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Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE [ 1

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RancidityCorrosionTo know about more useful books for class-10 click hereDecompositionheatCaO(s) CO2(g)More reactive element displaces a less activemetal from its salt solutionDisplacementFe(s) CuSO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) Cu(s)Reduction: Addition of H2, Removal of O2Oxidation: Addition of O2, Removal of H2Oxidation-ReductionExchange of ions or reactantsReductionheat Cu H OCuO H22Double displacementNa2SO4(aq) BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) 2NaCl(aq)reactionsTypes of chemicalEqtions& EquaEquationsChemical ReactionsEffects of Oxidation ReactionsOxidationheat2Cu O22CuOReactant decomposes to form two or more compounds.CaCO3 (s)Addition of two elements or compoundsto synthesis new compoundCombinationC(s) O2(g) CO2(g)Heat absorbedEndothermicSunlight2AgBr(s)2Ag(s) Br2(g)Heat releasedExothermicCH4(g) 2O2(g) CO2(g) 2H2O(l) HeatPreventionSlow oxidation of oil and fatform-equationEnergy released: exothermicEnergy absorbed: endothermicThermochemicalchangesBalanced EquationReactionschange inCHAPTER : 1 Chemical Reactions & EquationsPhysical state of elements writtenas gas (g), liquid (l) and solid (s)Reactants & products both balancedElements with maximum atoms balanced firstNo. of atoms remains sameFollows law of conservation of massunbalanced equation (Skeleton equation)e.g. 2Mg O2 2MgOe.g. Magnesium Oxygen Magnesium oxideSimplest way to write word equationTemperatureStateColourOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 1

To know about more useful books for class-10 click hereGypsum: CaSO4. –21 H2O 1 –21 H2 O CaSO4 .2H2OPlaster of Paris: CaSO4. 2H2O CaSO4 –21 H2O 1–21 H2OWashing Soda: Na2CO3 10H2O Na2CO3 10H2OBaking Soda: NaCl H2O CO2 NH3 NH4Cl NaHCO3Bleaching Powder: Ca(OH)2 Cl2 CaOCl2 H2OSaltsWhen acid and base are combinedunder the given condition,Salt is obtainedand Salts H ion concentrationNeutral7pH scale: It is the H ion Concentrationof the solutions, denoted by pHIncreaseH Acidic nature increasingChemical Properties of Bases0Bases reacts with acidic oxides to form salts.2NaOH CO2 Na2CO3 H2ODecreaseOH14H ion concentration–Basic nature increasingClassification of Acid, Base and Neutralsolutions based on pH scaleDoes not conduct electricity–Give OH ions in aqueous solutionTurns red litmus blueBitter in tasteAlkali reacts with metal to liberate hydrogen gas.2NaOH Zn Na2 ZnO2 H 2Physical Properties of BasesAcids, BasesTypes of saltsChemical Properties of AcidsPhysical Properties of AcidsCommon salt: NaOH HCl NaCl H2OReacts with certain metal oxides to formsalt and water.Metal oxide Acid Salt WaterReacts with metal carbonates/metalhydrogen carbonate to liberate CO22HCl Na2CO3 2NaCl CO2 H2OHCl NaHCO3 NaCl CO2 H2OReacts with metals to liberate hydrogen.Acid Metal Salt Hydrogen Gas2HCl Zn ZnCl2 H 2Aqueous solution conduct electricityGive H ions in aqueous solutionTurns blue litmus redSour in tasteCHAPTER : 2 acids, bases and salts2 ]Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10

A process in which metalreacts with substance present in theatmosphere to form surfacecompounds, called rustMetal H2 Metal HydrideMetal Cl2 Metal ChlorideMetal dilute acid Salt H2Mg 2HCl MgCl2 H2To know about more useful books for class-10 click hereMetals2, 8Na 2, 8, 7of metalsCl(Na )(Chloride anion)2, 8, 8(Sodium cation)–Cl e– ClChemical PropertiesPhysical PropertiesExtractionNon-metalsCl–Formation of ionic compoundWhen metals react with non-metals, electronsare transferred from the metal atoms to thenon-metal atoms, forming ionic compounds.eg. Formation of Sodium ChlorideNa Na e–2, 8, 1and Non-metalsReactivity series of metalsMetalsThe series of metals indecreasing order of reactivity.K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb H Cu Hg Ag Au Pt.CorrosionChemical PropertiesPhysical PropertiesMetal Water Metal oxide Hydrogen gasMetal oxide water Metal hydroxide2Na(s) 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) H2(g) Heat energyMetal O2 Metal Oxide2Mg O2 2MgOGood conductor of heat and electricityMalleable and ductileHigh densityHigh M. P. and B.P.They are solidsCHAPTER : 3 metals and non-metalsCalcinationCarbonateNon-metal Cl2 Non-metal chlorideNon-metal acid No-reactionNon-metal steam H2 non-metal oxideC(s) 2H2O(g) CO2 (g) 2H2Non-metal O2 Non-metal oxideC(s) O2(g) CO2(g)Poor conductor of heat and electricityNon-malleable and non-ductileBrittleLow M.P and B.PCan be solids, liquids or gasesOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 3

4To know about more useful books for class-10 click hereEster (–COOR) Alkyl alkanoateCarboxylic Acid (–COOH) Alkanoic acidKetone ( C O) AlkanoneAldehyde (–CHO), AlkanalAlcohol (–OH) AlkanolHalogen (–X) Haloalkane2EsterificationSaponificationCarbon andChemical Propertiesof CarbonDecane C10H22Nonane C9H20 Heptene C7H14 Octene C8H16 Nonene C9H18 Decene C10H20 Octyne C8H14 Nonyne C9H16 Decyne C10H18 Hexene C6H12 Pentene C5H10 Butene C4H8 Propene C3H6 Ethene C2H4Homologous seriesof AlkenesAlk eneOctane C8H18Heptane C7H16Hexane C6H14Pentane C5H12Butane C4H10Propane C3H8Ethane C2H6Methane CH4Homologous seriesof alkanesAlk aneSaturated HydrocarbonPresence of single bondAlkanes CnH2n 2Alkenes(Presence of Double bonds)CnH2nUnsaturated Hydrocarbon Aromatic Compoundseg. Benzene C6H6 Cyclic Hydrocarbons (Cycloalkane)eg.Cyclopropane (C3H6)Cyclic or closedTypes of OrganicCompoundsAcyclic or Open Heptyne C7H12 Hexyne C6H10 Pentyne C5H8 Butyne C4H6 Propyne C3H4 Ethyne C2H2OxidationCombustionCH4 2O2 CO2 2H2O Heat / lightAlkynes CnH2n–2(Triple Bonds)Homologous seriesof AlkynesAlk yneIts CompoundsPropertiesof CarbonThe compound which possess same molecularformula but has different structural formula withdifferent chemical properties are called isomersand phenomenon is called isomerism.eg:- C4H10CH3–CH2–CH2–CH3 (n-butane)CH3–CH–CH3 (iso-butane)CH3Functional Groups: IUPAC(International Union of Pure andApplied Chemistry ) namesWhen an organic acid reacts withalcohol in the presence of acid catalyst,it produces fruity smell, called ester,this is called EsterificationH SOCH3 COOH C2H5OH Catalyst CH3COOC2H5 H2oCatenationTetravalency– It is a reaction when ester reacts with aninorganic base to produce alcohol and soapEster Base Alcohol SoapTriglyceride KOH Glycerol SoapElectronegativerismSubstitutionCH4 Cl2 Sunlight CH3Cl HClCHAPTER : 4 carbon and its compoundsIsome4 ]Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10

Atomic RadiusTo know about more useful books for class-10 click hereIncreases across a periodDecreases down a groupNon-metallic characterDecreases across periodIncreases down a groupMetallic CharacterIncreases down in a groupDecreases across a periodIt states that the propertiesof elements are the periodicfunction of their atomic massesMendeelev’s Periodic lawIt states that when elementsare arranged in increasing orderof atomic mass, the propertiesof the eighth element are akind of repetition of the first,just like notes of music(Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ne, Sa)Newland's law of OctaveDobereneir's triad LawWhen elements were arranged in the order ofincreasing atomic masses, groups of threeelements (triads) were formed. The atomicmass of the middle element was roughlythe average of the atomic masses of theother two elements.eg:- Li(7), Na(2 3), K(39)7 39 46—So, K —2 2 23 NaPeriodicFirst decreases and then increases across a periodDown a group: metals increases and non-metals decreasesChemical reactivityPeriodic PropertiesClassification of ElementsOld theoriesElectron affinityDecreases down a groupIncreases across a periodIonisation potentialDecreases down a groupIncreases across a period Alkali metals, 1st Group Alkaline earth metals, 2nd Group Boron family, 13th Group Carbon family, 14th Group Nitrogen family, 15th Group Oxygen family, 16th Group Halogens, 17th Group Inert Gases, 18th GroupIt states that the properties of theelements are the periodic functionof their atomic number.18 Vertical columns Groups7 Horizontal rows PeriodsDecreases down a groupIncreases across a periodElectronegativityNames of the GroupsModern Periodic LawCHAPTER : 5 periodic classification of elementsOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 5

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10CHAPTER : 6 life processes6 ]To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

{To know about more useful books for class-10 click hereParts of Neuron Cell body Dendrites AxonHormonesSecreted by GlandsReflex arc31 pairsSpinal Nerves (arises from spinal cord)Peripheral NervousSystemNervous system inHumansSpinal cord Involuntary Sudden actionsReflex action12 pairsCranial Nerves(arises from brain)Hind brainMid brain (Controlsinvoluntary actions, Change inpupil size, Reflex actions) Cerebrum Thalamus HypothalamusFore brain (Thinking part of brain)Growth of Pollen tube towards a chemicalproduced by OvuleChemotropism (Response to chemicals)(Response to water)HydrotropismRoots show positivegeotropismGeotropism (Response to gravity)Shoots show positivephototropismPhototropism (Response to light) Cerebellum: Controls posture and balance Pons: Controls involuntary actions Medulla Oblongata: Control involuntary actionsBrainPlant Movements (Tropicmovements)Central Nervous systemCo- ordinationControl andReceptors Sensory Neuron Spinal Cord Motor Neuron EffectorsAutonomic Nervous SystemExocrine Glands (With Duct)Types of GlandsEndocrine Glands (Ductless) Sympathetic ParasympatheticUnit of Nervous system: NeuronGonads Ovaries – Oestrogen, Progesterone Testes – TestosteronePancreasInsulin, GlucagonAdrenal GlandAdrenalin, cortisolThymusThymosinParathyroidParathyroid HormoneThyroid GlandThyroxine HormonePituitary GlandGrowth Hormone, TropicHormone, Prolactin, Vasopressin,OxytocinGrowthHormones Auxin Gibberellin Cytokinin Abscisic acid EthylenePlants HormonesCHAPTER : 7 control and co-ordinationOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 7

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10CHAPTER : 8 how do organisms reproduce ?8 ]To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here1. Round Yellow2. Wrinkled Yellow3. Round Green4. Wrinkled Green Genotype9:3:3:1 Phenotype Phenotype : All round yellow Genotype : Hybrid (RrYy)F1 generationDihybrid CrossLaw of Independent AssortmentF2 generation It states that recessive alleleswill always be masked bydominant alleles. In F1 generation, phenotype of allplants are red.Gregor John Mendel(Heredity)Monohybrid CrossLawaw of SegregationF1 generationMonohybrid CrossLaw of Dominance Phenotype : 3 Red : 1 White Genotype : 1 RR : 2 Rr : 1 rrF2 generation Phenotype : All red Genotype : Rr22 autosomesXX sex chromosome22 autosomesXY sex chromosome Child who inherits an X chromosome from his father : Girl (XX) Child who inherits a Y chromosome from the father : Boy (XY).FFemale: 22 XXMale: 22 XYSex determination in humansand EvolutionHeredityVariationsCHAPTER : 9 heredity and evolutionSpeciation (F(Formation ofnew species)Evidences of EvolutionBrings about evolutionVestigial Genetic drift Reproductive isolation Geographical isolation Natural SelectionFactors Affecting:Analogous Organs &homologous organsMorphological andanatomical Micro-evolution Study of FossilsPalaeontologicalOrgans present but no functionOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 9

n To know about more useful books for class-10 click herePower is measuredin Diopters (D)1P f (in metres)Lens Formula111— — – —fvuUsesThe incident ray,the normal and thereflected ray, all liein the same planeFormula for focallengthRefractive IndexPOWEROF LENSPosition of ObjectSolar DevicesReflector for Projector LampsFlood LightsTorchesorches and HeadlightsMagnificationMirror Formula111— — —fvuVelocity of light in medium 1Velocity of light in medium 2 It has no unitLensesvhim —u —h0Mirrors-vhim —u —h0Between Pole and FImage behind the mirror (Virtual)At FImage at infinity (Real)Between F and CImage beyond C (Real)At CImage at C (Real)Between infinity and CImage betweenF and C (Real)At InfinityImage at focus (Real)The angleof incidenceis equal tothe angle ofreflectioni rLensesMirrorsUsesThe incident ray,the normal and therefracted ray atthe point of incidenceall lie in the sameplane for the twogiven transparentmediumUsesSecurityCamerasBetween F1 and Optical centerImage on the same side of the lens at theobject (virtual)At F1Image at infinity (Real)Between F1 and F2Image beyond 2F2 (Real)At 2F1Image at 2F2 (Real)Beyond 2F1Image between F2 and 2F2(Real)At InfinityImage at F2 dMicroscopeSimple MicroscopePeepholesFlashlightsEye Glassesand Contact LensesFound indoors andoutdoors on vehiclesPosition of objectCompoundMicroscopeConcave LensDivergingUsesConvex-MirrorProducesvirtual imagesRefraction of light: lawsSNELL'S LawThe ratio of the sin ofangle ofincidence to the sin ofangle ofrefraction is alwaysconstantn sin isin rRefraction of light: lawsLIGHT : Reflectionand RefractionConcave-MirrorCan produce virtualas well as real imagesPlane MirrorProduces virtual imagesof same size atsame distanceCHAPTER : 10 light : Reflection and refraction10 ]Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10

CausesAtmospheric RefractionTo know about more useful books for class-10 click here Different colours travel through aglass prism at different speeds. The angle between the extendedincident ray and the emergent rayis called the angle of deviation. Twinkling of stars Planet do not twinkle Advanced Sunrise and delayed sunsetiHuman Eyei i sunrise and sunset Blue colour of the sky Splitting of light into its component colours Red colour deviates the least and violetdeviates the most.SunRainbowtVioleRefractionRefractionWhite lightDispersionfrom the sun BC Total internalRainreflectiondropof spectrumRedDPhenomenon associated are dispersion,refraction and total internal reflection.It regulates and controls the amountof light entering the eyePupilControl the size of the pupilIrisCorneaControls and focuses the entry oflight into the eye.Shows TyndallEffectTDispersion of LightRetinaDelicate membrane having enormous number oflight sensitive cellsFormation of RainbowProvide the focused realand inverted image of theobject on the retinaLensStructure of EyeScattering of Light Reddishness of the sun atRefractionof Light through Prismand Colourful WorldEye DefectsPresbyopiaHypermetropia(Far Sightedness)(NearSightedness)MyopiaRefraction of light by the earth‘s atmosphereCorrectionUse of Convex lens of appropriate powerCauses(i) Focal length of the eyelens becomes too long(ii) Eye ball becomes too smallUse of Concave lens ofappropriate powerCorrection(i) Excessive Curvature of eye lens(ii) Elongation of eyeballCausesUse of bifocal lensCorrection(i) Causes Gradual weakening of ciliary muscles(ii) Diminishing flexibility of eye lensCHAPTER : 11 human eye and colourful worldOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 11

To know about more useful books for class-10 click hereCell Wire jointWire crossingResistorVariable ResistanceCommercial unit of electrical energykWh (kilo watt hour)1kWh 3.6 106J 1 unitUnit (Watt)P VI VRate at which electrical energydenoted is dissipated/R I2R2R R1 R2 R3Resistance in Series Combination1111 RR1 R2 R3Resistance in Parallel CombinationR V/IFuse-wireSwitchDry cellPowerResistanceElectricityOhm‘s LawWireBulbH I2Rt VIt1 cal 4.18JChargeQor I tTimeALSI unit Ohm-meter( m)It depends upon the nature of the materialDanger of mishandlingelectrical appliancesLength R lNatureof the materialTemperature R TArea of cross section1R A Electrocution Electrical Shock Bomb FireFactors on which theResistance of a Conductor dependsElectric Potential orPotential differenceWork done to movea unit charge from onepoint to anotherThe closed path along which anelectric current flows.It's SI unit is ampere, denoted by 'A'Electric current Electric CircuitElectric Current RResistivityJoule‘s Law Heating effectSymbols of components ofcircuit diagramI VIf physical conditions ofconductor remain sameCHAPTER : 12 electricity12 ]Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10

CHAPTER : 13 magnetic effects of electric currentOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10To know about more useful books for class-10 click here[ 13

Potential EnergyNuclear EnergyReleased during the nuclearreactionChemical EnergyReleased by the action ofchemicalsReleased by vibrationsSound EnergyReleased by lightLight EnergyReleased by electric currentElectrical EnergyReleased by hot objectsHeat EnergyPossessed by SunSolar EnergyPossessed by moving objectsKinetic EnergyStored in stationary objectsSunTo know about more useful books for class-10 click hereBiomass (Fuels) Plants Animals Coal PetroleumFuelsDerived from temperature difference betweenwater at the surface and at deeper level upto 20ºCOcean thermal EnergyEnergy SourcesSources of EnergyFossil Fuels Energy stored in foodthrough photosynthesisPlants Primary source of energy Gives light and heat energy Provide stored energy in Fuels, Animals, PlantsEnergy FormsUses Wind sailing boats Move wind turbine to produce electricityWind energy Stored in Dams HydroelectricityTidal Energy Heat energy from the earth is utilised as source. Heat of molten rocks converts underground waterinto steam, which is used to run turbines connectedto electric generators.Geothermal EnergyNuclear Energy Energy contained in nucleus of atom is Nuclear energy. Heat from radioactive elements : Uranium andPlutonium produces energy.Characteristics ofgood fuel High calorific value Burns easily in air at a moderate ratewithout giving out any smoke or harmfulgases. Proper ignition temperature Easy to handle, safe to transportEnergy can neither be created nor bedestroyed, but can be transformed from oneform to another.Law of conservation of energyCHAPTER : 14 sources of energy14 ]Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10

Forest Grassland Terrestrial Aquatic Pond Crop Field Garden AquariumNaturalTypes Soil Water Air Light TemperatureArtificial Food ChainBioticFlow ofenergy Food WebEcosystemComponents Plants Animals Micro-organismAbiotic RepresentationTo know about more useful books for class-10 click hereTypes of Wastes Biodegradable Wastes Non-biodegradable WastesWastesOur EnvironmentTrophic LevelsFirst trophic level: Producer Ozone Depletion Problem of Waste Disposable PollutionEffects of WastesLarge CarnivoresFourth trophic level: Tertiary ConsumerSmall CarnivoresThird trophic level: Second ConsumerHerbivoresSecond trophic level: Primary ConsumerCHAPTER : 15 our environment Land Fills Recycling Sewage Treatment Incineration Use of Disposable:paper cupsWaste ManagementProducersPrimary naryconsumersOswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10[ 15

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here Bandharas in Maharashtra Khadins and Nadis in Rajasthan Kulhs in H.P. Eris in Tamil Nadu Surangams in Kerala Kattas in Karnataka Ahars and Pynes in Bihar Bundhis in M.P. and U.P.Making DamsGanga Action PlanForests are biodiversityhotspots.Stakeholdersof forests Wildlife and Nature Enthusiasts People living around the Forest Government Industrialists You and MeRainwater HarvestingTechniquesWater ManagementManagement of resource wisely so theymeet current basic human needswhile preserving them for the needs offuture generations.ionnitDefiAir PollutionHarmful Effects of Fossil FuelsDiseasesCauses global warming Alignment of Congestion Respiratory Disorders Throat Problems3R‘sNational OrganizationInternational Organizationto Protect EnvironmentRenewable NaturalResourcesof Naturaltural ResourcesManagementSustainable Development Chipko Andolan/ SL BAHUGUNA Amrita Devi Bishnoi/Khejri Trees A.K. Banerji to Save Sal ForestThree instances to Save ForestNon-RenewableSources of EnergyConservation of Forest Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Metal Ores Forest Trees Wildlife Solar Energy WindCHAPTER : 16 management of natural resourcesUse lessReduceSegregated waste can be recycledRecycleUse againReuseMinistry of Environment and ForestOther Non-governmentalOrganization (NGOs)Ministry of Non-conventionalEnergy SourcesCentral Pollution ControlBoard (CPCB)Man and Biosphere ProgrammeUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeWorld Wildlife Fund (WWF)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Convention on International Tradein Endangered Species (CITES)16 ]Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise Mind Maps, SCIENCE, Class – 10 [ 3 To know about more useful books for class-10 click here CHAPTER : 3 metals and non-metals Me ta ls and No n-me ta ls Non-metals Physical Properties Can be solids, liquids or gases Low M.P and B.P Brittle Non-malleable and non-ducti