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Tribhuvan UniversityInstitute of Science and Technology‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡4 year's Bachelors of Science Revised course of Study-2073Third & Fourth Year‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Effective form 2073 Admission Batches‡‡‡‡Dean's Office, Kirtipur1 Page

Subjects : IIIrd year1. Botany2. Chemistry3. Environmental Science4. Geology5. Mathematics6. Meteorology7. Microbiology8. Physics9. Statistics10. Zoology11. Research Methodology2 Page

Plant Biochemistry and BiotechnologyCourse No:Bot 301Full Marks: 100Nature of the Course: TheoryPass Marks:35Year: B.Sc. III yearLectures:150Objectives: The general aim of this course is to provide fundamental knowledge of plantbiochemistry and biotechnology.Unit A: Plant Biochemistry751. Introduction: a) Plant biochemistry as a science (b) Relationship between plantbiochemistry and plant sciences (genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, plantphysiology and other branches of bio sciences)2 hrs2. Bio-molecules37 hrs(a) Water: molecular structure, properties, water as a solvent; Ionization of water, pHscale, buffer.6 hrs(b) Functional groups found in bio-molecules: general concept3 hrs(c) Carbohydrates: Definition, classificationMonosaccharides: classification (based on functional group; based on no of C atoms),Properties (Esterification, oxidation, reduction, osazone formation, cyanohydrinreaction, furfural formation, enolization); derivatives of monosachharides (de-oxyderivatives, acids, alcohols, amino sugars, sialic acid); Biological importanceDisachharides, Polysaccharides and their biological importance(1 6 3 hrs)(d) Lipids: Definition, structure of glycerol and fatty acidsProperties of fatty acids, kinds of lipids (Glycero lipids; lipids without glycerol;complex lipids), properties of lipids, Biological roles of lipids(1 4 hrs)(e) Proteins: Definition, Amino acids and their classification (essential, semi essentialand non essential; polar and non polar; acidic, basic or neutral)Properties of Amino Acids: Amino acids as zwitterions, Amino acids as electrolytes,Reactions of amino acids (ninhydrin reaction; Sanger‟s reaction; Edman‟s reaction,Dansyl Chloride reaction; Phosgene reaction; decarboxylation; Esterification;Acylation)Peptide bonds and Polypeptide; Structure of polypeptides- primary/secondary/tertiaryand quaternary structures3 Page

Classification of proteins, Functions of proteins.(2 5 3 3 hrs)3. Enzymes: Properties and chemical structure, Mechanism of action, Denaturation, Factorsaffecting enzyme action, Allosteric protein and feedback inhibition. Classification andnomenclature7 hrs4. Plant pigments: Structure and functions of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyanins,phycobillins4 hrs5. Vitamins and their role in plants: Fat soluble vitamins (A, E and K); Water solublevitamins (Coenzyme A, Vitamins B1, B2, B6, C, and H)5 hrs6. Introduction to Bioinformatics5 hrsDefinition, role of computer in bioinformatics, Branches of bioinformatics, Aim ofbioinformatics, Scope and research areas in bioinformatics, Biological data-DNAsequence, protein sequence, macromolecular structure. Databases in bioinformatics, basicbioinformatics tools- Databases search (Entrez, SRS), Blast, Fasta.Unit B: Plant Biotechnology1. Overview of Biotechnology75(1 3 10 hrs) 14 hrsIntroduction : A) Origin and History of biotechnology, B) Scope and importance ofbiotechnology: a) Biotechnology in Medicine, b) Biotechnology in food industry, c)Biotechnology in agriculture, d) Biotechnology in Fermentation technology e)Biotechnology in environmental engineering; C)Achievements of biotechnology: a) Genecloning, b) Recombinant DNA technology, c) In vitro culture technology, d) Geneticallyengineered drugs, e) Diagnosis of diseases f) Biosensors g) Biofertilizers h) MutationBreeding, i)Enzyme technology , j) DNA finger printing, h) Monoclonal antibody2. Plant tissue culture technique and application(2 3 2 10 15 3) 35 hrsA. Introduction to plant tissue culture.B. Basic principles and techniques of In vitro culture: Totipotency, Basic requirementsfor growing plants in vitro: Laboratory organization, composition and selection of nutrientmedia, sterilization, culture roomC. Types of plant tissue culture and their applications: a. Seed culture, b. organ culture(Meristem culture, root culture, shoot culture), c. Embryo culture, d. Anther Culture e.4 Page

Ovule culture, f. Endosperm culture, g. Callus culture h. Protoplast culture i. cell suspensioncultureD. Cryopreservation : a. Principles, Method of cryopreservation- i) Preparation ofmaterial for deep freezing, ii) Cryoprotectors, iii) Freezing programmes, iv) Storagestrategies, v) Assessment of successful cryopreservation. b. Uses of cryopreservation –i)Cryopreservation of Semen, ii) Cryopreservation of ova and embryo, iii) Maintenance ofplant germplasm for long duration, iv) Organ explants, v) Zygotic and immature embryos,vi) Shoot tips, vii) Callus, viii) Cell suspensions x) Protoplasts, c. Significance ofcryopreservation3. Plant- Microbe Interaction12 hrsA. Biological Nitrogen fixation: mechanism and its importanceB. Symbiotic and asymbiotic organisms for soil fertility and crop improvement.C. Biofertilizers (Symbiotic associations): i) Rhizobium- Formation of nodule, Nitrogenfixing organism found in nodules, Structure and function of nodule, Mechanism of Nitrogenfixation by Nodules, Rhizobial biofertilizers, Rhizobium biofertilizers in forest trees. ii)Blue Green Algae (BGA)-Mass production and application of Blue Green Algae, Azolla –anabaena symbiosis, Asymbiotic associations, Non symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria, Nonsymbiotic bacterial biofertilizer- a) Azotobactor, b) Azospirillum, c) Carrier formulation,iii). Frankia biofertilizer, iv) Mycorrhiza-Types of mycorrhiza, benefits from Mycorrhizas toplants, establishment of Mycorrhiza associations in vitro4. Gene transfer in plants:(10 1 3 hrs) 14 hrsA) Concept of gene cloning: Basic requirements for gene cloning in plants; gene isolationand cloning; Concept of vectors; marker and reporter genes and their roles in planttransformation; identification and analysis of cloned genes (colony hybridization,immunological detection, PCR, blotting)B. Gene transfer techniques in plants: i) gene transfer methods: (Direct/vector less andindirect/ vector mediated); transformation of mitochondria and chloroplasts iii) GM crops:applications and limitations iv) General concept of molecular farming from transgenicplants, v) ethical issues in plant genetic engineeringText and Reference booksPlant Biochemistry5 Page

1. Bhattarai, T. 2005. Experiments on Plant Biochemistry and Plant Biotechnology.Bhundipuran Prakashan, Kathmandu2. Bhattarai, T. 2007. Plant Physiology. Bhundipuran Prakashan, Kathmandu.3. Jain, J.L. 2004. Fundamentals of Biochemistry. S Chand and Company Ltd. NewDelhi4. Lehninger, A.L., Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M. 2004. Principles of Biochemistry. 4thedition. McMillan Limited, USA (Indian Reprint )5. Rastogi, S.C. 1993. Biochemistry. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. DelhiBioinformatics1. Attwood, T.K. and Parry-Smith, D. J. 2001. Introduction to Bioinformatics. PrenticeHall Inc.2. Ghosh, Z. and Malllick, B. 2008. Bioinformatics –principle and applications. OxfordUniversity Press, India.3. Mount, D. W. 2001. Bioinformatics Sequence and Genome Analysis. Cold SpringHarboor Laboratory Press, New York.Plant Biotechnology1. Altman, A. and Hasegawa, P. 2012. Agricultural Biotechnology. Academic Press.2. Bhojwani S. S. 1990. Plant Tissue Culture: Applications and Limitations, ElsevierScience Publishers.3. Bhojwani S.S. and Razdan, M. K. 1996. Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and Practice.Elsevier Science Publishers.4. Chawala H.S. 2009. Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture. Third Edition. Oxford andIBH5. Crispeels, M.J. and Sadava, D.E. 2006. Plants, Genes and Crop Improvement.American Society of Plant Biologists, USA.6. Debergh, P.C. and Zimmerman, R.H. 1990. Micropropagation. Kluwer AcademicPubl. Dordrecht.7. Dodds, j.H. and Roberts, L.W. 1995. Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture (3rdEdition). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.8. Dubey R.C. 2009. A text Book of Biotechnology S Chand and company Limited.9. Gamborg O.L. and Phillips G.C. 1995. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture –Fundamental Methods (Lab. Manual). Springer-Verlag.10. Greene J.J. and Rao V.B. 1998. Recombinant DNA Principles and Methodologies.Marcel Dekker.11. Lal R. and Lal S. 1995. Genetic Engineering of Plants for Crop Improvement. CRCPress.12. Pierik R.L.M. 1997. In vitro Culture of Higher Plants. Kluwer Academic Publisher,Netherlands.6 Page

13. Punia M.S. 1999. Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology: A LaboratoryManual. Scientific Publishers, India.14. Razdan M. K. 2003. Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture. Agritech Publications.15. Satyanarayan U. 2005. Biotechnology. 1st ed. Arunabha Sen books and Allied P. Ltd.Plant Biochemistry and BiotechnologyCourse No:Bot 302Full Marks: 50Nature of the Course: PracticalPass Marks: 20Year: B.Sc. III yearLectures:75Objectives: The general aim of this course is to provide Practical knowledge of plantbiochemistry and biotechnologyUnit A: Plant Biochemistry1. Preparation of solutions: Concept of normality, molarity, percentage, ppm (parts permillion) and their inter-conversions2. Preparation of buffers (acetate and phosphate) of different pH; measurement of pH byusing pH meter and different indicators3. Qualitative test of carbohydrates (mono-, di- and polysaccharides)4. Quantitative estimation of sugars by anthrone method.5. Qualitative tests of lipids and fatty acids (use of sudan dye; determination of acid value,saponification value and iodine number)6. Qualitative test of proteins (Ninhydrin test; biuret test; millon‟s test)7. Quantitative estimation of proteins8. Qualitative test of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)9. Quantitative estimation of nucleic acids10. Bioassay of plant hormones11. Extraction and quantification of different plant pigments usingcolorimeter/spectrophotometer12. Effect of different factors on enzyme catalyzed reactions (Substrate concentration;enzyme concentration; temperature, pH, inhibitors)13. Separation of plant pigments by paper/thin layer chromatography.Unit B: Plant Biotechnology1 .To study about the sterilization Technique7 Page

i Heatii. Radiationiii. Chemicalsiv. Filtration1. and operation of an AutoclaveStudy and operation of A Hot Air OvenStudy and operation of Laminar Air Flow CabinetTo perform the surface sterilization in plants (explants) .Preparation of 1 litreMurashige and Skoog (1962)(MS) medium.Preparation of Stock solution for MS medium.Preparation of 1.litre of MS medium using stock solutions.Culture technique in tissue culture: root tip culture, shoot tip culture, meristem culture, Pollenculture, anther culture, embryo culture, and seed culture.9. Regeneration of plantlets by in vitro culture.10. Isolation and inoculation of Rhizobium and Azetobacter11. Extraction of Genomic DNA by CTAB methodEvolution and BiogeographyCourse No: Bot 303Full Marks:50Nature of the Course: TheoryPass Marks:17.5Year: B.Sc. III yearLectures:75Objectives: The general aim of this course is to provide fundamental knowledge of evolutionand biogeographyCourse ContentsEvolution (Lectures: 35)Unit 1: Basic concepts: (i) Introduction: what is evolution?, basic concepts of micro- and macroevolution, convergent and divergent evolution, molecular evolution, evolution and adaptation,co-evolution; (ii) History of evolutionary thought (pre-Darwin, Darwin and post-Darwinperiods), modern synthesis; (iii) Natural selection and evolution: introduction, types of naturalselection (Lecture: 4 6 3 13).8 Page

Unit 2: Variation and evolution: (i) Sources and pattern of variation: sources of variation(recombination, gene flow, mutation); patterns of variation (geographic, ecological and geneticpatterns); study of population variation (basic techniques and tools); (ii) Gene pool concept:introduction, gene/allele frequency and change, genetic drift, Hardy-Weinberg Principle andevolution; (iii) Speciation: biological species concept, isolation mechanisms, modes of speciation(allopatric, parapatric and sympatric) (Lecture: 8 7 7 22).Biogeography (Lectures: 40)Unit 3: Basic concepts: (i) Introduction: definition and scope of biogeography, brief history ofbiogeography, relationship with other sciences; (ii) Biogeographic regions: concept of biomesand biogeographic regions; phytogeographic (floristic) regions of the world [basiccharacteristics: geographic coverage and major floristic elements) of six kingdoms – Boreal(Holarctic), Paleotropical, Neotropical, South African (Capensic), Australian, and Antarctic](Lecture: 3 7 10).Unit 4: Historical biogeography: (i) History of earth: geological time scale, plate tectonics,continental drift; (ii) Modes of biogeographic distribution: dispersalist and vicariancebiogeography, endemism; (iii) History of evolution: fossil records and origin of life, concept ofmolecular clocks for dating the history, phylogenetic inference; (iv) History of biologicaldiversity: rise of flowering plants (early diversification and past interactions), late Cretaceousand Cenozoic changes, Pleistocene glaciations and biological changes (Lecture: 3 3 6 6 18).Unit 5: Ecological biogeography: (i) Current patterns of biodiversity distribution: basic factors,processes and conditions controlling biodiversity distribution; major gradients in biodiversitydistribution; (ii) Biodiversity hotspots: introduction and concepts, distribution of hotspot areasaround the world; (iii) Island biogeography theory: basic concept, conservation application(Lecture: 6 3 3 12).Selected ReadingsBriggs D. and Walters M. 1997. Plant Variation and Evolution, Third Edition. CambridgeUniversity Press.Lomolino M.V., Riddle B.R. and Brown J.H. 2006. Biogeography.Sinauer Associates, Inc.,Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA (Third edition).Suggested Further ReadingsCox C.B. and Moore P.D. 2009. Biogeography: an Ecological and Evolutionary Approach.Blackwell Publishing (seventh edition).9 Page

Futuyma D. 1997.Evolutionary Biology.Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.Huston M.A. 1994. Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes.Cambridge University Press, UK.Katy Human 2006. Biological evolution: An anthology of current thought. The Rosen publishinggroup, Inc.MaxtoshiNei and Sudhir Kumar (2000).Molecular Evolution and phylogenetics.OxfordUniversity Press.Roderic D M Page and Edward C Holmes 1998. Molecular Evolution: A phylogenetic approach.Blackwell Science Ltd.Stebbins George Ledyard 1971. Process of Organic evolution.Prentice Hall of India.Takhtajan A. 1986. Floristic Regions of the World.University of California Press.Whittaker, R.J. and Fernández-Palacios, J.M. 2007. Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution,and Conservation, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsCourse No: Bot 304Full Marks: 50Nature of the Course: TheoryPass Marks: 17.5Year: B.Sc. III yearLecture Hours: 75Objectives: The general objective of this course is to provide basic and applied knowledge onthe medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) of NepalCourse contentsUnit 1: Overview and importance: (i) Introduction: definitions of Non-timber forest products(NTFPs) and medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs); (ii) historical perspectives and current use:with particular focus on the importance of MAP in traditional medicinal practices (Ayurvedic,Unani, Amchi/Tibetan and homeopathy); (iii) Future prospects: introduction to bioprospecting;MAPs, traditional knowledge and drug development; issues of IPR and biopiracy (Lecture:1 3 3 7).Unit 2: Diversity, distribution and trade potentials: (i) Diversity and distribution patterns andNTFPs and MAPs in various climatic zones of Nepal, factors affecting their distribution; (ii)10 P a g e

Trade potentials of NTFPs and MAPs in Nepal, major trends in NTFPs/MAPs trade, role ofNTFPs/MAPs in the promotion of peoples‟ livelihoods (Lecture: 3 3 6).Unit 3: Conservation status and sustainable use: (i) Conservation status of MAPs: majorconservation issues and threats, MAPs of Nepal in IUCN RED List, CITES appendices andgovernment protection list; (ii) Conservation and sustainable use: major principles, opportunitiesand constraints, dimensions of MAP sustainability; (iii) in-situ and ex-situ conservationstrategies, alternatives to wild harvest, eco-certification processes, community-basedmanagement; (iv) national policies and programs for the promotion of MAP-sector in Nepal(Lecture: 2 4 4 2 12).Unit 4: Pharamcognosy: (i) Concept and scope of pharamcognosy, crude drug production ofMAPs; (ii) Overview of techniques for the extraction of major phytochemicals from MAPs,distillation technology for essential oils, quality control; (iii) Herbal cosmetics, potentiality ofherbal drugs and herbal based industries (Lecture: 2 3 3 8).Unit 5. Cultivation technologies of commercially important MAPs: (i) introduction:Opportunities and constraints in the cultivation and production of MAPs in Nepal; (ii)Importance (traditional and commercial uses), active constituents, distribution, climatic and soilrequirements, cultivation technologies (propagation and nursery techniques, transplantation ofseedlings and rooted cuttings, irrigation techniques, disease and pest management), harvestingand post harvest (processing and value addition) technologies,and major trade issues of thefollowing commercially important MPAs prioritized by the Government of Nepal for economicdevelopment in the lower, mid and high altitudes: Asparagus racemosus, Azadirachta indica,Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Paris polyphylla, Phyllanthus emblica, Piper longum, Rheumaustrale, Sapindus mukorossi, Swertia chirayita, Taxus wallichiana, Valeriana jatamansii,Zanthoxylum armatum (Lecture: 1 24 25).Unit 6. Harvesting technologies of commercially important MAPs: (i) Harvest and postharvest technologies (harvesting period, and methods of sustainable harvest, processing andvalue addition), marketing and values chain analysis, major trade issues, active constituents anduses of some commercially important MAPs – Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorrhiza hatagirea,Hippophae spp., Morchella sp., Nardostachys grandiflora and Podophyllum hexandrum(Lecture: 12).Unit 7.Field (herbal farm/herbal industry) visit and report writing (Lecture: 5).Suggested Readings11 P a g e

Agrawal S.S. and Paridhavi M. 2012.Herbal Drug Technology. Universities Press (India) Privatelimited, Hyderabad, India.ANSAB, 2003.Commercially Important Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) of Nepal.AsiaNetwork for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources, Kathmandu, Nepal (in Nepali).Balick M.J. and Cox P.A. 1997. Plants, People, and Culture: the Science of Ethnobotany.Scientific American Library, New York, USA.DPR 2067 B.S. NepalkoAarthikBikaskalagiPrathamiktaPrapta 30 Jadibutiharuko PahichanPustika.Department of Plant Resources, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation,Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.DPR 2007.Medicinal Plants of Nepal.Bulletin of the Department of Plant Resources No.28.Department of Plant Resources, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Governmentof Nepal, Kathmandu.DPR 2060-2061 B.S. JadibutiSankalan, Sanrakshan, SambardhanBidhi. JadibutiParichaya Mala1-5. Department of Plant Resources, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation,Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.Farooqi A.A. and Sreeramu B.S. 2010.Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops.Universities Press (India) Private limited, Hyderabad, India.Ghimire S.K., Pyakurel D., Nepal B., Sapkota I.B. and Parajuli R.R., Oli B.R. 2008.A Manual ofNTFPs of Nepal Himalaya. WWF Nepal Program, Kathmandu.Ghimire S.K., Sapkota I.B. Oli B.R. and Parajuli R.R. 2008.Non-Timber Forest Products ofNepal. WWF Nepal Program, Kathmandu.Gurung K. 2009. Essential Oils in Nepal: a Practical Guide to Essential Oil and Aromatherapy.Himalayan Bio-Trade Pvt. Ltd., Kathmandu.Gyawali R. 2013. Handbook of Pharmacognosy.NaboditHamroPustakBhandar, Kathamndu.Handa S.S. 2008. An overview of extraction technique of medicinal and aromatic plants. In:Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Eds. S.S. Handa, S.P. SinghKhanuja, G. Longo, D.D. Rakesh). International Centre for Science and high Technology,Italy.Jha P.K., Karmacharya S.B., Chettri M.K., Bania C.B. and Shrestha B.B. eds. 2008.MedicinalPlants in Nepal: an Anthology of Contemporary Research. Ecological Society (ECOS),Kathmandu.12 P a g e

Manandhar N.P. 2002. Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon.Rajbhandary S. and Ranjitkar S. 2006. Herbal Drugs and Pharmacognosy: Monographs onCommercially Important Medicinal Plants of Nepal. Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal(ESON). Kathmandu.Thomas Y., Karki M., Gurung K. and Parajuli D. eds. 2002.Himalayan Medicinal and AromaticPlants, Balancing Use and Conservation.Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on WisePractices and Experiential Learning in Conservation and Management of HimalayanMedicinal plants (December 15-20, 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal).Ministry of Forests and SoilConservation, His Majesty‟s Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.13 P a g e

Tribhuvan UniversityInstitute of Science and TechnologyFour Year B. Sc. Chemistry Course of Study(Revised–2073)Course Title: General Chemistry ICourse No.: CHE 301 (major)Full Marks: 100Pass Marks: 35Nature of the Course: TheoryYear: IIICourse Objectives: To explain everyday applications and uses of chemistry. To promote studies in the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of chemicalpatterns and principles. To present chemical ideas in a clear and logical form. To explain properties, structure and bonding of inorganic compounds. To evaluate the environmental & technological implications of chemistry. To explain organic reaction mechanisms & basic heterocyclic chemistry. To explain the theories & applications of ionic electrochemistry. To introduce basic knowledge on principles & applications of spectroscopic techniques. To introduce polymer chemistry To provide knowledge of third law of thermodynamic and thermodynamic parameters. To provide mechanistic approaches of organic reactions.Group A: Inorganic ChemistryHydrogen: Isotopes of hydrogen, general study of hydrides and their classification.4 hrsNobles gases and their compounds: Preparation, properties and structure of xenon fluoridesand oxo-compounds (Valence bond treatment, VSEPR treatment, molecular orbital treatment forXeF2).6 hrsDetailed study of preparation, properties, bonding and structure of the followings: Boricacid, borates, boron nitride, borazines, boron hydrides, metal borohydrides, silicates, silicones,silanes, and siloxanes, interhalogen compounds, pseudohalogens, pseudohalides.13 hrsElectronegativity: Review lecture, electronegativity equalization, recent advances inelectronegativity theory, variation of electronegativity, choice of electronegativity system, groupelectronegativity.14 P a g e

Electron affinity and ionization energy: Anomalous ionization energies and electron affinities,alternation of electronegativites in the heavier elements.11 hrsChemical fertilizers: Nitrogen fixation and synthetic fertilizers, importance of chemicalfertilizers, nitrogen cycle, main ingredients of plant fertilizers, major and minor nutrients, HaberBosch process for the manufacture of NH3, nitrogenase, model system for systems absorbingdinitrogen and production of NH3, cyanamide process, manufacture of urea, phosphatefertilizers, environmental impact of chemical fertilizers.6 hrsEnvironmental pollution: An elementary study of environmental pollution in air, water andsoil.Air pollution system: Sources, emission, anthropogenic emissions, (gases and particulatematter), acid rain, smog, depletion of ozone layer.Water pollution: Dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, biochemical oxygen demand and chemicaloxygen demand, eutrophication, classification of water pollutants, control of water pollution.Soil pollution: Introduction, source of soil pollution, acid rain, repeated use of same fertilizers,inadequate drainage system in agriculture field, application of pesticides and radioactive wastes.10 hrsGroup B: Organic ChemistryOrganic reactions and methods for determining mechanism: Types of mechanism, types ofreaction, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements for reaction, the Baldwin‟s rules of ringclosure, kinetic and thermodynamic control, the Hammond postulate, microscopic reversibility,methods of determining mechanism, identification of products, determination of the presence ofan intermediate, study of catalysis, isotope labeling, stereochemical evidence, rate expression forfirst and second order reaction, isotope effect.10 hrsReactive Intermediates: Stability, structure, generation and fate of carbocation, carbanion,carbene, nitrene and benzyne, nonclassical carbonium ion, neighboring group participation by πand bonds.10 hrsFree radicals: History, characteristics of free radicals (formation, propagation, termination,reactivity, stereochemistry), reactions (fragmentation, substitution, addition, oxidation,reduction), detection of free radicals.7 hrsSpectroscopy and Structure Determination: Introduction of the electromagnetic spectrum,infrared spectrum, ultraviolet spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum: 1H-NMRspectrum, number of signals, equivalent and non-equivalent protons, chemical shift, peak areaand proton coupling, spin-spin coupling, coupling constant, 13C-NMR spectroscopy: 13C-NMRchemical shift, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra of hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketonescarboxylic acid, amines, phenol, ether and aromatic compounds (simple molecules only) & massspectrum.18 hrsHeterocyclic systems: Structure of pyrrole, furan and thiophene, source of pyrrole, furan andthiophene, electrophilic substitutions in pyrrole, furan and thiophene (reactivity and orientation),saturated five member hetero cycles, structure of pyridine, source of pyridine compounds,15 P a g e

reactions of pyridine, electrophilic substitution in pyridine, nucleophilic substitution in pyridine,basicity of pyridine, reduction of pyridine.5 hrsGroup C: Physical ChemistryElectrochemistry:Electrolytic conductance: Failure of Arrhenius theory in case of strong electrolytes, DebyeHückel theory of interionic attraction for electrolytic conduction (elementary treatment only),activity and activity coefficients, ionic strength, Debye-Hückel limiting law (elementarytreatment only).Electrochemical cells: Reversible and irreversible cells, types of reversible electrodes,thermodynamics of reversible electrode and cell, thermodynamic quantities of cell reaction fromemf ( G, H, S and Keq), chemical cells with and without transference, concentration cellswith and without transference, liquid junction potential, applications of emf measurement:determination of activities & activity coefficients, formal & standard electrode potentials,solubility products.15 hrsSpectroscopy:Introduction: Electromagnetic radiation, atomic and molecular spectra, origin of molecularspectra, classification of molecular spectra.Rotational spectrum: Microwave spectrum, concepts of rigid & non-rigid rotors, energy levels ofrigid rotor, selection rules, application of rotational spectra.Vibrational spectrum: Infrared spectrum, energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, selectionrules, pure vibrational spectrum, effect of anharmonic motion, idea of vibrational frequency ofdifferent functional groups.Raman spectrum: Concept of polarizibility, pure rotational and pure vibrational Raman spectraof diatomic molecules, selection rules.Electronic spectrum: Introduction, Franck-Condon principle, selection rules, application ofelectronic spectroscopy.10 hrsPolymer Chemistry:Introduction and classification of polymers and copolymers, properties of polymers (crystalline,amorphous, thermoplastic, thermosetting), addition and condensation polymerization, degree ofpolymerization, average molecular weight of polymers, determination of average molecularweight of polymers by osmometry, light scattering and viscosity measurement methods, solutionof macromolecules.7 hrsThermodynamics:Entropy, entropy change in isolated system, dependence of entropy on temperature, volume andpressure, entropy change in ideal gas, entropy of mixing, entropy change in physical andchemical transformation, third law of thermodynamics and its significance, free energy changefor a reaction, Gibbs free energy change, properties of Gibbs free energy: variation withtemperature (Gibbs-Helmholtz equation) and pressure, calculation of free energy change,16 P a g e

reaction isotherm, thermodynamic criterion of equilibrium, Clapeyron equation, ClausiusClapeyron equation, thermodynamics equilibrium constant, Kp & Kc for gaseous reactions,variation of Kp and Kc with temperature, thermodynamics of Le-Chatelier‟s principle(quantitative treatment), related numericals.18 hrsCourse Title: General Practical Chemistry ICourse No.: CHE 302 (major)Full Mark: 50Pass Mark: 20Nature of the Course: PracticalYear: IIICourse Objectives: To handle and manipulate chemical apparatus and material safely. To make accurate observation and measurements, being aware of possible sources oferror. To plan and organize simple experimental investigations to test hypotheses. To p

Unit B: Plant Biotechnology 75 1. Overview of Biotechnology (1 3 10 hrs) 14 hrs Introduction : A) Origin and History of biotechnology, B) Scope and importance of biotechnology: a) Biotechnology in Medicine, b) Biotechnology in food industry, c) . Dubey R.C. 2009. A text Book of Biotechnology

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more than 25 battle-related casualties took place in 28 different countries. Eleven conflicts inflicted more than 1,000 battle casualties (Gleditsch et al., 2002). Explanations for the outbreak of conflicts are diverse. The purpose of this study is to test claims that youth bulges – extraordinary large youth cohorts relative to

Biographies A biography gives facts about a person’s life. It is not written by the subject of the book but by an author who has done their research and knows a great deal about that person. Biographies are written in the third person and can be written about someone who is no longer alive. A biography is a life story written in chronological order. It can include information about when and .

Donnelly Jr., Robert A. Business Statistics, 2nd edition, Pearson Donnelly, Business Statistics 2e Bookstore ISBN(s) MyStatLab ONLY ebook: 9780321921468 Bound text version MyStatLab: 9780133865004; Looseleaf MyStatLab: 9780133852288. - Contact Fordham Bookstore or other preferred source for hardcopy text options. Full subscription to MyStatLab (Course code provided below) PhStat Excel .

Supporting Children who are learning English as an Additional Language 4 Identifying Children who have EAL and Special Educational Needs – September 2008 Principles All children are entitled to equal access to the whole curriculum. Partnership with parents and carers is fundamental to a child’s learning and development. Learning and using more than one language is an asset and is .