can protect and exchangemorals [12].In short, communication acts as a social interactive toolthat helps in having a harmonious balanced society [13].In addition to the theoretical approach the previousscholars presented regarding the benefits ofcommunication, it also helps global interaction innon-matching societies of this world. Allah in the Quransays:Mankind ! we created youFrom a single (pair) of a maleAnd female, and made youInto nations and tribes, thatYe may know each other.Verily, the most honored of youFor Allah is he who isThe most Righteous of youAnd God has full knowledgeAnd is well acquainted(Al-Hujurat, verse 13, p. 1407)The previous Ayas (verses) reveal that Allah wantsnations to get to know and communicate with each other.In order to support students to verbally communicate in asuccessful manner, they need an integrated teaching systemwhich uses the comprehensive communicative approach inteaching the skills of listening and speaking. This course isone of the courses taught by the Arabic Department atSyekh Nurjati State Islamic University, Cirebon. The goalbehind this is to implement a teaching method based on aspecial pattern known as qualification framework forIndonesia KKNT and the national criterion for collegeteaching SNPT.The researchers believe that using the communicativeapproach in teaching is an integrative, comprehensive, andhumane one [14]. This approach also focuses on teachingobjectives in order to achieve communicative competencethat includes the linguistic, social, strategic and discourseanalysis. The method is also one of the substantial forms ofteaching Arabic that secures opportunities for students todevelop their communicative competence to the best.Teaching listening and speaking skills is one form of theeducation systems known in English as the integratedsystem or the one - whole system which considers languageas one integrated whole, not disintegrated parts [15] .Therefore, there is only one course, one session, one book,803one assessment, with one outcome.This oneness incorporates the skills of listening andspeaking which are integrated and considers the means ofcommunication which attracts people and make themaffect one another. Jing yapping through her experience inteaching found that listening and speaking are importantfor learning any language well and shouldn’t be separatedthrough the process of teaching [16]. Based on theintroductory material presented, the researchers found thatteaching listening and speaking skills in Arabic departmentat Syeikh Nurjati State Islamic University was actuallyapplied through focusing on one of the approaches, thestructural behavioral approach, that was based on theKKNT method. Consequently, the researcher still thinksthat teaching the two skills via the guided communicativeapproach to perfect communicative competencies hasn’tbeen comprehensively applied yet.In addition, students control over this competence hasn’tbeen achieved into. Even the competence that wasachieved by some was just a linguistic one, but nevercovered the other comprehensive competencies.1.1. Objectives of the StudyThis study investigates the achievement of universityteaching program being implemented via communicativeapproach to develop oral communicative competencies ofstudents. In addition, it investigates how that program helpsstudents to produce expressions which reflect their ideas.The research also attempts to identify how to design ateaching integrated system using the communicativeapproach in this university, in addition to the obstacles itmight encounter, its effectivity, merits and demerits of thistype of teaching.2. Theoretical Framework of the StudyIn this part of the study the researchers review someissues relevant to their interest. In an attempt to achieve anactive method of teaching, the instructor uses a variety ofmethods to provide students with good opportunities tolearn. Thus, they work hard to develop the quality impliedin this research that is founded on basic theories amongwhich is the theory of Motor Learning [16-18].Listening skill is one of the major skills of languagewhich implies understanding the linguistic message of thespeaker. It is regarded the first step in children’s languageacquisition [19].The child, few days after birth, starts to identify thesounds surrounding him. At the end of the first year, heutters his first words and at kindergarten or school, hebegins to use the sounds he heard and identify writtenwords, thus reads and writes [20]. Through listening, heunderstands the individual meanings and ideas of what hehears from the speaker [21].As for speech, it is the skill by which one verbally

804The Efficiency of Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills to Develop Students' Communicative Competencesconveys his ideas to others. This skill is essential forlanguage learners because, in origin, communication startsverbally. It is very important because it is the means bywhich the individual can convince others with what hewants and gives them what they want as well. The skillcan’t be effective unless the speech is correct and precise[22].In the last few years, an interest in the skill of listeningand how to develop it in learners increased, priority wasgiven to speech as well because of intercolleration betweenthe two skills. Speech is the means of communication thatconsists of two parts; sender and receiver [23].No message can be sent without a receiver to get it. Thatis why the two skills are inseparable and should be taughttogether. As a result, the theory of language unity whichconsiders the two skills one appeared. Therefore, these twoskills in Arabic should be taught together.To develop the quality of the teaching process of whatthe student earned, the communicative approach needs tobe adopted in teaching. It is the means by which people getin touch with each other. In this case communication actsas the sender and people are the receiver [24].Language, according to (Musa), should be viewed froma social perspective considering it as a social kind ofbehavior. He also considers the major function of languageto be communication and sharing with others their ideasand knowledge which lead to cooperation [25].Supporters of this communicative approach see thatlanguage should be detached from its social role as theindividual needs it in school and outside school [26].Successful teacher is the one who opts for the style that bestserves his purpose. The foremost of these styles are:interview, information exchange, role play, description,and lecturing.The interview of the dialogue style depends on carryingand exchanging ideas to reach the set goals. According tothis style, students are divided into two groups thatexchange questions and answers. Role play is implementedby a student who plays a certain role with another in acertain situation. The description style depends onstudent’s description of a certain thing by presenting agroup of pictures through a slideshow device. Studentshere describe the pictures they see on screen.Discussion focuses on a critical situation one mightencounter in his life and how to act to solve it out.The dialogue style depends on a conversation betweentwo persons or two groups that try to disprove the point ofview of the other through logical evidences.Contrary to the preceding styles, the communicativeapproach depends solely on the educational program, itsgoals, teaching material, and a form of plan correction. Theprogram is part of a set of linguistic points which theinstructor teaches and the student learns; the program thatsuits this kind of teaching is the operational one whichincludes linguistic activities, that concern the learners [27].Special teaching refers to the will to perfect students’communicative competences because the communicativeapproach focuses on the competencies and aims to makethe learner have a control over his skills [28]. The actualteaching materials are viewed as an attempt to influence thequality of interaction and to use language in class [29].As for correction plan, it should include the points in theverbal performance of the learner that needs correction, i.eparts of the comprehensive communicative approachwhich make correction analytical with regard tocommunicative competencies which become the majorgoal of teaching the integrated skills of listening andspeaking using the communicative approach. Canale andSwain [30] and Hymes [30] distinguished four major types:syntactic competence as Chomsky perceives it competenceand performance; social linguistic competence whichimplies individual’s ability to understand the social contextthrough which communication occurs including relationthat correlate different social roles and the ability toexchange information between the individual and others.Regarding competency of discourse analysis, it refers toindividual’s ability to analyze types of speech and talkthrough comprehending speech structure and the relationbetween its elements and methods of expression. Finally,the strategic competence refers to individual’s ability tochoose suitable methods and strategies to start and end aspeech.Based on the preceding data, the researchers might elicitthe alternative hypothesis (Hi) in this research that themean of competency of listening and speaking skills in theexperimental group wasn’t equal to the scores of thoseskills in the control group.3. Research MethodologyThe researcher used the mixed methods which is one ofthe procedures to collect and analyze data. The qualitativeand quantitative approaches were combined in one study orin a series of researches in an attempt to comprehend theproblems. The hypothesis is that the combined qualitativeand quantitative methods help to better understandproblems of the research [32].The mixed method is a way of merging the qualitativeand quantitative methods in one research in order to getmore comprehensive and more accurate data. AbbasTashakkori and Charles Teddlie confirmed that the mixedmethods refer to the way of collecting and analyzing datawhich should always cope with the used type of analysis[33]; more specifically, with what is called dual methodwhich combines the following three constituents: design,measurement (qualitative or quantitative data), andanalysis (content or statistical). This research usedconcurrent embedded design which is a method that blendsthe qualitative and quantitative methods by merging thetwo in an imbalanced way (30%) for the qualitative and(70%) for the quantitative [34].By using this method, the researchers attempted to use

Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(3): 802-808, 2020the merging non-balanced qualitative and quantitativemethod giving more weight to the quantitative than thequalitative that functions complementarily. Thequantitative method used in this research is anexperimental one because the research aims at unveilingthe effect of a certain solution like the independent variableover the dependent one [35]. This necessitates that theresearcher conducts an experiment to improve teaching theskills of listening and speaking through the adoption of thecommunicative approach for a certain period to developstudents’ communicative competence using verbalclassical Arabic.The researchers used true experimental designs bywhich he could control extraneous variables that affect theexperiment. It is expected that the internal validity will behigh [36] and Emzir [37]. In the meanwhile theexperimental design used was the first one, the pre-testdesign which includes two groups randomly selected (R).Using t-test, and pre-test were then given to find out if therewas a difference between the experimental and controlgroups.Pre–test results revealed that the value of theexperimental group didn’t differ that much. One group wasgiven treatment (X) and named experimental group and theone that was not given the treatment was named controlgroup. The effect of the treatment was (04) – (01-02-03).The effect of the treatment was analyzed via different testsusing statistics and t-test [38]. For example, if there was abig difference between the experimental and controlgroups, then the treatment was very effective.4. Research Results and DiscussionIn compliance with Ralph Taylor’s model thatincorporates teaching goals and tests for developingcurriculum [39], the theory of both Richards and Rodgers[40] that consists of three parts: introduction, design, andprocedures, the teaching method was designed as follows:First, teaching objective is to develop students’competence in Arabic verbal skills, listening and speakingin accordance with the communicative approach and tounveil to what extent students understand the essence ofsyntax and social linguistics which help them comprehendtalks, speeches, debates and dialogues easy with other.Second, teaching experience comprises five majoractivities: dialogue, information exchange, role play,description, lecturing, debate, and conversation. Theseneed to be practiced for they are the objectives of teachingthe listening and reading skills.Third, teaching experience is based on three criteria,continuity, content organizing, and integration. Theresearcher should consider two aspects of the educationalprogram, teaching methods and teaching materials. Theteaching method used in this course is the communicativemethod based on the psychological structural method andthe interactive linguistic one which needs to be805implemented in a continuous manner.Fourth, the test refers to evaluating changes in mannerand students’ abilities to listen and speak classical Arabic.The test activity should be oral because the core of teachinglistening and speaking is verbal.Fifth, one of the linguistic theories on which thecommunicative approach has been founded is theinteractive theory, illustrated by Richard and Rodgers,which stipulates that language is the tool to establish socialrelations through interaction, meaning exchange, andretaining it. Using the communicative approach in teachingrelates to Rivers theory which stresses that students shouldorchestrate their efforts to produce genuine messages andreceive them simultaneously. The psychological factor forteaching listening and speaking skills of the integrativecomplementary level is the cognitive approach whichargues that success of the teaching has process isdetermined by internal factors because when any humanbeing is born, he has the intrinsic ability to learn. Thus, therole of the instructor is to discover students’ potentials toimprove their communicative competence in listening andspeaking activities by which they will be able to producesentences and speeches of different varieties and meaningsin Arabic [41].Sixth: the teaching program model applied in teaching isthe semantic educational approach which blends attitudinalteaching program with the functional situational one. Theresearcher, specifically, used the functional educationalprogram in teaching listening and speaking skills toachieve the complementary level, i.e., the program ofteaching Arabic that relies on language function rather thanstructural units and situations.Seventh: types of teaching and training activities shouldbe oriented toward achieving communicative competenciesby allowing students to actively participate in actualcommunicative situations [42]. They can be achievedthrough information given to some for the sake of dialogue,role play, discussion, debate, etc. Students’ activitiesshould focus on speech content, not form, and encouragedto use various lexemes so as to avoid being bound to useone single structure. The instructor, in this case, will playthe role of analyzer, counselor, etc.Eighth: procedures of teaching listening and speakingthrough the communicative approach passes throughseveral stages which are realized through two activities:preliminary communication and actual communicationactivities. As for the preliminary activity, it focuses onlinguistic forms such as: grammar, pronunciation,sentences, phrases and diction. The function of such anactivity is to help students acquire the knowledge needed toproduce correct acceptable sentences, secure exercises forpractice, and create courses that support such activitieswhich might be social or functional.The program for applying the method of teachinglistening and speaking was assigned 150 minutes dividedas follows:First: thirty minutes are assigned to consolidate students

806The Efficiency of Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills to Develop Students' Communicative Competenceslanguage competence regarding vocabulary, grammar andpractice.Second: thirty minutes are given to reinforce sociallanguage, discourse analysis, and strategic competence viastudents’ participation in conversation, dialogue orexchange of information through grouping them intosenders and receivers.Third: sixty minutes are to be utilized in consolidatingArabic listening and speaking skills absorbed throughvarious communicative activities like role play, description,debate, etc.Fourth: the last thirty minutes are used to ensure students’awareness of the message or information related to Arabicskills of listening and speaking. They are also set to checkstudents’ understanding and actual application ofcommunicative competence using dialogue betweeninstructor and students.This application comprises several procedures amongwhich are the following:1- The first time, the lecturer introduces the teachingmaterial on what will be taught in listening andspeaking to the sending and receiving groups whosemembers are specified a week before. Every weekmembers of committees are formed alternatively.2- Members of the committees are requested to sit incouples.3- The lecturer during the first thirty minutes, calls everymember of the senders and receivers to evaluatelanguage competence in words, structure andapplication, using the textbook set for teachinglistening and speaking of the complementary levelprepared by the lecturer.4- Through the process of activities for reinforcinglanguage competence, the lecturer provides certainremarks and directions to solve out linguistic problemsencountered by students.5- During the following 30 minutes one member of eachgroup, the sender and the receiver, were called bylecturer to develop competencies of social language,discourse analysis, and the strategic one. To facilitateconversation and information exchange between thetwo groups, the lecturer asked the sending group to bethe source of information and receiving group to bequestioners on the topic related to the lecture and givento the senders one week before. A list of questions wasalso prepared by the lecturer to be used by thereceivers in order to collect a variety of them to makeuse of actual functions of language duringconversation.6- During the performance of activities of sociallanguage reinforcement, the lecturer puts down notesand regulations to ensure solutions for a variety ofsocial problems, discourse analysis and strategies fromwhich students suffer during the process of teaching.7- During the following sixty minutes, the lecturerendeavors to reinforce the listening and speakingcompetence in a comprehensive manner that coversvarious selected methods of communication relevantto the topic. Here, he uses methods like: role play,description and lecturing even debate.8- During implementing activities to reinforce listeningand speaking skills, and comprehensive integrativecommunicative competencies, the lecturer puts downsome notes and regulations to secure solutions forproblems of listening and speaking in Arabic. Inaddition, communicative competencies discovered bystudents will be implemented.9- The penultimate twenty minutes, the lecturer gave thestudents some time to ensure the students’understanding of material relevant to listening andspeaking skills of the complementary level which wastaught.10- During the last ten minutes the lecturer evaluates theprocess of teaching the listening speaking skills via anoral comprehensive exam by addressing certainquestions related to the topic of the lecture.5. ConclusionsThe researcher concluded that teaching listening andspeaking skills of complementary integrative level viacommunicative approach included several components theforemost of which are communicative approach book,suitable learning infrastructure facilities, internet – basedmobile, positive outlook for teaching, etc. The negativeinfluences of traditional method of teaching are: absence ofsatisfactory internet in classroom, non-existence oftelevision channels in classes in Middle East, somestudents’ introversion and traditional classroom design. Itwas found that the score average of influence of theteaching communicative approach for students ofexperimental group was 92.70, while the control groupresult was 81.90. The researcher in applying the (t) test atpaired-samples and other independent-samples [24-44], thevalue he gained was 13.696, the degree of freedom 58,probability value 2/0,000 equals 0,000 less than thesignificance level 0,05.The outcomes of the alternative hypothesis (H1) whichshow that the mean score of communicative competenciesin listening and speaking skills of complementaryintegrative level of experimental group didn’t match withthe mean score of the control group was acceptable, but thenil hypothesis (H0) was rejected. This is what theresearcher came up to at the end, the difference aremeaningful. As a result, the adopted the communicativeapproach in teaching listening and speaking in Arabic inthe university, as this approach proved to be more effectivethan the traditional one. This method of teaching isdistinguished for certain qualities among which are cative competencies, teaching actual meaningfulArabic, decentralization of roles and sources of teaching,

Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(3): 802-808, 2020activating students latent potentials in Arabic, integratingteaching Arabic with communicative sciences, etc.But this method has certain flaws which are: need forextra time, difficulty in procuring original teachingmaterials, grammatical errors, and difficulty in minimizingstudents’ dialects.6. Inferences and SuggestionsBased on the results outlined in the previous pages, theresearchers elicited that designing a method of teachinglistening and speaking skills via integrative communicativeapproach depended on the interactive constructivecommunicative approaches together with a semanticteaching program. The goal afterwards switched toperfection of comprehensive communicative competenciesthrough the use of oral classical Arabic the way nativespeakers do.Teaching begins with preliminary activities then actualcommunicative interaction. The role of the teacher in thiscase will be a coordinator for students who will applyseveral basic teaching methods, the foremost of which are:dialogue, information exchange, role play, lecturing,debate, and discussion.The correction plan implies the level of oral linguisticperformance that includes comprehensive analyticalcommunicative competencies with a tool propitious for it.The researcher also concluded that teaching listeningand speaking could be taught through the integrativecommunicative approach which would improvecommunicative competencies.7. RecommendationsBased on what the researcher found out with regard tothe skills of teaching listening and speaking through thecommunicative approach, he recommends the following:First, lecturers of Arabic language, specially those whoteach listening and speaking, should use thecommunicative approach to improve the quality of theteaching process. This can be achieved through usingoriginal texts and teaching methods. They should also usethe analytical correction plan to measure students’ level inthe skill of listening and speaking.Second, future researchers need to conduct more studieson the problems related to teaching listening and speakingbecause this doctoral dissertation just highlighted few ofthem. They can focus more on students motives and desiresto learn which will for sure produce better outcomes inteaching the aforementioned skills.Third, people in charge of teaching Arabic at theuniversity level should provide opportunity for the twoskills to be taught inseparably. To the researcher’sknowledge, they are taught separately. Teaching listeningand speaking should use the communicative approach and807focus on communicative competencies in classical verbalArabic which is the final objective of the whole process.REFERENCESAl-khresheh, Mohammad. "A review study of contrastiveanalysis theory." Journal of Advances in Humanities andSocial Sciences, 2, 6, (2016B): 330-338.Al-khresheh, Mohammad. "A review study of error analysistheory." International Journal of Humanities and SocialScience Research, 2, (2016A); 49-59.Al-khresheh, Mohammad. "A review study of interlanguagetheory." International Journal of Applied Linguistics &English Literature, 4, 3, (2015):124 - 131.Al-khresheh, Mohammad. "An investigation of interlingualinterference in the use of ‘and’ as a syntactic coordinatingstructure by Jordanian EFL learners." European Journal of

teaching method, by which students’ communicative competencies can be developed. The detailed objectives of the study are: designing a communicative method for teaching listening and speaking at Syekh Nurjati Islamic state university -Cirebon-. In addition, the researc