Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry

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A Correlation ofPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistryto theInternational Baccalaureate SyllabusChemistry – Standard Level

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryTable of ContentsTopic 1: Stoichiometric relationships. 3Topic 2: Atomic structure . 6Topic 3: Periodicity . 8Topic 4: Chemical bonding and structure . 10Topic 5: Energetics/thermochemistry . 13Topic 6: Chemical kinetics . 16Topic 7: Equilibrium . 17Topic 8: Acids and bases . 18Topic 9: Redox processes . 21Topic 10: Organic chemistry . 23Topic 11: Measurement and data processing. 27Option A: Materials . 30Option B: Biochemistry. 38Option C: Energy . 44Option D: Medicinal chemistry . 49Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.2SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eTopic 1: Stoichiometric relationships1.1 Introduction to the particulate nature of matter and chemical changeEssential idea: Physical and chemical properties depend on the ways in which different atomscombine.Understandings:U1 Atoms of different elements combineSE: 5-6in fixed ratios to form compounds, which havedifferent properties from their componentelements.U2 Mixtures contain more than oneSE: 8-9element and/or compound that are notchemically bonded together and so retain theirindividual properties.U3 Mixtures are either homogeneous orSE: 9heterogeneous.Applications and skills:A1 Deduction of chemical equationsSE: 6-8when reactants and products are specified.A2 Application of the state symbols (s), (l), SE: 9-10, 52-53(g) and (aq) in equations.A3 Explanation of observable changes inSE: 11-14physical properties and temperature duringchanges of state.Guidance:G1 Balancing of equations should include SE: 6-7, 11, 52-53a variety of types of reactions.G2 Names of the changes of state—SE: 11-13melting, freezing, vaporization (evaporation andboiling), condensation, sublimation anddeposition—should be covered.G3 The term “latent heat” is not required.G4 Names and symbols of elements areSE: 5in the data booklet in section 5.1.2 The mole conceptEssential idea: The mole makes it possible to correlate the number of particles with the massthat can be measured.Understandings:U1 The mole is a fixed number ofSE: 15-16particles and refers to the amount, n, ofsubstance.U2 Masses of atoms are compared on aSE: 17-1812scale relative to C and are expressed asrelative atomic mass (Ar) and relativeformula/molecular mass (Mr).3SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eU3 Molar mass (M) has the units g mol-1.SE: 19-20U4 The empirical formula and molecularSE: 21-23, 25formula of a compound give the simplest ratioand the actual number of atoms present in amolecule respectively.Applications and skills:A1 Calculation of the molar masses ofSE: 19-21, 52-53atoms, ions, molecules and formula units.A2 Solution of problems involving theSE: 16-17, 20, 52-53relationships between the number of particles,the amount of substance in moles and themass in grams.A3 Interconversion of the percentageSE: 23-25, 54-55composition by mass and the empiricalformula.A4 Determination of the molecularSE: 25-26, 54-55formula of a compound from its empiricalformula and molar mass.A5 Obtaining and using experimentalSE: 21-22, 26, 54-55data for deriving empirical formulas fromreactions involving mass changes.Guidance:SE: 15-16G1 The value of the Avogadro’s constant(L or NA) is given in the data booklet in section 2and will be given for paper 1 questions.G2 The generally used unit of molar mass SE: 19(g mol-1) is a derived SI unit.1.3 Reacting masses and volumesEssential idea: Mole ratios in chemical equations can be used to calculate reacting ratios by massand gas volume.Understandings:U1 Reactants can be either limiting orSE: 30excess.U2 The experimental yield can beSE: 30-32different from the theoretical yield.U3 Avogadro’s law enables the mole ratio SE: 33-34of reacting gases to be determined fromvolumes of the gases.U4 The molar volume of an ideal gas is aSE: 34-36constant at specified temperature andpressure.U5 The molar concentration of a solutionSE: 46is determined by the amount of solute and thevolume of solution.4SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusU6 A standard solution is one of knownconcentration.Applications and skills:A1 Solution of problems relating toreacting quantities, limiting and excessreactants, theoretical, experimental andpercentage yields.A2 Calculation of reacting volumes ofgases using Avogadro’s law.A3 Solution of problems and analysis ofgraphs involving the relationship betweentemperature, pressure and volume for a fixedmass of an ideal gas.A4 Solution of problems relating to theideal gas equation.A5 Explanation of the deviation of realgases from ideal behaviour at low temperatureand high pressure.A6 Obtaining and using experimentalvalues to calculate the molar mass of a gasfrom the ideal gas equation.A7 Solution of problems involving molarconcentration, amount of solute and volume ofsolution.A8 Use of the experimental method oftitration to calculate the concentration of asolution by reference to a standard solution.Guidance:G1 Values for the molar volume of anideal gas are given in the data booklet insection 2.G2 The ideal gas equation, PV nRT, andthe value of the gas constant (R) are given in thedata booklet in sections 1 and 2.G3 Units of concentration to include: g-3dm , mol dm-3 and parts per million (ppm).G4 The use of square brackets to denotemolar concentration is required.Pearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eSE: 47SE: 29-32, 54-55SE: 33-34, 54-55SE: 36-40, 54SE: 41-42, 54-55SE: 44-45SE: 43, 54-55SE: 47, 52-55SE: 49-51, 53-55SE: 35-36SE: 41SE: 46-48SE: 465SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eTopic 2: Atomic structure2.1 The nuclear atomEssential idea: The mass of an atom is concentrated in its minute, positively charged nucleus.Understandings:U1 Atoms contain a positively chargedSE: 61dense nucleus composed of protons andneutrons (nucleons).U2 Negatively charged electrons occupySE: 60-61the space outside the nucleus.U3 The mass spectrometer is used toSE: 66-67determine the relative atomic mass of anelement from its isotopic composition.Applications and skills:A1 Use of the nuclear symbol notation AZX SE: 62-65to deduce the number of protons, neutronsand electrons in atoms and ions.A2 Calculations involving non-integerSE: 67-68, 85-86relative atomic masses and abundance ofisotopes from given data, including massspectra.Guidance:G1 Relative masses and charges of theSE: 61subatomic particles should be known, actualvalues are given in section 4 of the databooklet. The mass of the electron can beconsidered negligible.G2 Specific examples of isotopes need not be learned.G3 The operation of the mass spectrometer is not required.2.2 Electron configurationEssential idea: The electron configuration of an atom can be deduced from its atomic number.Understandings:U1 Emission spectra are produced whenSE: 71-72photons are emitted from atoms as excitedelectrons return to a lower energy level.U2 The line emission spectrum ofSE: 73hydrogen provides evidence for the existenceof electrons in discrete energy levels, whichconverge at higher energies.SE: 78-80U3 The main energy level or shell is givenan integer number, n, and can hold a maximumnumber of electrons, 2n2.6SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eU4 A more detailed model of the atomSE: 76-79describes the division of the main energy levelinto s, p, d and f sub-levels of successivelyhigher energies.U5 Sub-levels contain a fixed number ofSE: 76-78orbitals, regions of space where there is a highprobability of finding an electron.U6 Each orbital has a defined energy state SE: 78-80for a given electronic configuration andchemical environment and can hold twoelectrons of opposite spin.Applications and skills:A1 Description of the relationshipSE: 69-71, 85-86between colour, wavelength, frequency andenergy across the electromagnetic spectrum.A2 Distinction between a continuousSE: 70-71spectrum and a line spectrum.A3 Description of the emission spectrumSE: 73, 85-86of the hydrogen atom, including therelationships between the lines and energytransitions to the first, second and third energylevels.SE: 76-78A4 Recognition of the shape of an satomic orbital and the px, py and pz atomicorbitals.A5 Application of the Aufbau principle,SE: 79-84, 85-87Hund’s rule and the Pauli exclusion principle towrite electron configurations for atoms andions up to Z 36.Guidance:G1 Details of the electromagneticSE: 71spectrum are given in the data booklet insection 3.G2 The names of the different series in the hydrogen line emission spectrum are notrequired.7SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusG3 Full electron configurations (eg1s22s22p63s23p4) and condensed electronconfigurations (eg [Ne] 3s23p4) should becovered.Orbital diagrams should be used to representthe character and relative energy of orbitals.Orbital diagrams refer to arrow-in-boxdiagrams, such as the one given below.Pearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eSE: 78-82, 871s2s2pG4 The electron configurations of Cr andSE: 82Cu as exceptions should be covered.Topic 3: Periodicity3.1 Periodic tableEssential idea: The arrangement of elements in the periodic table helps to predict their electronconfiguration.Understandings:U1 The periodic table is arranged intoSE: 90-91four blocks associated with the four sublevels—s, p, d, and f.U2 The periodic table consists of groupsSE: 90(vertical columns) and periods (horizontalrows).U3 The period number (n) is the outerSE: 90-91energy level that is occupied by electrons.U4 The number of the principal energySE: 90-91level and the number of the valence electronsin an atom can be deduced from its position onthe periodic table.U5 The periodic table shows the positions SE: 92of metals, non-metals and metalloids.Applications and skills:A1 Deduction of the electronSE: 91, 111configuration of an atom from the element’sposition on the periodic table, and vice versa.Guidance:G1 The terms alkali metals, halogens,SE: 92noble gases, transition metals, lanthanoids andactinoids should be known.G2 The group numbering scheme fromSE: 90-91group 1 to group 18, as recommended byIUPAC, should be used.8SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2e3.2 Periodic trendsEssential idea: Elements show trends in their physical and chemical properties across periodsand down groups.Understandings:U1 Vertical and horizontal trends in theSE: 95-99periodic table exist for atomic radius, ionicradius, ionization energy, electron affinity andelectronegativity.U2 Trends in metallic and non-metallicSE: 99behaviour are due to the trends above.U3 Oxides change from basic throughSE: 109amphoteric to acidic across a period.Applications and skills:A1 Prediction and explanation of theSE: 99, 103-105, 111metallic and non-metallic behaviour of anelement based on its position in the periodictable.A2 Discussion of the similarities andSE: 103-107, 111differences in the properties of elements in thesame group, with reference to alkali metals(group 1) and halogens (group 17).A3 Construction of equations to explainSE: 109, 111the pH changes for reactions of Na2O, MgO,P4O10, and the oxides of nitrogen and sulfurwith water.Guidance:G1 Only examples of general trendsSE: 95-99, 111across periods and down groups are required.For ionization energy the discontinuities in theincrease across a period should be covered.G2 Group trends should include theSE: 103-107treatment of the reactions of alkali metals withwater, alkali metals with halogens and halogenswith halide ions.9SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eTopic 4: Chemical bonding and structure4.1 Ionic bonding and structureEssential idea: Ionic compounds consist of ions held together in lattice structures by ionic bonds.Understandings:U1 Positive ions (cations) form by metalsSE: 115losing valence electrons.U2 Negative ions (anions) form by nonSE: 115metals gaining electrons.U3 The number of electrons lost orSE: 115gained is determined by the electronconfiguration of the atom.U4 The ionic bond is due to electrostaticSE: 117-118attraction between oppositely charged ions.U5 Under normal conditions, ionicSE: 118-119compounds are usually solids with latticestructures.Applications and skills:A1 Deduction of the formula and name of SE: 117-118, 160an ionic compound from its component ions,including polyatomic ions.A2 Explanation of the physical propertiesSE: 119-120, 161-162of ionic compounds (volatility, electricalconductivity and solubility) in terms of theirstructure.Guidance:SE: 116G1 Students should be familiar with the names of these polyatomic ions: NH4 , OH ,NO3-, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42- and PO43-.4.2 Covalent bondingEssential idea: Covalent compounds form by the sharing of electrons.Understandings:U1 A covalent bond is formed by theSE: 123-124electrostatic attraction between a shared pairof electrons and the positively charged nuclei.U2 Single, double and triple covalentSE: 124bonds involve one, two and three shared pairsof electrons respectively.U3 Bond length decreases and bondSE: 125strength increases as the number of sharedelectrons increases.U4 Bond polarity results from theSE: 126-128difference in electronegativities of the bondedatoms.10SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eApplications and skills:A1 Deduction of the polar nature of aSE: 127, 160-161covalent bond from electronegativity values.Guidance:G1 Bond polarity can be shown eitherSE: 126-128with partial charges, dipoles or vectors.G2 Electronegativity values are given inSE: 127the data booklet in section 8.4.3 Covalent structuresEssential idea: Lewis (electron dot) structures show the electron domains in the valence shell andare used to predict molecular shape.Understandings:U1 Lewis (electron dot) structures showSE: 129-131all the valence electrons in a covalently bondedspecies.U2 The “octet rule” refers to the tendency SE: 130of atoms to gain a valence shell with a total of 8electrons.U3 Some atoms, like Be and B, might form SE: 132stable compounds with incomplete octets ofelectrons.U4 Resonance structures occur whenSE: 139-141there is more than one possible position for adouble bond in a molecule.U5 Shapes of species are determined bySE: 134-137the repulsion of electron pairs according toVSEPR theory.U6 Carbon and silicon form giantSE: 143-148covalent/network covalent structures.Applications and skills:A1 Deduction of Lewis (electron dot)SE: 130-132, 161-162structure of molecules and ions showing allvalence electrons for up to four electron pairson each atom.A2 The use of VSEPR theory to predict the SE: 133-136, 161-163electron domain geometry and the moleculargeometry for species with two, three and fourelectron domains.A3 Prediction of bond angles fromSE: 134-136, 161-164molecular geometry and presence ofnonbonding pairs of electrons.A4 Prediction of molecular polarity fromSE: 137-138, 160bond polarity and molecular geometry.11SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eSE: 139-142, 163A5 Deduction of resonance structures,examples include but are not limited to C6H6,CO3 2- and O3.A6 Explanation of the properties of giantSE: 143-148, 161covalent compounds in terms of theirstructures.Guidance:G1 The term “electron domain” should be SE: 133used in place of “negative charge centre”.G2 Electron pairs in a Lewis (electron dot) SE: 130structure can be shown as dots, crosses, a dashor any combination.SE: 143-148G3 Allotropes of carbon (diamond,graphite, graphene, C60 buckminsterfullerene)and SiO2 should be covered.G4 Coordinate covalent bonds should beSE: 131-132covered.4.4 Intermolecular forcesEssential idea: The physical properties of molecular substances result from different types offorces between their molecules.Understandings:U1 Intermolecular forces include LondonSE: 148-153(dispersion) forces, dipole-dipole forces andhydrogen bonding.U2 The relative strengths of theseSE: 153interactions are London (dispersion) forces dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds.Applications and skillsA1 Deduction of the types ofSE: 153-155, 160-162intermolecular force present in substances,based on their structure and chemical formula.A2 Explanation of the physical propertiesSE: 153-155, 160-162of covalent compounds (volatility, electricalconductivity and solubility) in terms of theirstructure and intermolecular forces.Guidance:G1 The term “London (dispersion) forces”SE: 149-151refers to instantaneous induced dipole induceddipole forces that exist between any atoms orgroups of atoms and should be used for nonpolar entities. The term “van der Waals” is aninclusive term, which includes dipole–dipole,dipole-induced dipole and London (dispersion)forces.12SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2e4.5 Metallic bondingEssential idea: Metallic bonds involve a lattice of cations with delocalized electrons.Understandings:U1 A metallic bond is the electrostaticSE: 156-157attraction between a lattice of positive ions anddelocalized electrons.U2 The strength of a metallic bondSE: 157depends on the charge of the ions and theradius of the metal ion.U3 Alloys usually contain more than oneSE: 158-159metal and have enhanced properties.Applications and skills:A1 Explanation of electrical conductivitySE: 158, 162and malleability in metals.A2 Explanation of trends in melting points SE: 157-158of metals.A3 Explanation of the properties of alloys SE: 158in terms of non-directional bonding.Guidance:G1 Trends should be limited to s- and pSE: 157block elements.G2 Examples of various alloys should beSE: 159covered.Topic 5: Energetics/thermochemistry5.1 Measuring energy changesEssential idea: The enthalpy changes from chemical reactions can be calculated from their effecton the temperature of their surroundings.Understandings:U1 Heat is a form of energy.SE: 166U2 Temperature is a measure of theSE: 169average kinetic energy of the particles.U3 Total energy is conserved in chemicalSE: 166reactions.U4 Chemical reactions that involveSE: 166-167transfer of heat between the system and thesurroundings are described as endothermic orexothermic.U5 The enthalpy change (ΔH) for chemical SE: 168reactions is indicated in kJ mol-1.U6 ΔH values are usually expressed under SE: 168standard conditions, given by ΔH , includingstandard states.13SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eApplications and skills:A1 Calculation of the heat change whenSE: 169-171, 191-192the temperature of a pure substance ischanged using q mcΔT.A2 A calorimetry experiment for anSE: 172-174, 192-193enthalpy of reaction should be covered and theresults evaluated.Guidance:SE: 172-175, 182-183G1 Enthalpy changes of combustion (ΔHc ) and formation (ΔHf ) should be covered.G2 Consider reactions in aqueousSE: 172-174solution and combustion reactions.G3 Standard state refers to the normal,SE: 168most pure stable state of a substancemeasured at 100 kPa. Temperature is not a partof the definition of standard state, but 298 K iscommonly given as the temperature of interest.G4 The specific heat capacity of water isSE: 169provided in the data booklet in section 2.G5 Students can assume the density andSE: 169-170specific heat capacities of aqueous solutionsare equal to those of water, but should beaware of this limitation.G6 Heat losses to the environment andSE: 176the heat capacity of the calorimeter inexperiments should be considered, but the useof a bomb calorimeter is not required.5.2 Hess's LawEssential idea: In chemical transformations energy can neither be created nor destroyed (the firstlaw of thermodynamics).Understandings:U1 The enthalpy change for a reactionSE: 180-181that is carried out in a series of steps is equal tothe sum of the enthalpy changes for theindividual steps.Applications and skills:A1 Application of Hess’s Law to calculateSE: 180-181, 192-195enthalpy changes.SE: 182, 192-195A2 Calculation of ΔH reactions using ΔHf data.A3 Determination of the enthalpy change SE: 179-180, 192-195of a reaction that is the sum of multiplereactions with known enthalpy changes.14SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eGuidance:G1 Enthalpy of formation data can beSE: 182-184found in the data booklet in section 12.SE: 183-184G2 An application of Hess's Law is ΔH reaction Σ(ΔHf products) – Σ(ΔHf reactants).5.3 Bond enthalpiesEssential idea: Energy is absorbed when bonds are broken and is released when bonds areformed.Understandings:U1 Bond-forming releases energy andSE: 185-186bond-breaking requires energy.U2 Average bond enthalpy is the energySE: 185needed to break one mol of a bond in agaseous molecule averaged over similarcompounds.Applications and skills:A1 Calculation of the enthalpy changesSE: 186-188, 192-195from known bond enthalpy values andcomparison of these to experimentallymeasured values.A2 Sketching and evaluation of potentialSE: 186-187energy profiles in determining whetherreactants or products are more stable and ifthe reaction is exothermic or endothermic.A3 Discussion of the bond strength inSE: 189, 195ozone relative to oxygen in its importance tothe atmosphere.Guidance:G1 Bond enthalpy values are given in theSE: 186data booklet in section 11.G2 Average bond enthalpies are only valid SE: 186, 188for gases and calculations involving bondenthalpies may be inaccurate because they donot take into account intermolecular forces.15SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eTopic 6: Chemical kinetics6.1 Collision theory and rates of reactionEssential idea: The greater the probability that molecules will collide with sufficient energy andproper orientation, the higher the rate of reaction.Understandings:U1 Species react as a result of collisions of SE: 205-207sufficient energy and proper orientation.U2 The rate of reaction is expressed asSE: 198-200the change in concentration of a particularreactant/product per unit time.U3 Concentration changes in a reactionSE: 200-203can be followed indirectly by monitoringchanges in mass, volume and colour.U4 Activation energy (Ea) is the minimumSE: 206-207energy that colliding molecules need in order tohave successful collisions leading to a reaction.U5 By decreasing Ea, a catalyst increasesSE: 210-211the rate of a chemical reaction, without itselfbeing permanently chemically changed.Applications and skills:A1 Description of the kinetic theory inSE: 204-205terms of the movement of particles whoseaverage kinetic energy is proportional totemperature in Kelvin.A2 Analysis of graphical and numericalSE: 199-200, 204, 212-215data from rate experiments.A3 Explanation of the effects ofSE: 208-209, 212-215temperature, pressure/concentration andparticle size on rate of reaction.A4 Construction of Maxwell–BoltzmannSE: 205, 215energy distribution curves to account for theprobability of successful collisions and factorsaffecting these, including the effect of acatalyst.A5 Investigation of rates of reactionSE: 199-200, 214-215experimentally and evaluation of the results.A6 Sketching and explanation of energySE: 210profiles with and without catalysts.16SE Student Edition

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to theInternational Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level ChemistryInternational BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry SyllabusPearson BaccalaureateStandard Level Chemistry, 2eGuidance:G1 Calculation of reaction rates fromSE: 199-200tangents of graphs of concentration, volume ormass vs time should be covered.G2 Students should be familiar with theSE: 198, 201interpretation of graphs of changes inconcentration, volume or mass against time.Topic 7: Equilibrium7.1 EquilibriumEssential idea: Many reactions are reversible. These reactions will reach a state of equilibriumwhen the rates of the forward and reverse reaction are equal. The position of equilibrium can becontrolled by changing the conditions.Understandings:U1 A state of equilibrium is reached in aSE: 218closed system when the rates of the forwardand reverse reactions are equal.U2 The equilibrium law describes how the SE: 221-222equilibrium constant (Kc) can be determined fora particular chemical reaction.U3 The magnitude of the equilibriumSE: 223constant indicates the extent of a reaction atequilibrium and is temperature dependent.U4 The reaction quotient (Q) measuresSE: 224-225the relative amount of products and reactantspresent during a reaction at a particular pointin time. Q is the equilibrium expression withnon-equilibrium concentrations. The position ofthe equilibrium changes with changes inconcentration, pressure, and temperature.U5 A catalyst has no effect on the position SE: 231of equilibrium or the equilibrium constant.Applications and skills:A1 The characteristics of chemical andSE: 218-219, 236physical systems in a state of equilibrium.A2 Deduction of the equilibrium constant SE: 221-222, 236-237expression (Kc) from an equation for ahomogeneous reaction.A3 Determination of the relationshipSE: 223, 236-237between different equilibrium constants (Kc) fo

A Correlation of Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry, 2e 2014 to the International Baccalaureate Syllabus for Standard Level Chemistry 4 SE Student Edition International Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry Syllabus Pearson Baccalaureate Standard Level Chemistry

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