ASHRAE WILL G YOU THE WORLD

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10/12/2015ASHRAE WILL GIVEYOU THE WORLDThis ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer is brought to you by theSociety Chapter Technology Transfer Committee1Complete the Distinguished LecturerEvent Summary Critique CTTC needs your feedback to continue toimprove the DL Program Distribute the DL Evaluation Form to all attendees Collect at the end of the meeting Compile the attendee rating on the Event SummaryCritique Send the completed Event Summary Critique to yourCTTC RVC and ASHRAE HeadquartersForms are available at:www.ashrae.org/distinguishedlecturers21

10/12/2015BECOME A FUTURE LEADER IN ASHRAE – WRITE THE NEXTCHAPTER IN YOUR CAREERASHRAE Members who attend their monthly chapter meetings becomeleaders and bring information and technology back to their job.YOU ARE NEEDED FOR: Membership Promotion Research Promotion Student Activities Chapter TechnologyTransfer TechnicalCommitteesFind your Place in ASHRAE! Visit www.ashrae.org3ASHRAE Standard 15A review and update on what’s new?Douglas Reindl, Ph.D., P.E.ASHRAE FellowDirector, IRC and HVAC&R CenterProfessor, University of Wisconsin-Madison42

10/12/2015During this presentation Brief history of Standard 15 Discuss the purpose and scope Provide an overview of the standard Recent changes and status5A bit of history,1914 1919193219391950 1953 195819641971Refrigeration System Safety TimelineCode expands toregulaterefrigeratingmachines &refrigerantsASRE engineersinitiatedevelopment of1st refrigerationsafety code forNYCASRE publishesupdated versions ofASA B9ASRE publishes andASA approves B9 the“American StandardSafety Code for Mech.Refrigeration”ASRE redesignatesB9 to B9.1publishingupdatedversions.Merger ofASRE andASHAEleadsASHRAE topublish asB9.1ANSIapprovesASHRAEB9.163

10/12/2015A bit of history,19781989 1992 199420012004200720102013Refrigeration System Safety TimelineASHRAE publishes1st version ofANSI/ASHRAE 15ASHRAE publishes revisedversions of ANSI/ASHRAEStandard 157ASHRAE 15 today Purpose: specifies safe design, construction,installation, and operation of refrigerationsystems Scope: establishes safeguards for life, limb,health, and property and prescribes safetyrequirements84

10/12/2015Fundamental goals of Std. 151. Keep refrigerants contained within theirrefrigeration systems2. In the event when a refrigerant might bereleased, mitigate its impact on peoplea) By limiting refrigerant quantity in direct systemsb) Locating refrigeration systems within machineryrooms when system charge is too large9ASHRAE 15 Applications:a) design, construction, test, installation, operation,and inspection of mechanical and absorptionrefrigeration systems, including heat-pump systemsused in stationary applications;b) modifications, including replacement of parts orcomponents if they are not identical in function andcapacity; andc) refrigerant substitutions with a different designation105

10/12/2015ASHRAE 34 Companion to ASHRAE 15Purpose: establish a system to uniquelyidentify refrigerants, assign reference numbersto refrigerants, establishes safety classificationand refrigerant concentration limits11ASHRAE 15 and ASHRAE 34 ASHRAE 15 defers to ASHRAE 34 on: Refrigerant safety classifications Refrigerant concentration limits (RCLs) Key refrigerant property information that mustbe submitted with an application for designation126

10/12/2015ASHRAE 3413ASHRAE 34 Toxicity classifications Class A signifies refrigerants where toxicity hasnot been identified at concentrations 400 ppmvbased on TLV–TWA data or consistent indices Class B signifies refrigerants for where there isevidence of toxicity at concentrations 400 ppm,based on TLV-TWA data or other consistentindices147

10/12/2015ASHRAE 34 Flammability classifications1 – No flame propagation2 – Exhibits flame propagation, a LFL 0.10 kg/m3and heat of combustion 19,000 kJ/kg2L – burning velocity not greater than 10 cm/s*3 – Exhibits flame propagation, a LFL 0.10 kg/m3and heat of combustion 19,000 kJ/kg* per ASTM E 68115ASHRAE 34 Refrigerant safety classifications A1 R22, R134a A2L R32, R143a, R1234yf B2L R717 (ammonia) A3 R600a (isobutane),R290 (propane)Safety Group o herToxicityThe 2L refrigerants have a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or slower.168

10/12/2015Standard 15 content Classifications Section 4 – Occupancy Section 5 – Refrigerating systems Section 6 – Refrigerant safety17Standard 15 content Restrictions Section 7 – Refrigerant use Section 8 – Installation Design, construction, & operation Section 9 – Equipment and Systems Section 10 – Operation and testing189

10/12/2015Standard 15 content General Section 11 – General requirements Section 12 – Precedence with conflicts Section 13 – Listed equipment Normative appendices Appendix B – References Appendix D – Relief vent line lengths19Occupancy classifications Relates to restrictions on refrigerants andrefrigerating systems usage Institutional – hospitals, nursing homes, prisons Public assembly – auditoriums, classrooms, restaurants,theaters Residential – dormitories, hotels, apartments, privateresidences2010

10/12/2015Occupancy classifications Relates to restrictions on refrigerants andrefrigerating systems usage Commercial – office, professional buildings Large mercantile – large stores Industrial – food production, storage, chemical process Mixed – two or more occupancies in same building21Refrig system classificationsHigh probabilitysystemsLow probabilitysystems2211

10/12/2015Restrictions on useI. Determine refrigerant concentration fromcomplete discharge of largest independentrefrigerant circuitII. Resulting concentration cannot exceed therefrigerant’s RCL from ASHRAE 34(institutional occupancies @ 50% of RCL)Exceptions:1. Listed equipment not containing more than 6.6 lb.2. Listed equipment for use in laboratories with more than 100 ft2/person23RCLs are found in ASHRAE 34 Refrigerant Concentration Limit (RCL)is the(ATEL, ODL, FCL) Acute-Toxicity Exposure Limit (ATEL) Basis: mortality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic/ nervoussystem impacts or other escape-impairing effects Oxygen Deprivation Limit (ODL) Flammable Concentration Limit (FCL)set at 25% of LFL2412

10/12/2015What is RCL? ASHRAE 34 RCL is the refrigerant concentration limit in air thatis intended to reduce the risks of acute toxicity,asphyxiation, and flammability hazards in normallyoccupied, enclosed spaces Concentration is based on full vaporization of the refrigerant in the space towhich it is released with complete mixing and noremoval by ventilation, dissolution, reaction, ordecomposition25ASHRAE 34 RCL excerpt2613

10/12/2015Volume for determining RC Volume of space to which refrigerant disperses inthe event of a refrigerant leak [§7.3] Occupied spaces that do not connect throughpermanent openings or HVAC ducts, use the volume ofthe smallest occupied space [§7.3.1] When refrigerant is in an air-handler, duct, or spaceserved by mechanical ventilation, the entire airdistribution system must be analyzed27ASHRAE 15 – InterpretationMarch 5, 2015 2814

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 – InterpretationMarch 5, 2015 29ASHRAE 15 – InterpretationJune 24, 2012 3015

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 – InterpretationJune 24, 2012 31ASHRAE 15 – InterpretationJune 27, 2010 3216

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 – InterpretationJune 27, 2010 33ASHRAE 15 – Interpretation34January 30, 201117

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 – Interpretation35January 30, 2011ASHRAE 15 – Interpretation36January 30, 201118

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 – Interpretation37January 30, 2011A machinery room required when,a. the quantity of refrigerant exceeds the limits fora given occupancyb. direct-fired absorption equipment is usedWhen required, all refrigerant-containingcomponents containing shall be located ina machinery room or outdoors3819

10/12/2015Other restrictions Flammable refrigerants (group 2 & 3) Total quantity not to exceed 1,100 lb Higher flammability (group 3) restricted tolaboratories or industrial if charge is 150 grams Refrigerants Minimum purity requirements Re-use and recycled limited to system from which itwas removed Reclaimed refrigerants must meet AHRI 70039Installation considerations Need adequate foundations, guarding, safe access Piping – several specific requirements apply Prohibited from being installed in enclosed publicstairway, stair landing or any means of egress Restrictions on pipe penetrations through ceilings,roofs, and floors4020

10/12/2015Installation considerations Machinery rooms Tight fitting constructionRefrigerant detection requirementsDedicated ventilation: normal & emergency operationRestricted access to authorized personnelNo open flames using combustion air from roomOther41Design Materials of construction Design pressure not be less than pressureduring maximum operating, standby, orshipping conditions Pressure relief protection Serviceable components provided with safeaccess Shut-off valves – number and location Other4221

10/12/2015Operation, testing, and general For field-erected parts of system, pressuretesting is required Refrigerating equipment must beproperly guarded from impact damage Refrigerant circuit access ports locatedoutdoors must be secured Equipment must be properly labeled43ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Highlights of what’s new in the 2013 edition: Clarifies requirements for machinery roomventilation (8.11.4) Explicitly states design pressure requirements areexpressed as gauge pressure (Section 3) Adds locking cap requirement to harmonize withIMC (11.3) Removes methods for determining RCL and defersto Std. 34 (Appendix A) Removes requirement for manual discharge ofammonia “fireman’s control box” (8.13) Clarifies relief requirements (Addendum a)4422

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 - 2013 §8.11.4 Mechanical ventilation referred to in Section 8.11.3shall be by one or more power-driven fans capableof exhausting air from the machinery room at leastin the amount given in the formula in Section8.11.5 The mechanical exhaust inlet(s) shall be located inan area where refrigerant from a leak is likely toconcentrate, in consideration of the location of thereplacement air path(s), refrigerating machine(s),and the density of the refrigerant relative to air.45ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Definitions (Section 3) design pressure: the maximum gauge pressurefor which a specific part of a refrigeratingsystem is designed.4623

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 - 2013 11.3 Charging, Withdrawal, and Disposition ofRefrigerants 11.3.1 Refrigerant Access Refrigerant circuitaccess ports located outdoors shall be secured toprevent unauthorized access.47ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Appendix A is deleted in its entirety INFORMATIVE APPENDIX A—CALCULATIONS OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLECONCENTRATION (Cm) OF A BLENDA1. FOR 100 lb OF BLEND, DETERMINE THE IDEAL GASVOLUMES OCCUPIED BY EACHCOMPONENT AND BY THEBLEND AT 70 F AND 1 atm A2. DETERMINE THE DILUTION VOLUME REQUIRED FORTHE 100 lb OF BLEND AND EACH COMPONENT THEREIN A3. DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLECONCENTRATION (Cm) OF A BLEND4824

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Section 8.13 is deleted in its entirety 8.13 Manual Emergency Discharge ofAmmonia Refrigerant. When required by theAHJ, manual emergency discharge or diffusionarrangements for ammonia refrigerants shall beprovided.49ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Addendum a Clarifies safety relief system dischargerequirements Removes requirements for sulfur dioxide becauserefrigerant is no longer in use Revised and clarified requirements for reliefsystems5025

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Addendum a Outdoor systems containing Group A1refrigerant shall be permitted to discharge[safety relief] at any elevation where the pointof discharge is located in an access-controlledarea accessible to authorized personnel only.51ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Addendum a For heavier-than-air refrigerants, point of ventdischarge shall not be less than 20 ft from: Below-grade walkways, pits, or ramps if a release ofentire system charge can result in a concentrationgreater than the RCL Direct discharge into an enclosed outdoor spacesuch as a courtyard is prohibited if the resultingconcentration is greater than the RCL5226

10/12/2015ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Addendum a Drip pockets Relief vent lines that terminate verticallyupward and subject to moisture entryshall be provided with a drip pocket atleast 24” deep and of vent pipe size Located at first change in vent pipe direction Fitted with a valve or drain plug to permit drainage53ASHRAE 15 - 2013 Addendum a Relief valve back-pressure When outlets of two or more relief devices or fusibleplugs, which are expected to operate simultaneouslyconnect to a common discharge pipe, the commonpipe shall be sized large enough to prevent theoutlet pressure at each relief device from exceedingthe maximum allowable outlet pressure.5427

10/12/2015Questions on Std. 15?55Let’s look at somerefrigerant safety issuesinside and outside themachinery room.5628

10/12/2015Safeguarding piping & equipment11.1 General Restrictions—Safeguards.Means shall be taken to safeguard piping,controls, and other refrigeratingequipment to minimize possible accidentaldamage or rupture by external sources.57Result of improper pipe support5829

10/12/2015Proper pipe support!59Equipment access requirements8.3 Safe Access. A clear and unobstructed approach andspace shall be provided Inspection, service, and emergency shutdown Applies to condensing units, compressor units,condensers, stop valves, Permanent ladders, platforms, or portableaccess equipment shall be provided6030

10/12/2015Equipment clearance8.11.1A machinery room shall be dimensioned soparts are accessible with space for service,maintenance, and operations. There shall beclear head room of not less than 7.25 ft (2.2 m)below equipment situated over passageways.61Inadequate equipment clearancesNew chiller installationAbout 20” (0.5 m) wasclearance provided.Minimum clearance required is 4 ft (1.2 m)J. Vucci6231

10/12/2015Inadequate electrical equipmentclearance800 AMP service panelInadequate clearanceOne exit (right)63J. VucciInadequate equipment clearance6432

10/12/2015No safe access for serviceReturn fan located 30 ft (9 m) off floorReturn fan located 20 ft (6 m) off floorNo provisions made for safe service access other than technicians working from ladders.Owner required fixed platforms in this instance!65J. VucciMachinery room, general 8.11.2 With the exception of access doors andpanels in air ducts and air-handling unitsconforming to Section 8.11.7, there shall be noopenings that will permit passage of escapingrefrigerant to other parts of the building.6633

10/12/2015Improperly sealed machinery roompiping penetrationsAll roof, wall, and floor penetrations of a machinery room are to beproperly sealed to ensure compliance with ventilation requirements.67Pressure relief outlets pluggedPRV outlets plugged &relief vent piping notintact.6834

10/12/2015No relief pipingHigh pressure receiver inmachinery room with novent piping connected69Vent piping not intact – not compliant7035

10/12/2015Pressure relief vents to unsafelocationPressure relief ventoutlet closer than 6 m tomake-up air intake.71Questions on Std. 15?7236

Oct 12, 2015 · ASHRAE 34 Flammability classifications 1 – No flame propagation 2 – Exhibits flame propagation, a LFL 0.10 kg/m3 and heat of combustion 19,000 kJ/kg 2L – burning velocity not greater than 10 cm/s* 3 – 3Exhibits flame propagation, a LFL 0.10 kg/m * per ASTM E 681 15 ASHRAE 34

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