Aviation Mechanic General, Airframe, And Powerplant

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FAA-S-ACS-1(3/13/19 / F2F-19 Draft)Last Updated: 4/1/19U.S. Departmentof TransportationFederal AviationAdministrationAviation MechanicGeneral, Airframe, and PowerplantAirman Certification StandardsEffective Date: TBDFlight Standards ServiceWashington, DC 20591

AcknowledgmentsThe U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Airman Testing StandardsBranch, developed this Airman Certification Standards (ACS) document with the assistance of the aviationcommunity. The FAA gratefully acknowledges the valuable support from the many individuals and organizationswho contributed their time and expertise to assist in this endeavor.AvailabilityThis ACS is available for download from www.faa.gov. Please send comments regarding this document toAFS630comments@faa.gov.Material in FAA-S-ACS-1 will be effective TBD. All previous editions of the Aviation Mechanic General, AviationMechanic Airframe, and Aviation Mechanic Powerplant Practical Test Standards (FAA-S-8081-26, FAA-S-808127, and FAA-S-8081-28) will be obsolete as of this date for Aviation Mechanic applicants.i

ForewordThe FAA has published the Aviation Mechanic – General, Airframe, and Powerplant ACS document tocommunicate the aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and skill standards for Aviation Mechaniccertification. This ACS incorporates and supersedes the previous editions of the following documents: FAA-S-8081-26A, Aviation Mechanic General Practical Test Standards (with Change 1, dated 4/27/15); FAA-S-8081-27A, Aviation Mechanic Airframe Practical Test Standards (with Change 1, dated 4/27/15,and Change 2, dated 9/29/15); FAA-S-8081-28A, Aviation Mechanic Powerplant Practical Test Standards (with Change 1, dated4/27/15); and FAA-G-8082-3A, Aviation Maintenance Technician-General, Airframe, and Powerplant Knowledge TestGuide (dated September 2008).NOTE: “Aviation Mechanic” and “Aviation Maintenance Technician (AMT)” are used interchangeably whenreferring to an airman holding an Aviation Mechanic certificate with an Airframe and/or Powerplant rating.The FAA views the ACS as the foundation of its transition to a more integrated and systematic approach toairman certification. The ACS is part of the Safety Management System (SMS) framework that the FAA uses tomitigate risks associated with airman certification training and testing. Specifically, the ACS, associated guidance,and test question components of the airman certification system are constructed around the four functionalcomponents of an SMS: Safety Policy that defines and describes aeronautical knowledge, risk management and skill as integratedcomponents of the airman certification system; Safety Risk Management processes through which both internal and external stakeholders identifychanges in regulations, safety recommendations, or other factors. These changes are then evaluated todetermine whether they require modification of airman testing and training materials; Safety Assurance processes to ensure the prompt and appropriate incorporation of changes arising fromnew regulations and safety recommendations; and Safety Promotion in the form of ongoing engagement with both external stakeholders (e.g., the aviationmaintenance and training industry) and FAA policy divisions.The FAA has developed this ACS and its associated guidance in collaboration with a diverse group of aviationtraining experts. The goal is to drive a systematic approach to all components of the airman certification system,including knowledge test question development and conduct of the oral and practical test. The FAA acknowledgesand appreciates the many hours that these aviation experts have contributed toward this goal. This degree ofcollaboration, a hallmark of a robust safety culture, strengthens and enhances aviation safety at every level of theairman certification system.Rick DomingoExecutive Director, Flight Standards Serviceii

Revision HistoryDocument#DescriptionRevision DateFAA-S-8081-26AAviation Mechanic General Practical Test Standards(Change 1)April 27, 2015FAA-S-8081-27AAviation Mechanic Airframe Practical TestStandards (Changes 1 and 2)September 29, 2015FAA-S-8081-28AAviation Mechanic Powerplant Practical TestStandards (Change 1)April 27, 2015FAA-S-ACS-1Aviation Maintenance Technician – General,Airframe, and Powerplant Airman CertificationStandardsTBDiii

Table of ContentsIntroduction . 1Airman Certification Standards Concept . 1Using the ACS. 2I.General. 3A. Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics . 3B. Aircraft Drawings . 5C. Weight and Balance . 6D. Fluid Lines and Fittings. 7E. Aircraft Materials, Hardware, and Processes . 8F. Ground Operations and Servicing . 10G. Cleaning and Corrosion Control . 12H. Mathematics . 14I. Regulations, Maintenance Forms, Records, and Publications . 15J. Physics for Aviation . 17K. Inspection Concepts and Techniques . 18L. Human Factors . 19II. Airframe . 20A. Metallic Structures . 20B. Non-Metallic Structures . 22C. Flight Controls . 24D. Airframe Inspection. 25E. Landing Gear Systems . 26F. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems . 28G. Environmental Systems. 30H. Aircraft Instrument Systems . 32I. Communication and Navigation Systems . 34J. Aircraft Fuel Systems . 36K. Aircraft Electrical Systems . 37L. Ice and Rain Control Systems . 39M. Airframe Fire Protection Systems . 40N. Rotorcraft Fundamentals . 41III. Powerplant . 42A. Reciprocating Engines . 42B. Turbine Engines. 43C. Engine Inspection . 44D. Engine Instrument Systems . 45E. Engine Fire Protection Systems . 46F. Engine Electrical Systems . 47G. Lubrication Systems . 48iv

H. Ignition and Starting Systems . 49I. Fuel Metering Systems . 50J. Engine Fuel Systems . 51K. Engine Induction Systems . 52L. Engine Cooling Systems . 53M. Engine Exhaust and Reverser Systems . 54N. Propellers . 55Appendix Table of Contents . 57v

IntroductionAirman Certification Standards ConceptThe goal of the airman certification process is to ensure the applicant possesses the knowledge, ability to managerisks, and basic skills consistent with the privileges of the certificate or rating being exercised. The AirmanCertification Standards (ACS) concept forms a more comprehensive standard for what an applicant must know,consider, and do for the safe conduct and successful completion of each subject to be tested on the knowledgeexam and oral and practical tests.In fulfilling its responsibilities for the airman certification process, the FAA Flight Standards Service (AFS) plans,develops, and maintains materials related to airman certification training and testing. The FAA knowledge testmeasures the minimum standard of aeronautical knowledge required by Title 14 of the Code of FederalRegulations (14 CFR) part 65. Other materials, such as handbooks in the FAA-H-8083 series, provide guidanceto applicants on aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and associated skills, including the knowledge andskill required to identify hazards and mitigate risks.Safe operations on today’s aircraft require integration of aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and skillstandards. To accomplish these goals, the FAA drew upon the expertise of organizations and individuals acrossthe aviation and training community to develop the ACS. The ACS defines the elements of knowledge and skill foreach airman certificate or rating defined in 14 CFR part 65.Through the oral and practical portion of the test, the FAA evaluators will assess the applicant's application of theknowledge, risk management, and skill in the subject area. The oral questioning may continue throughout theentire practical test. For some topics, the evaluator will ask the applicant to describe or explain. For other items,the evaluator will assess the applicant's understanding by providing a scenario that requires the applicant toappropriately apply and/or correlate knowledge and demonstrate skill as required for the circumstances of thegiven scenario.Note:As used in the ACS, an evaluator is any person authorized to conduct airman testing (e.g., an FAAaviation safety inspector (ASI) or designated mechanic examiner (DME)).Compliance with these procedures makes certain that airman applicants meet a satisfactory level of competencyand workmanship required for certification. Each applicant is required to demonstrate a minimum satisfactorycompetency level, regardless of his/her previous education or background.Evaluators will adhere to the following standards is mandatory when evaluating an applicant’s test performancefor an FAA Airframe and/or Powerplant Certificate: 14 CFR part 65, section 65.79 General Aviation Airman Designee Handbook, FAA Order 8900.2 (as revised) Applicable ACSAll applicants for an FAA Aviation Maintenance Technician Certificate must qualify by meeting the prescribedrequirements as stated in 14 CFR part 65, section 65.77. They must additionally pass a knowledge tests, and theoral and practical tests for the certificate and/or rating(s) sought, in accordance with 14 CFR part 65, sections65.75 and 65.77.Note:FAA knowledge tests contain topics that include the maintenance, repair, alteration, and inspection ofaviation products and relevant FAA regulations.1Commented [WS(1]: 9/19/18: Per F2F-17 A/W SGdiscussion, references to 8900.2 will need to be updated orremoved by March 2019.

Using the ACSTitle 49 U.S. Code Subpart III, Chapter 447 is the foundation for the FAA’s safety regulations. The FAA requiresthat all practical tests be conducted in accordance with the appropriate AMT ACS and the policies andstandardized procedures set forth in the current version of FAA Order 8900.2, General Aviation Airman DesigneeHandbook.Note: An evaluator conducting an oral and/or practical test must not test more than one applicant at a time.Definitions within: Knowledge—(FAA knowledge exam, oral) elements are indicated by use of the words "Exhibitsknowledge in." Risk---(oral, practical) elements are indicated by the use of the words “Determine, Identify, Creates ” Skill—(practical) elements are indicated by the use of the words "Demonstrates the skill to perform."The ACS consists of three Sections (General, Airframe, and Powerplant). Each Section includes Subjectsappropriate to that Section and consistent with 14 CFR part 65. Each Subject begins with an Objective statingwhat the applicant should know, consider, and/or do. The ACS then lists the aeronautical knowledge, riskmanagement, and skill elements relevant to the specific Subjects, along with the conditions and standards foracceptable performance. The ACS uses Notes to emphasize special considerations. The ACS uses the terms"will" and "must" to convey directive (mandatory) information. The term “may” denotes items that arerecommended but not required. The References for each Subject indicate the source material for Subjectelements. For example, in Subjects such as “Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics” (AM.I.A.K1), theapplicant must be prepared for questions on electron theory presented in the references for that Subject.Each Subject in the ACS is coded according to a scheme that includes four elements. For example:AM.I.A.K1:AMIAK1 Aviation Mechanic ACSSection (General)Subject (Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics)Knowledge Element 1 (Electron theory (conventional flow vs. electron flow).)Knowledge test questions are linked to the ACS codes, which will soon replace the system of Learning StatementCodes (LSC). After this transition occurs, the airman knowledge test report will list an ACS code that correlates toa specific Subject element for a given Section and Subject. At that time, remedial instruction and re-testing will bespecific, targeted, and based on specified learning criteria.The current knowledge test management system does not have the capability to print ACS codes. Until a new testmanagement system is in place, the LSC (e.g., “AMG,” “AMA,” and “AMP” codes) will continue to be displayed onthe Airman Knowledge Test Report (AKTR).Each ACS code is tied to a unique Subject element in the ACS itself. Because of this fundamental difference,there is no one-to-one correlation between LSC (AMG, AMA, AMP) codes and ACS codes.Because all active knowledge test questions for the General (AMG), Airframe (AMA), and Powerplant (AMP)knowledge tests have been aligned with the corresponding ACS, evaluators can continue to use LearningStatement codes in conjunction with the ACS for the time being. The evaluator should look up the learningstatement code(s) on the applicant’s AKTR in the Learning Statement Reference Guide. After noting the subjectarea(s), the evaluator can use the corresponding Subject(s) in the ACS to narrow the scope of material forretesting, and to evaluate the applicant’s understanding of that material in the context of the appropriate ACSSubject.Except as provided by 14 CFR 65.80, the applicant must pass the knowledge tests before taking the oral andpractical test.The FAA encourages applicants and instructors to use the ACS when preparing for knowledge, tests. The FAAwill revise the ACS as circumstances require.2Commented [WS(2]: 2/28/19: Jackie Spanitz: Dependingon the timing of release of this ACS and the PSI TMSschedule, we may be able to remove these paragraphs.

I.GeneralSubjectA. Fundamentals of Electricity and ElectronicsReferencesFAA-H-8083-30, AC 43.13-1ObjectiveTo determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, andskills associated with basic electricity applicable to the AMT.KnowledgeThe applicant demonstrates understanding .I.A.K6AM.I.A.K7AM.I.A.K7aElectron theory (conventional flow vs. electron flow).Magnetism.Capacitance in a circuit.Inductance in a circuit.Alternate Current (AC) electrical circuits.Direct Current (DC) electrical circuits.Electrical laws and theory.a. Ohm’s Law.AM.I.A.K7bb. Kirchhoff’s Laws.AM.I.A.K7cc.AM.I.A.K7dd. Faraday’s Law.AM.I.A.K7ee. Lenz’s 10AM.I.A.K11AM.I.A.K11af.Watt’s Law.Right-hand motor rule.Electrical measurement tools, principles, and procedures.Voltage.a. Regulation.Current.Resistance.a. Impedance.AM.I.A.K11bb. Resistance in series.AM.I.A.K11cc.AM.I.A.K11dd. Total 5AM.I.A.K26AM.I.A.K27Resistance in parallel.Power.Series circuits.Parallel circuits.Aircraft batteries.Transformers.Circuit continuity.Controlling devices including switches and relays.Protective devices including fuses, circuit breakers, and current limiters.Resistor types and color coding.Semiconductors including diodes, transistors and integrated circuits.Digital logic, including RAM, ROM, NVRAM, logic gates, inverter, and flip-flop.Binary numbers.Electrostatic discharge.Electrical circuit drawings.Complex/combined circuits.AC and DC motors.3

I.GeneralSubjectA. Fundamentals of Electricity and ElectronicsRiskManagementThe applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risks,encompassing:Failure to observe safety precautions when taking voltage, current, resistance, andcapacitance measurements.Hazards associated with handling, storage, and inspection of different types of batteries(i.e. lead acid, NiCad, lithium ion, gel cell).Hazards associated with high-voltage circuits (e.g., strobe lighting).Failure to observe safety precautions when working around S11AM.I.A.S12AM.I.A.S13AM.I.A.S14The applicant demonstrates the ability to:Perform circuit continuity test.Measure voltage.Measure current.Measure resistance.Test a switch or relay.Test a fuse or circuit breaker.Read and interpret aircraft electrical circuit diagrams, and symbols, including solid statedevices and logic functions.Troubleshoot a circuit.Identify symbols used in electrical and electronic schematic diagrams (e.g., grounds,shields, resistors, capacitors, fuses, circuit breakers, batteries, diodes, transistors, andintegrated circuits).Demonstrate how to test for short-circuit and open-circuit conditions.Measure voltage drop across a resistor.Determine or measure for open electrical circuits.Inspect an aircraft battery.Service an aircraft battery.4

I.GeneralSubjectB. Aircraft DrawingsReferencesFAA-H-8083-30, AC 43.13-1ObjectiveTo determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, andskills associated with aircraft .B.S5AM.I.B.S6The applicant demonstrates understanding of:Drawings, blueprints, sketches, charts, graphs, and/or system schematics, includingcommonly used lines, symbols, and terminology.Repair or alteration of an aircraft system or component(s) using drawings/blueprintsand/or system schematics to determine whether it conforms to its type design.Inspection of an aircraft system or component(s) using drawings/blueprints and/orschematics.Terms used in conjunction with aircraft drawings/blueprints and/or system schematics.The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risks,encompassing:Misinterpretation of plus or minus tolerances as depicted on aircraft drawings.Misuse of manufacturers specifications for design of alterations and repairs.Failure to ensure the drawing or schematic is the one applicable to the particular aircraftby model and serial number.Failure to identify the correct and most current version and applicability of drawing beingused.The applicant demonstrates the ability to:Draw a sketch of a repair or alteration.Identify the meaning of lines and symbols used in an aircraft drawing.Interpret dimensions used in an aircraft drawing.Identify changes on an aircraft drawing.Determine material requirements from an aircraft drawing.Interpret graphs and charts.5

I.GeneralSubjectC. Weight and BalanceReferencesFAA-H-8083-30, AC 43.13-1, FAA-H-8083-1ObjectiveTo determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, andskills associated with weight and balance.KnowledgeThe applicant demonstrates understanding .I.C.K6AM.I.C.K7AM.I.C.K8AM.I.C.K9AM.I.C.K10Weight and balance terminology.Purpose for weighing an aircraft.Weighing procedures, including the general preparations for weighing, with emphasis onaircraft weighing area considerations.Procedures for calculation of the following: arm, positive or negative moment, center ofgravity (CG) or moment index.Purpose and application of weight and CG limits.Purpose of determining CG.Adverse loading considerations and how to calculate if adverse loading will cause an outof limit condition.Determine proper empty weight configuration.Proper ballast placement.Jacking an AM.I.C.R4AM.I.C.R5The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risksencompassing:Situations that may lead to unsafe conditions when jacking an aircraft.Weighing an aircraft without following recommended procedures.Misuse of scales.Adverse aerodynamic effect of CG that is forward or aft of CG limits.Adverse aerodynamic and performance effects of weight in excess of limits.SkillsThe applicant demonstrates the ability .S16AM.I.C.S17Research and explain the procedures for weighing an aircraft.Perform weight and balance calculations.Calculate ballast weight shift and required weight location.Check aircraft weighing scales for calibration.Calculate weight and balance for an aircraft after an equipment change.Compute forward and aft loaded CG limit.Create a maintenance record for a weight and balance change.Compute the empty weight and empty weight CG of an aircraft.Calculate the moment of an item of equipment.Identify tare items.Locate weight and balance information.Locate datum.Locate weight and balance placarding and limitation requirements for an aircraft.Revise an aircraft equipment list after equipment change.Calculate the change needed to correct an out of balance condition.Determine an aircraft’s CG range using aircraft specifications, Type Certificate DataSheets (TCDSs), and aircraft listings.Calculate a weight change and complete required records.6

I.GeneralSubjectD. Fluid Lines and FittingsReferencesFAA-H-8083-30, AC 43.13-1ObjectiveTo determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, andskills associated with fluid lines and fittings.KnowledgeThe applicant demonstrates understanding .S7AM.I.D.S8Tubing and hose materials, applications, sizes, and fittings.Rigid line or flexible hose material identification.Rigid line fabrication and installation techniques/practices.Flexible hose fabrication and installation techniques/practices.Importance of using a torque wrench when securing fluid hose and line fittings.Use of torque seal or similar witness techniques after installing critical fluid hose and linefittings.The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risksencompassing:Failure to follow proper system configuration prior to and during maintenance.Misuse of required safety equipment.Failure to use precautions when working with hazardous fluids.Failure to observe precautions when working with high pressure fluid systems.Hazards associated with a twisted hose.Hazards associated with a loosened fitting or a hose that has moved out-of-position.Improper use of tools while applying torque to a fluid line.The applicant demonstrates the ability to:Fabricate an aircraft rigid line or a flexible hose.Install an aircraft rigid line.Install an aircraft flexible hose.Perform a rigid line or flexible hose inspection.Identify installation and security requirements for rigid lines and flexible hoses.Identify fluid lines, pneumatic lines, and fittings.Fabricate a flare on tubing.Fabricate a flareless-fitting-tube connection.7

I.GeneralSubjectE. Aircraft Materials, Hardware, and ProcessesReferencesFAA-H-8083-30, AC 43.13-1ObjectiveTo determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, andskills associated with materials, hardware, and processes.KnowledgeThe applicant demonstrates understanding of:AM.I.E.K1Materials commonly used in aircraft and their general application.AM.I.E.K2Heat treatment and metal working processes.AM.I.E.K3Forces placed on aircraft materials (e.g., tension, compression, torsion, bending, strain,and shear).AM.I.E.K4Hardware commonly used in aircraft (e.g., bolts, nuts, screws, pins, washers, turnlockfasteners, cables, cable fittings, and rigid line couplings).AM.I.E.K5Safety wire and safety clip requirements and techniques.AM.I.E.K6Precision measurement tools, principles, and procedures.AM.I.E.K7Soldering preparation, types of solder, and/or flux usage.AM.I.E.K8Torqueing tools, principles, and procedures.AM.I.E.K9Suitability and compatibility of materials and hardware used for maintenance.AM.I.E.K10Relationship between torque and fastener 4AM.I.E.K15Characteristics of acceptable welds.Characteristics of unacceptable welds.Procedures for weld repairs.Manufacturer’s markings on materials and AM.I.E.R4SkillsThe applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risksencompassing:Improper use of personal protective equipment (PPE).Consequences of improper torque.Consequences ass

Aviation Mechanic Airframe Practical Test Standards (Changes 1 and 2) September 29, 2015 FAA-S-8081-28A Aviation Mechanic Powerplant Practical Test Standards (Change 1) April 27, 2015 FAA-S-ACS-1 Aviation Maintenance Technician – General

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