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A PRACTICALBULGARIANGRAMMARFORENGLISHSPEAKERSA comprehensive guideto Bulgarian grammar and usage.Clear explanations, real-life examplesand varied exercises.2009

A PRACTICAL BULGARIAN GRAMMARFOR ENGLISH SPEAKERS Copyright Marin Zagorchev 2009Editor: Richard VernonCover and book design: Skyprint 04 Ltd.Illustrations: Boris Vatsov Copyright SKYPRINT 04 Ltd. 2009All rights reserved. No part of this book may bereproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm,xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into anyinformation retrieval system, electronic or mechanical,without the written permission of the copyright owner.Skyprint 04 Ltd.Mladost 4, bl. 455Sofia, BulgariaTelephone: 359 2 877 93 91; 359 888 99 21 61e-mail: skyprint@abv.bgwww.skyprintbg.com

CONTENTSSYSTEMATIC INDEXINTRODUCTIONvviiabout the book if you don’t understand grammar01THE BULGARIAN ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIACION11 the Bulgarian alphabet 2 vowels 3 consonants 4 orthographyprinciples 5 vowels and diphthongs 6 consonants02PRESENTING PEOPLE AND THINGS171 subject pronouns 2 the verb to be 3 nouns for nationality andoccupation 4 gender of the nouns 5 question words 6 demonstrativepronouns 7 basic conjunctions 8 nationality, titles and jobs more about genders03DESCRIBING PEOPLE AND THINGS331 demonstrative pronouns 2 the definite article - forms 3 adjectives4 the definite article - usage 5 adjectives - usage 6 makingcomparisons 7 types of adjectives04AVAILABILITY AND QUANTITIES511 there is/there are 2 plural nouns 3 numbers 4 countable formof the masculine nouns 5 expressing quantities 6 talking aboutheight, weight, age, prices, etc. 7 numbers - special uses8 ordinal numbers, the date05POSSESSION671 the verb to have 2 the preposition íà 3 possessive pronouns short forms 4 possessive pronouns - long forms 5 reflexivepossessive pronouns 6 using other prepositions to expresspossession 7 omitting the possessive pronouns 8 special usesof the long possessive pronouns 9 adjectives meaning possession- family names06TALKING ABOUT THE PRESENT811 groups of verbs 2 the present tense - forms 3 the present tense- usage 4 reflexive verbs 5 interrogative pronouns and adverbs- overview 6 negative statements 7 yes/no-questions - special uses07LIKES AND DISLIKES991 constructions expressing likes and dislikes 2 direct objectpronouns 3 indirect object pronouns 4 emphasizing and prepositional pronouns 5 telling what you like to do - the subjunctiveconstruction 6 word order of the short pronouns 7 expressingiii

CONTENTSpersonal opinion, talking about perceptions 8 special uses of theobject pronouns08TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE115091 using the present tense for future events 2 the future tense3 perfective verbs 4 perfective/imperfective verb pairs 5 verbprefixes 6 talking about the future in subordinate clausesABILITY, NECESSITY AND OBLIGATION1 the äà-construction; perfective and imperfective verbs2 expressing ability 3 expressing necessity and obligation4 other modal constructions 5 telling what you want13110TALKING ABOUT THE PAST1471 the aorist (past simple) tense - forms 2 the aorist (past simple)tense - usage 3 the imperfect tense - forms 4 the imperfecttense - usage 5 time phrases with the definite past tenses11RETELLING THE PAST1631 the active past perfect participle 2 the perfect tense - forms3 the perfect tense - usage 4 the narrative mood - forms5 the narrative mood - usage 6 direct and reported speech7 other ways to talk about the past12TIME SEQUENCES IN THE PAST1811 the pluperfect tense 2 the future perfect tense 3 the verbaladverb 4 the future-in-the-past tense 5 the conditional mood6 conditional clauses 7 the verbal noun 8 the active presentparticiple 9 òúêìî, åäâà, îùå, ïî òè, ìàëêî13GIVING ORDERS AND INSTRUCTIONS1991 the imperative mood 2 other imperative constructions3 giving instructions, advice, directions, etc. 4 the vocativeform 5 diminutive nouns14BEING MORE GENERAL OR MORE SPECIFIC2151 the passive past participle 2 passive constructions3 impersonal constructions 4 indefinite pronouns 5 relativepronouns and adverbs 6 adverbs and adverbial phrases15MORE ABOUT THE BULGARIAN LANGUAGE2331 the history of the Bulgarian language 2 Bulgarian and otherrelated languages 3 Bulgarian dialects 4 the development ofthe Bulgarian alphabet 5 Cyrillic and Latin 6 styles in modernBulgarian 7 Bulgarian in the cyberspace bibliographyGRAMMAR TABLES2511 plural nouns 2 pronouns 3 verb forms - overview 4 commonimperfective/perfective verb pairs 5 common prepositions6 prepositions with particular wordsTHEMATIC INDEXiv281

SYSTEMATIC INDEXPHONETICSvowelsconsonantsdiphthongsunit 11.2, 1.51.3, 1.61.2, pluraldiminutive formscountable formvocative formproper namesadjectivesgender and numbergrades of comparisondefinite and vocative l pronounssubjectdirect objectindirect objectreflexiveemphaticalpossessive pronounsshort formslong formsreflexivedemonstrative pronounsinterrogative pronounsrelative pronounsnegative pronounsindefinite pronounsadverbsof timeof causeof manner3.2, 3.4, 7.14.introduction2.3, 2.4, 2.82.3, 4.2, 4.3, table 113.54.413.43.4, 13.4, 13.53.33.6, 9.43.3, 3.43.7, 5.9, 13.54.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.74.8table 22.1, 14.35.6, 7.2, 7.6, 7.85.6, 7.3, 7.6, 7.85.6, 6.47.45.3, 5.75.4, 5.7, 5.85.52.6, 3.12.5, 6.514.56.614.3, 14.4, 14.510.514.614.6v

SYSTEMATIC INDEXverbstypes of verbsconjugationsreflexivemodalto beto haveaspectimperfectiveperfectiveindicative moodpresent tensefuture tenseaorist (past simple) tenseimperfect tenseperfect tensepluperfect tensefuture perfect tensefuture-in-the-past tensenarrative moodconditional moodimperative moodsubjunctive (äà-)formpassive voiceinfinite formsactive past participlesactive present participlepassive past participleverbal adverbverbal nounconjunctionsprepositionstable 3, table 46.16.4, 13.3, 14.29.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.52.2, 8.2, 9.1, 10.34.1, 5.1, 8.2, 9.38.3, 9.18.3, 8.3, 9.16.2, 6.3, 8.1, 8.6, 11.6, 12.6, 13.38.2, 11.6, 12.6, 13.310.1, 10.2, 11.310.3, 10.4, 11.6, 12.611.2, 11.3, 12.612.1, 12.612.212.4, 12.611.4, 11.5, 11.69.5, 12.5, 12.613.1, 13.2, 13.37.5, 9.1, 13.2, 13.314.211.1, 12.912.814.112.312.7, 13.32.7, 8.6, 12.65.2, 10.5, table 5, table 6SYNTAXparts of the sentencesubjectobjectsdeterminersadverbialssimple sentencesword orderquestionsnegative statementsimpersonal constructionscomplex sentencestime clausesconditional clausesrelative clausesdirect and reported speechvi2.1, 14.27.1, 7.8, 14.23.510.5, 14.62.2, 6.5, 6.7, 7.1, 7.6, 11.2, 14.2, 14.5, 14.62.2, 2.5, 6.72.2, 6.6, 8.2, 9.2, 13.17.8, 14.38.612.614.511.6

INTRODUCTIONABOUT THE BOOKThe Practical Bulgarian Grammar for English Speakers is a grammar bookintended to serve as a textbook and reference manual for all learners ofBulgarian at all learning levels. If you are at the very start of a Bulgarianlanguage course and you need more information about the basic grammarrules, or you already speak the language but you are baffled by constructionthat you hear in spoken Bulgarian and were not explained in your basiccourse, this book will give you more knowledge about how the languagereally works. If you study or teach Bulgarian or other Slavic languages atuniversity and you need another view on grammar; or you are just a language enthusiast, this book will reveal for you some details about Bulgariangrammar that you are not likely to learn in standard textbooks.MethodThe method used in this book differs from most standard grammars. Wehave abandoned the systematic rendering used in most linguistic studieswhere the three main levels of organization in language - sound, word andsentence - are treated separately in the disciplines of phonetics, morphology and syntax; and where different grammatical categories are strictlydivided and explained as independent ideas. Instead, we have tried to groupthem according to their function in the language, e.g. describing people andthings, talking about the future, relating past events, etc. So here, you won'tfind the well-known pattern of nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns, verbsand particles treated separately in different chapters but a conglomerate ofdifferent grammatical notions combined together to serve concrete purposes of communication.For example, in the Possession unit you will learn not only the possessivepronouns but also all verbs, prepositions, object pronouns and adjectivesthat are used in Bulgarian to tell what belongs to whom. In the GivingCommands unit, you'll find information not only about the imperativemood, but also about all other constructions you can use to tell or inducesomebody to do something.vii

INTRODUCTIONStructureThe Practical Bulgarian Grammar for English Speakers consists of 15main units and a reference part at the end.Unit 1 is a little different from all other units. This is an introduction to theBulgarian writing and sound system. It contains explanations about themost important pronunciation rules and the phonetic patterns of the language. The unit is divided into three main parts that correspond to differentlevels of knowledge. The basic section, Bulgarian Alphabet, will give youenough information about Bulgarian letters and their formal sound equivalents. This should be enough for you to be able to read the words and examples in this book and be understood when speaking Bulgarian. With theBulgarian Sound System section, you will be able to refine your pronunciation and try to sound more like a native Bulgarian. In the Spelling Rulesand Phonetic Laws section, you'll learn the main orthography principles ofBulgarian that will help you to write correctly, and some patterns of soundmutation in different word forms.If you are at the very beginning of your learning, you don't need to read allinformation. Just try to learn the Bulgarian alphabet and the basic pronunciation rules and go ahead.If you already have some knowledge of Bulgarian, it can be a good idea torefine your knowledge about pronunciation by reading more about theBulgarian sounds.And if you want to become an expert and write correctly in Bulgarian, you'llneed to look at the last section.Units 2 through 14 follow more or less the same pattern. At the very beginning of the unit you will find what functional and grammatical points youare supposed to learn. For example, in Unit 3 you will learn how to talkabout definite things, how to describe them and how to compare their characteristics; to fulfill these functional tasks, you'll need to know the demonstrative pronouns, the definite article, adjectives and their degrees of comparison, as well as some prepositions and suffixes to form new adjectives.In the Introduction to each unit you will find some of the main points related to its main subject but not necessarily explained again further in the unit.For example, in Unit 1 you will learn about the most common greetings inBulgarian but this information can be found only in the Introduction.viii

IF YOU DONíT UNDERSTAND GRAMMARFurther on, each unit is divided into three main sections: Basics, FineTuning and Language Expert. Evidently, the information in the first section is more basic; the second one gives you advanced knowledge about thesubject; and in the last section additional information is included that can beimportant if you want to upgrade your basic language skills. For example,in Unit 6 you will learn basic information about the verb and the presenttense in the first section; about reflexive verbs and negative statements inthe second; and about different nuances when asking questions in the third.There are up to four Exercises after the Basics and Fine Tuning sections ineach unit that will help you to refine further your knowledge. The Answersare given at the end of the same unit as it is much easier to check them thanif they were at the end of the book.The Did You Know sections contain curious facts about differencesbetween the English and the Bulgarian mode of speech or about grammatical mistakes that Bulgarians make so often in the spoken language that theyhave become a rule. References throughout the book, like (see 12.4),denote the number of the unit and the number of the section.This structure of the units is designed so that you will learn something newin every section, even in the exercises and the answers. You can read themall successively or decide what is important to know and concentrate onlyon this information. No matter how you use the book, the most importantthing is to make the best of it.Unit 15 is a bit different, too. It does not concern the grammar, strictlyspeaking, but contains information about the history of the Bulgarian language and script, the place of Bulgarian in the system of world languages,its dialects and styles, and the problems of using a different alphabet in aLatin-dominated world. So, there is nothing to learn here, but only interesting facts that an enthusiastic learner of Bulgarian may want to know.At the end of the book, there are several Tables of the most important plural nouns, verb forms and prepositions - information that needs to be rendered in a more systematic way. And lastly, the Thematic Index will helpyou find your way if you know exactly which topic you need to read. If youneed a more systematic approach, you can look at the Systematic index atthe beginning of the book.ix

INTRODUCTIONIF YOU DON’T UNDERSTAND GRAMMARGrammar is a science of its own, having lots of terms that are not alwaysclear to ordinary people. If you find it difficult to understand those terms,try to read this section and maybe things will get a little easier.The smallest building blocks of speech are the sounds that are produced bythe vocal apparatus of the speaker. In writing, sounds are represented by letters but one letter does not always represent one sound or vice versa.AAÐMDepending on how much voice you use to articulate them, sounds can bevowels (more voice; see 1.2) or consonants (less voice; see 1.3). There aresounds that resemble both vowels and consonants and they are called semivowels. Their combinations with the real vowels are called diphthongs.KEÈBut sounds are just a meaningless juggling if they are not combined inwords. And words represent notions.ÀÌÅÐÈÊÀx

The Practical Bulgarian Grammar for English Speakersconsists of 15 main units and a reference part at the end. Unit 1is a little different from all other units. This is an introduction to the Bulgarian writing and sound system. It contains explanations about the most important pronun

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