Mind Map : Learning Made Simple - Oswaal Books

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About the need ofpeople of India.Botanical, zoological archaeologicalanthropological and forest surveyswere done.Practice of surveysbecame common.Archives and museumswere established to preserveimportant records.weHow dowKnoOfficial records of theBritish administration.Money records hidethe truth and only showone aspect of the event.British preservedimportant documentsand letters.Historyissynonymouswith dates.How, Whenand WhereortantImpwsHo re DateaWe comparethe past withpresent.Depends on thestory of sh rule brought changesin values and tastes, customsand practices.Refers toBritish Rule.Commonof India divisionn history.ianInd ods.dde periivill d hreeitMes inJam toryhisFocus on aparticular set of events.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-1Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [1

Four wars fought betweenBritishers and Mysore(The Anglo-Mysore wars).Mir Jafar was promisedto be made Nawab aftercrushing Sirajuddaulah.ss e yIn 1765 the Mughal emperorappointed the company as theDiwan of Bengal.aof PlThe BattleIn 1764, Mir Jafar Died.wOn 23rd June 1757, the battleof Plassey was fought and wasthe first major victory of English.Nawabs refused to grantthe company concessions.After Aurangzeb’s death, theBengal Nawabs asserted theirpower and autotomy.The company demanded for moreconcessions and manipulated theexisting privileges.Alivardi Khan died in 1756 andSirajuddaulah became Nawab.dito d TrBa adttl eesSirajuddaulah’s commander,Mir Jafar conspired against him.adLeIn 1764, the battle of Buarwas fought betweenBritishers and Mir Qasim.From Tradeto TerritoryAurangzeb granted theright to trade duty free.In 1651 the first English factory wassetup on the banks of river Hugli.Things like cotton and silk cloth andspices were in great demand in EuropeThe company bought goodsat cheap rate and sold themat higher price in Europe.In 1600 royal charter grantedto East India Company the soleright to trade with the East.a nyndia compEast IBangals trade inbeginoMir Jafar was puppetin Britishers’ hand.’ialsff icny oas’pmCobobaN‘eBecomRuled from1782-1799.Tipu Sultan was theson of Haidar Ali,ruler of Mysore.HAfter the defeat at Plassey,Sirajuddaulah was assassinatedand Mir Jafar was made Nawab.‘Nabobs’–an anglicizedversion of the Indianword Nawab.In 1794 Robert clivewasappointedGovernor of Bengal.Tipu Sultanwas killed.In 1799, Britishers wonthe battle of Seringapattamagainst Mysore.17991790–17921780–17841767–1769Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-22] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

BritIndian Indigogave rich bluecolour.The rich bluecolour used intextile in industrywas called indigo.Became theDiwan butsaw itself astrader.Wantedlargerevenueincome.Earlier purchased goods byimporting gold and silverfrom Britain. Now revenuefinanced the purchase.Britishers forced tocultivate opium, indigo,jute, tea, sugarcane,wheat, cotton, and rice.Toohighrevenue wasdemanded.Ruling theCountrysidePeasants wereunable to pay.Known as Ryotwari system.Was initiated by AlexanderRead and developed byThomos Munro.Holt Mackenzie devisedMahalwari Settlement in 1822.Company officials wereconvinced that revenuesystem had to be changed.Zamindars were not interestedin improving the land.to pay revenue.Introduced PermanentSettlement in 1793.Bengal economy wasfacing deep crisis.Unwilling to setupregular system ofassessment.proveto ImeedNltureRajas and taluqdars wereThegricuArecogrized as zamindars.meoscebyanpomiwane c he DNumerous Zamindaris werehtTsold off at auctious if failedIn March 1859ryots in Bengalrefused to growindigo.Ryots refusedto pay rent andattacked indigofactories.peuorECrops forRyots refused totake advance.diaurns to Inain tPlantersshiftedto Bihar.Cloth manufactures inItaly, France and Britainused Indian indigo.Commercial agents andofficials began investingin indigo production.The company expandedindigo cultivation to meetrising demand in Europe.After the indigo harvest,the land could not besown with rice.Planters got verylow price.Those who signedgot cash advance.Planters were forcedto sign a contract.Planters werereluctant toexpend area.Cultivation of large areas andrequired large investment.Planter produced indigo inlands directly in his control.It declared that it wasnot profitable hencethey could refuse.Indigo Commissionwas set up to enquire.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-3Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [3

Many tribalsrose in rebellion.The British wanted regularrevenue and introducedland settlement.After protests the Britishhad to allow to carry onshifting cultivation.TheBritishwereuncomfortable withthe shifting cultivation.People were notallowed to moveor have jhumcultivation.Reserved forests werefor producing timber.eThe British declaredforest as state property.losACk.ooLrThey could keep landtitles but had to fallowBritish rules.Under British ruletheir function andpower changed.eg. Gonds,Santhals.British officialsfound themmore civilized.Settled at one placeand cultivated.eg. Van Gujjars, Labadis,Giddies Bakkarwals.Moved withherd accordingto seasons.Many tribes lived byrearing animals.eg. Khonds Baigas.Often needed fo sell andbuyother goods whichled to their dependenceon money lenders.Sold forest producein local markets.Hunted animals andgathered forest produce.After harvesting movedto other land and left thefield fallow.Shifting cultivationwas done.Cut the trees and burntvegetation to clear.wereSomenass d Gathers.ntreHuBorn in the mid1870s, Birsa a aimedat reforming tribalsociety.He urged the mundasto leane bad practices.Earlier the tribal chiefsenjoyed economic powerand had control onadministration.Tribals Dikus and theUision of a Golden AgeMunda.Tribal life was directlyconnected to forest.They were againstchange in law andrestrictions on theirwork.thThrough 19 & 20thcentury tribal groundrebelled .British arrestedBirsa for two year.Was against moneylenders and missionaries.BirsaThe middleman bought fruitproduce at low price and sold athigher price thus tribals tooktrades or their main enemy.Tribals noted that money lenders andtrades visited frequently for buyingand offering cash loan they askedthem to work for wages.Got low wage andcould not returnhome.Worked in tea plantationof Assam and coal minesof Jharkhand.Tribls were forced to go aaway in search of work.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-44] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

Regiments in Delhi alsorose up in rebellious.Sepoys rode allnight on 10 mayto reach Delhi.The soldiers proclaimedBahadur Shah Zafer astheir leaders.Beginning from Meerut a numberof people from different sectionof society rose up in rebellious.In May 1857 a massiverebellion started.me n.A Mutiny beco llioeeba Popular RWhen People Rebel1857 and after.d thes aneilicPoPeoplermsKings were angry and planswere made secretly for thewar of religion.The English were determinedto wipe out the religions ofHindus and the Muslims.Law were passed to stop thepractice of Sati and encouragewidow remarriage.British believed thatIndian society had tobe reformed.Some new rules violatedtheir religious sensibilitiesand beliefs.The Indian sepoys in thecompany were unhappyabout their pay allowancesand conditions of service.Peasants and zamindarsresented the high taxesand rigid method ofrevenue collection.In 1801 a Subsidiary alliance wasimposed on Awadh.The companybegan to plan to bring Mughaldynasty to an end.Since the mid eighteenthcentury Nawabs and Raaslost their authority and honours.The Peasant andthe Sepoys.foReoetonsIndian soldiers marchedto the jail and released theimprisoned sepoys.FightsBa.ckOn 29 March 1857 Mangal Pandey,a young soldier was hanged to death.ThecompanyAll ruling chiefs of the countrywere allowed to pass on theirki ng d o m t o thei r hei rs,including the adopted sour.British Parliament transferedthe power of East India Companyto the British Crown.RespNana Sahabof Kanpur, Birjes Qadrof Lukhnaw and his mother BegumHazrat Mahal, Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi,Rani Avantibai Lodhi of Ramgarh organisedthe uprising against the British.Regiments after regiment mutiniedand took off to join other troops atDelhi, Kanpur and Luckow etc.People continued to resist andbattle the British. The Britishhad to fight for two years.Bahadur Shah Zafar wassentenced to life imprisonmentand was sent to Rangoon.Delhi was recapturedin September 1857Aflir imathThe company decidedto repress the revoltwith all its might.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-5Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [5

Lives and occupationof the migrants changed.On the other hand nearly50000 people were addedto Delhi population.Colonialismand the CityAfter the crowning ofKing George V itwas decided to shiftthe capital fromCalcutta to Delhi.Architects EdwardLutyans and HerbertBaker designedNew Delhi.The making ofNew Delhi.The census of 1931 revealedthat the walled city area washorribly crowded as comparedto New Delhi.In 1877, Viceroy Lyttonorganized a Darbar toacknowledge QueenVictoria as the Empressof India.Inside the Old City.Over two third of the Delhi Muslimsmigrated. About 44000 homes wereabandoned.Fierce rioting began.The partition of India in 1947 led toa massive transfer of population onboth sides of new border.DseliavA new system ofopen surface drainswas introduced.TheliecHofenThe excellent systemof water supply anddrainage was neglected.Under British they couldnot be maintained. Hencewere subdivided or sold.Mughal aristocracy livedin grand mansions calledHavelis.New type of housesand streets were built.The Delhi Improvementtrust was set up in 1936.In 1888 an extension schemecalled the Lahore GateImprovement scheme wasplanned by Robert Clarke.In 1870, the western walls ofShajahanabad were broken toestablish railway and expandthe city.Gardens, pavilions andmosques around the fortwere cleared.The British wanted Delhiof forget its Mughal past.Learned to enjoy urduPerssian culture.The British lived alongwith the wealthier Indiansin the walled city.In 1803, the British gained controlof Delhi. Modern Delhi developedof 1911 when it becomes the capitalof British India.Shahajahan builtShahjahanabadin 1639.Delhi has been capitalfor more them 1000 years(with some gap).14 capital cities wereformed on the leftBanks of river Yamuna.Deurbanisation of Machipatnam,Surat and Seringaptam.Calcutta, Bombay andMadras as rose asPresidency cities.In most parts of westernworld modern cities emergedwith industrialisation.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-66] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

Invention of steamsengine by RichardArkwright is 1786revolutionised cottontextile weaving.Cloth could be woven cheaply inlarge quantity how ever Indiantextiledominated till the endth18 century.In 1720 the Britishgovernment banned theuse of chintz in England.Indian designs wereimitated and printedin England.Indian textileswere famousunder differentnames.Many people lookedfor other means ofthlivelihood by 20century artisans facednew competition.Worried by the popularity ofIndian textile, English wooland silk makers protested.Tips Sultan’s crediblyhard and sharp swordwas made of wootz.A special type of highcarbon steel calledwootz was producedin south India.Weavers, Iron Smelterand Factory OwnersIt fascinatedEuropeanscientists.Spinning Jenny wasinvented by JohnKaye in 1764.ersaveWhere teowWhp.Handloom weaving andthe occupations associatedwith it provided livelihood formillions of Indians.umeWeavers were the communitiesthat specialized in weaving.coBy the beginning of 19 centuryEnglish made cotton textile oustedIndian goods form Africa, America& Europe.English and Europeancompanies stoppedbuying Indian goods.Thousands of peoplebecamejoblesswhen British clothcame in India.ntosillMthThe sword and armoumaking industry diedwith import of iron andsteel form England.tCoCotton industries ' inBritain affected textileproducers in Indian.The first major spurt was whentextile imports form Britain declinedand Indian factories were called toproduce cloth for military supplies.By 1900 over 84 millsstarted operating in Bombay.First cotton spinningmill was set up inbay in 1854.This process was completelylost by mid-nineteenth century.‘Bandanaa’ (derived formbandhia or tie and dye).Printed cloths called ‘chintz’(derived form chhint).‘Muslin’ and ‘Calico’from Calicut.Form 16 Century Europeantraders bought Indian textilefor sale in Europe.thIndian textile was renownedfor fine quality and craftsmanship.Around 1750 India was theworld’s largest producer ofcotton textile.TISCO became the biggest steelindustry within the British empire.During first world was whenBritish import declined, IndianRailways turned to TISCO forsupply of rails.TISCO came up in 1912.In 1904 Charles Weld andDorabji Tata set up Iron andSteel plant in India.thBy the end of 19 centurythe craft of icon smuttingdeclined.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-7Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [7

wHoAccording to himIndian languageshould be mediumof teaching.itisthe BrIt was argued that thesystem would improvethe moral character ofIndians and thus supplythe company with trustworthy civil servants.Decision was taken tomake English the mediumof instruction for highereducation.English Educationact of 1835 wasintroduced.Critics like Macaulayfelt that India neededto be civilised.It was felt that Indiansshould me made familiarwithscientificandtechnological advantages.Many officials likeJames Mill criticizedorientalist learning.A madrasa was set up inCalcutta in 1781. Hinducollege was set up inBanaras in 1791.Englishmen like ThomasColebrook and NathanielHalhed discovered Indianheritage, mastered Indianlanguages, translated wordsin english.William Jones who was appointedas Junior Judge, started studyingancient Indian texts on law,philosophy, religion, medicine etc.Promotion of orientalInstitutions was stopped.h saw Education.British felt that they had acultural mission and theyhad to civilise the natives.Emphasis was onpractical benefitsof the EuropeanThere were textbooks System of learning.and system of annualexamination.In 1844 wood's dispatchwas sent outlining theeducational policy to befollowed in India.Civilising the NativeEducating the Nation.The Report ofm AdamsWilliaHe wanted educationthat could recoverIndian's dignity andself respect.Teaching process wasoral and guru decidedwhat to teach.In 1854, companydecided new systemwith routines, rulesand regular inspection.There were no fixed fee, no printedbooks, no separate building, nobenches or chairs, no separate classes,no exam and no time table.In 1830s William Adams wasgiven the charge to give report ofvernacular schools. He focused thatsystem of education was flexible.He emphasized teaching ofscience and technology alongwith art music and dance.According to him learningcould be encouraged innatural environment.Started Shantiniketanin 1901.Mahatma Gandhi urged thatcolonial education creates asense of inferiority and hasenslaved Indians.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-8.8] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

Social reformerscriticized casteinequality.Christian Missionaries set upschool for tribal groups andlower caste children.It was started by nonBrahmans who hadacquired access toeducation, wealth andinfluence.In aristocratic muslimfamilies women weretaught by women whocame home to teach.Schools for girlswere set up.Reformers felt that toimprove women'scondition educationwas necessary.Swami Dayanand Saraswatifounded Arya Samaj andsupported widow remarriage.Ishwarchandra Vidyasagarsuggested widow remarriage.In 1856 law was passedto permit widow remarriage.Raja Rammohan Roycampaigned againstthe practice of Sati.It was banned in 1820.He advocated freedomand equality for women.Indian women began to go touniversities by 1880. Some of thembecame doctors and teachers.Begum Rockeya SakhawatHassain started schools forMuslim girls in Patna andCalcutta.Muslim women like Begumsof Bhopal promoted educationfor women.Goingto School.Girls beginPandita Ramabai foundedhome for widows. She wroteabout miserable lives ofupper class Hindu women.Jawaharlal Nehru andSubhash Chandra Bosesupported equality andfreedom for women.Women, Castes andreformIn 1927, Ambedkar started a templeentry movement. His aim was tomake everyone see the power ofprejudice within the society.Paramhans Mandli wasfounded in 1840 in Bombayto work for abolition ofcaste system.HaridasquestionedBrahmanical texts thatsupported caste system.Shri Narayan Guru proclaimedthe idea of unity and equality.Satnami Movement incentral India was foundedby Ghasidas.By the second half of 19 centurythe lower castes began to demandfor equality and justice.thIn 20 century the movementfor caste reform was continued byD r. B . R . A m b e d k a r a n dE. V. Ramaswami Naicker.thHe proposed that Shudrasshould unite to challengecaste discrimination.He attacked the Brahman'sclaim that they were superior.They challengedBrahmanical claimto power.ChangingtofheWLiidows ves.His forceful speeches andwritings gave rise to a lotof rethinking on the issue. He was a critic ofHindu scriptures.Jyotirao Phule foundedSatyashodhak Samaj topropagate caste equality.E. V. Ramaswami Naicker (Periyar)founded the self respect movement.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-9Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [9

With the spread of nationalism, thestudio produced popular printswith elements of nationalism.Calcutta art studio wasset up in Calcutta.In late 19th century, mechanicalprinting presses were set up .Mythological themewas prominent.The purpose was to create apublic memory of imperialtriumph to show that Britishwere all powerful.They painted various wars inwhich the British defeatedthe Indians.These paintings dramatizedand recreated various episodesof British imperial history.Many Nawabs also gottheir portraits made.European artist like Johann Zoffonyportrayed British as superior andimperious and Indians occupying ashadowy background.Portrait painting verypopular in colonial India.Paintings depictedinfluence of British rule.Thomas Daniell andWilliam Daniell werefamous artist.One of the most popular traditionwas depicting India as quaint landto be explored by British artists.Tipu Sultan resistedEuropean art andencouraged traditionalpainting.The puppet Nawabs ofBritish encouraged localartist to absorb British style.The Changing worldof Visual ArtsIn 18 th century manyEuropan artists came toIndia.They brought newstyle of paintings. Theyproduced life like paintings.A new group of artistsgathered arround RabindraNath Tagor in Bengal.Local artists adoptedelements of Europeanrealism and produceda large number of images.He wanted to revivemedieval and ancientpanting style.Kakighat painters used shading tomake image look three dimensionalbut they were not realistic.Scroll painting wasdeveloped by localvillagers called ‘patuas’and potters.He set up a picture productionteam and printing press inthe outskirts of Bombays.He masterad oil paintingand painted themes frommythology.Ravi Verma inermingledmodern and national.They opposedRavi Verma’swestern style.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-1010 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal GangadharTilak and Lala Lajpat Rai (Lal, Bal, pal)criticized the policies of colonies rule.The government forcedvillages to send theirsoldiers for an alien cause.It led to price rise whichcrated difficultly forcommon people.In the first world warIndia was dragged intowar rising defense expenditure.After 1919 the struggle against the Britishbecame a mass movement includingpeasants tribals, students and women.He launched local movementsin Chamaran, Kheda andAhmedabad and got success.He spent initial years travelingthroughout the Country.In South Africa Gandhistr uggled for Indiansthroughout Now Violence.It infuriated people andthis led to the birth ofSwadeshi Movement.In 1905 partition ofBengal was announced.Tilak declared,“Freedom is mybirth right andI shall have it.”First 20 yearof congresswas moderate.DaCongress raised a number ofeconomic issues. It declaredthat British rule had led topoverty, famine and shortageof food.Later it demanded separationof Judiciary form executive,the repel of Arms Act andfreedom of speech andexpression.The Making of the NationalMovement: 1870s–1947emThcarohtIndian National Congress was establishedin 1885. In included prominent leaderslike Dada Bahi Naorji, W.C. Bonnerji,Badaruddin Tyabji etc.The awareness of being Indian andthat its recourses and systems weremeant for all made the people seethe trace nature of British.The Political associations cameinto being in 1870s and 1880s.In 1883 Ilbert Bill was introduced whichprovided for the trial of British or Europeanby Indian. Due to widespread agitation itwas withdrawn.Idea of sovereigntydeveloped.The Vernacular Act wasfound objectionable.Pakistan came into existence.On 3rd June 1947 Partition planwas announced.In 1940 Muslim league demandedindependent state for Muslims.In 1845 British opened negotiationbetween Congress and League forIndependence of India. The talk failed.Non–coopration movement becameIn February 1922 a police stationEnormous communal unity RSS andGandhi ji launched intentse. Jobs and collages were by cotted,and strength was obsared. communist in Chauri Chaura was set on fire. The combined struggle boreSatyagraha against titles were returned ,cloths are burnt.Gandhiji called of Non-Coopration fruit when Government ofpartyIndia Act prescribed provincialThe entire nationRowlatt act whichmovement.developed.Khilafat movementautonomy.agitated.curbed Fundamental Rights.was launched byCivil disobedienceIn1930GandhijiThe march was fromPeasantsIn 1919 nation wide hartalMohammad Ali andmovement wasPeople tookstarted the MarchSabarmati Ashram toorganisedwas launched which wasShaukat Ali.launched in 1930.Gandhiji asto break Soltlow.coastal town of Dandi.non-violantsuppressed. Jaliawalamessiah whocampaigns.Bagh massacre was awouldhelpInsecondworld war congress wasThis Act wasChitaranjanpant of this repression.them overcomeready to support in return andcriticized asFight forDas andmisery.congress miniatus resigned in protest.being ‘devilish'.MahatmaGandhiPurna SwarajMotilal Neharupracticed law in SouthIn middle second worldwas resolved.agreed forAfrica and stayed theirwar Gandhi ji initiated Quitelection.for 20 years.India movement.He emerged as massThere was severe repressioni.leader of Indian.by the British.ndMind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-11Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [ 11

forngin.PlanentmploDevePrime Minister Nehru andDeputyPrimeMinisterVallabhbhai Patel were againstthe creation of linguistic states.dantNan.In October 1952 Potti Sriramulu went onhunger strike demanding Andra Pradeshof Telegu speaking people.Scheduled castes andscheduled tribes weregranted reservation.Untouchability wasabolished.Special privileged for thepoorest and disadvantagedwere offered.The constitution guaranteedequality to all citizens.Universal Adult Franchisewas adopted.The India constitutioncame into effect onth26 January 1950.Farmers and peasants dependedon monsoon for survival.Population was large anddivided. (High caste- lowcaste; Majaity Hindu- other).The best political systemwas to be adopted.The problems of reefugesand princely states had tocheck immediately .Union list, State listand concurrent listis provided.A Constitution is WritteDedidiv.ionStarts to be dividedon the basis oflinguistic groups.India afterIndependencewOn 15 August 2007,India celebrates sixtyyears of independence.India has seen bothachievements and failures.On 1 October 1953Andhra Pradeshwas created.On 15 December Potti Sriramalu diedcausing violence. Central Governmentwas forced to give in to the demand.Industries were set upand dams were built.In 1956 second five yearplan was formulated.Planning Commission wasset up in 1950 to design andexecute suitable policies.A few of the major objectives werelifting India and Indians out ofpoverty and building a moderntechnical and industrial.Failures- discrimination of castesstill persists, clashes betweenreligious groups, widened gulfbetween rich and poor.Success- Still a uniteddemocratic country, hasfree press and independentJudiciary.Howwere Statese Formed.tobAfter IndependenceIndian faced a series ofvery great challengs'.Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-12eNA12 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

Natural GasPetroleumeg. Coaleg. Wind energyeg. Solar energyMineralsRocksSoilLivingthingsRenew orreplenishquicklyAirWatereg. LandN atu ral resourcesResourcesE ve r y o ne ’s d ut y tos u st a in a ble u s eeo f re n su resourcesFoundevery whereBasedonRenewabilityFound incertain placeeg. wableNonlivingthingsAnimalsPlantsTat keore thon uew sanor dsre of ypl eaeni rssh NoReducingQuality may not be knownand not in use at ledgeeg. Uranium inladakheg. Dark Soil ofDeccan PlateauTechnologyCreated fromnatural resourcesby human beingsContinuedtobe used in future.Quality is known &being used in presentan m ade ResourcesHumanResourcesH umtu ra lg N a re fu llynisUs cau rceresoCan berenewedMind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-13Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [ 13ltiantePo

MulchingLandslides& FloodRain washOveruse of chemicalsOvergrazingTimeDeforestationOrganic materialClimatic dMenLaws againstkilling of birdsand animalspDensoRainwaterharvesting.Proper checkingof canals.Water harvestingto save surfaceruin off.Parent d , Soil, Water,Naturel Vegetation &Wildlife ResourcesndLaClimateSoilOverexploitationCheck onovergrazingRegulated useof chemicalpesticidesProper useif opographyWatPopulationMind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-1414 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII

Mica CoalcPetroleumBoring deep wellsto take out minerals.Taking out mineralsburied under earth'ssurfaceBio gasGoldSilverIron ldManganeseCopperMicaBauxiteIron oreFuelJewelleryCookwareMachineryIndustries to makevariety of thingsMinerals andPower resourcseDigging to take outminerals lying nearthe earth's surface.of ndMineral oilDiamondGoldPlatinumCopperIron oreCoboltUraniumBauxiteChromiumMineral oilIron oreCopperTinGoldUraniumCopperNickelBauxiteIron oreNickelCopperCopperLeadZincManganeseNickelIron oreZincLeadBauxiteGoldTinDiamondIron oreNickelCopperLeadZincManganeseMineral oilperouETinIron orecariAfLimestoneHavelustureGood conductor ofheat & electricityDoontotesnlnatione- C o nvainCoalaletDoes notcontainironeg. Gold,CopperContain ironeg. Iron oreBauxiteFirewoodaletm rmin ota w fnaCo in earTidalpowerenergyMind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-15Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [ 15

Food crops andfodder crops aregrown.iontat turenlaPl ricugAThe produceis processedin farm itself.Live stock isalso reared.Requires large amountof labour & capital.Needs moderatetemperature, rainfalland lots of sunshine.MechanisationUse of highfielding seedsUse offertilizersImprovingirrigationIncreasingcropped areasNumber ofcrops grownRefers to efforts made toincrease farm production.Grows well onwell drained loamysoil on hill slopes.Needs warm andwet climateGrows on welldrained loamysoil and gentle slopes.Needs cool climate andwell distributed rainfallthroughout the year.Grows in alluvialsandy loam andclay loamy soil.Needs high temperature,heavy rainfall and humidclimate.Grows best in blackand alluvial soil.eMost of the work isdone by machines.TeafeSingle crop of tea,coffee, cotton etc.are grown.AgricultureGrows best inalluvial clayey soil.RiceNeeds moderatetemperature andrainfall and lots ofsunlight.Growsinwell drainedfertile soil.fCoCrops like wheat andgrain are grown forcommercial purpose.Grows on lessfertile andsandy soil.Grows bestin loamy soil.Needs moderatetemperature andrainfall duringgrowing, brightsunshine duringharvesting.Needs low rainfalland moderatetemperature.Needs high temperature,humidity and rainfall.Herdsmen movefrom place toplace with theiranimals.Practiced inarid and semiarid region.Practiced to meetthe farmer's needs.Low level of technologyand household labourare used.Cultivation onsmall plots wishsimple tools.Abandonedafter soilloses fertility.Land is cleanedby burning trees.Practiced in areasof heavy rainfall.Nhe omard dicingMind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-16MMixFar edming16 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIIItille

Use mineralore as rawmaterialUse plants andanimal basedraw materialPrivate Sectoro f S i zeeg. MarutiUdayof Ltd.eg. Anand MilkUnion Ltd.LandIndustriesRawmaterialLabourEndproductMan made fibres like nylon,acrylic, polyester and rayonare also used.Weaving cloth from cotton,silk, jute, flax and wool.Bhilai, Durgapur,Jamshedpur, Bokaroin India.Iron ore is convertedinto steelLocated in Germany, USA,China, Japan & RussiaHugli regionAhmedabad-Vadodara regionBengaluru-Tamil Nadu regionMumbai-Pune clusterEastern AsiaEastern EuropeWestern & Central EuropeEastern North AmericaConverting rawmaterial intofinished productDeals in the storage

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class-VIII [ 1 Mind map : learning made simple CHAPTER-1 How, When and Where Depends on