Discovering Computers 2012

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DiscoveringComputers 2012Your Interactive Guideto the Digital WorldEdited by : Asma AlOsaimi

The System Unit – MemoryThe inside of the system unit on a desktop personalcomputer includes:Drive bay(s)Power supplySound cardVideo cardProcessorMemoryPage 211Figure 4-2Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 42

MemoryWhat is memory? Electronic components that storeinstructions, data, and resultsConsists of one ormore chips onmotherboard orother circuit boardEach byte storedin unique locationcalled an address,similar to seatsin a concert hallDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next3

Memory sizesHow is memory measured? By number of bytes available for ationKB or KMBGBTBApproximate Size1 thousand bytes1 million bytes1 billion bytes1 trillion bytesDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next4

Memory TypesThe system unit contains two types of memory:Volatile memoryNonvolatilememoryLoses its contents when poweris turned offDoes not lose contents whenpower is removedTemporary memoryPermanent memoryExample includes RAMExamples include ROM, flashmemory, and CMOSPages 164 - 165Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 45

Memory - RAMWhat is random access memory (RAM)?Memory chips that can beread from and writtento by processorAlso calledmain memoryThe contentmy changed.Saving is a process of copyingItems from RAM to a storagedevice such as a hard disk.Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next6

Memory – Types of RAMThree basic types of RAM chips exist:Dynamic RAM(DRAM)Static RAM(SRAM)MagnetoresistiveRAM (MRAM)Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click WebLink from left navigation,then click RAMbelow Chapter 4Page 166Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 47

Memory – Module & slotsdual inline memory moduleWhere does RAM memoryreside? Resides on small circuitboard called memorymoduleMemory slots onmotherboard hold memorymodulesmemory slotmemory chipHow much RAM does a computer require?Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next8

Memory –cash memoryWhat is cache? Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and dataMemory cache L1 cache built into processorL2 cache slower but has larger capacityL2 advanced transfer cache is faster,built directly on processor chipDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next9

Memory - ROMWhat is read-only memory (ROM)? The data on most ROM chips cannot be modified. Manufacture of ROM chips often record data, instructions, orinformation on the chip when they manufacture the chip. Computers almost always contain a small amount of read-onlymemory that holds instructions for starting up the computer.Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next10

Memory – Types of ROMTypes of ROM: PROM (programmable read-only memory): A PROM is a memorychip on which you can store a program. But once the PROM hasbeen used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store somethingelse. Like ROMs, PROMs are non-volatile. EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory): An EPROM isa special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it toultraviolet light. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory):An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased byexposing it to an electricalDiscoveringcharge.Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next11

Memory – flash MemoryWhat is flash memory? Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten Used with PDAs, smart phones, printers, digital cameras, automotivedevices, audio players, digital voice recorders, and pagersStep 3.Step 1.Purchase and download music tracks from aWeb site. With one end of a special cableconnected to the system unit, connect theother end to the USB port in the portablemedia player.flash memory chipsPlug the headphones into the portablemedia player, push a button on theportable media player, and listen tothe music through the headphones.USB portStep 2.Instruct the computer to copy the music tracks tothe flash memory chip in the portable media player.Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4MP3 PlayerNext12

Memory – Access TimeWhat is access time? Amount of time it takes processorto read data from memory Measured in nanoseconds (ns),one billionth of a second It’s affects how fast the computer process data. It takes 1/10 of a second to blinkyour eye; a computer can performup to 10 million operations in same amount of time!!TermAbb.SpeedMillisecondmsOne-thousandth of a secondMicrosecondμsOne-millionth of a secondNanosecondnsOne-billion of a secondPicosecondpsOne-trillionthof a secondDiscoveringComputers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next13

The System Unit – Adapter CardsThe inside of the system unit on a desktop personalcomputer includes:Drive bay(s)Power supplySound cardVideo cardProcessorMemoryPage 211Figure 4-2Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 414

Expansion Slots and Adapter CardsAn expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold anadapter cardAn adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unitand/or provides connections to peripherals Sound card and video cardAdapter CardGraphicsacceleratorPurposeIncreases the speed at which graphics aredisplayedModemConnect other computers through telephone orcable TV lineNetworkConnects other computers and peripheralsSoundClick to view Web Link,Connects speakers or microphoneVideoLink from left navigation,Connects a monitorclick Chapter 4, Click Webthen click Video Cardsbelow Chapter 4Page 169Figure 4-17Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 415

Expansion Slots and Adapter CardsRemovable flash memory includes: Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PCCards/ExpressCard modulesPages 169 - 170Figure 4-19Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 416

The System Unit – Bays & power supplyThe inside of the system unit on a desktop personalcomputer includes:Drive bay(s)Power supplySound cardVideo cardProcessorMemoryPage 211Figure 4-2Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 EditionChapter 417

BaysWhat is a bay? Opening inside systemunit used to installadditional equipmentDrive bays typicallyhold disk drivesDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next18

Power SupplyWhat is a power supply? [Supply Conversion]ConvertsAC PowerintoDC PowerExternal peripheralsmight use an ACadapter, which is anexternal power supplyDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next19

PORTS & CONNECTORSDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 420

Ports and ConnectorsWhat are ports and connectors? Port connects external devices to system unitConnector joins cable to peripheralDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next21

Ports and ConnectorsWhat is a serial port? Transmits one bit of data at a timeConnects slow-speed devices, such as amouse, keyboard, or modemDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next22

Ports and ConnectorsWhat is a parallel port? Connects devices that cantransfer more than one bit ata time, such as a printerDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next23

Ports and ConnectorsWhat are USB ports?USB (universal serial bus) port can connectup to 127 different peripherals togetherwith a single connectorPCs typically havesix to eight USB portson front or back ofthe system unit127 2 7 - 1Single USB port canbe used to attachmultiple peripheralsusing a USB hubThe latest version ofUSB is calledUSB 3.0Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next24

USB connectors and portsDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 425

Ports and ConnectorsWhat are FireWire ports? Connects multiple types of devices that requirefaster data transmission speedsAllows you to connect up to 63 devices together63 2 6 - 1Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next26

Ports and ConnectorsWhat are special-purpose ports? Allow users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) porteSATA (External Serial Advanced TechnologyAttachment) portSCSI (Small Computer System Interface) portIrDA (Infrared Data Association) portBluetooth portDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next27

Discovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 428

BusesWhat is a bus? Channel that allows devices inside andattached to the computer tocommunicate with each otherParallel lines (wires or PCB) System bus connects processorand main memoryBus width determines numberof bits transmitted at one timeDiscovering Computers Fundamentals,2012 Edition Chapter 4Next29

It’s affects how fast the computer process data. It takes 1/10 of a second to blink your eye; a computer can perform up to 10 million operations in same amount of time!! Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 13 2012 Edition Chapter 4 Term Abb. Speed Millisecond ms One-thousa

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