Impeller Design For Mixing Of Suspensions

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Impeller design for mixing of suspensionsTomáš Jirout, František RiegerCzech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department ofProcess Engineering, Technická 4, 166 07 Prague 6, Czech RepublicAbstractThis paper deals with effect of impeller type on off-bottom particle suspension. On thebasis of numerous suspension measurements there were proposed correlations for calculationjust-suspended impeller speed of eleven impeller types and geometries in the wide range ofconcentrations and particle diameters. The suspension efficiency of tested impellers wascompared by means of the power consumption required for off-bottom suspension of solidparticles.1. IntroductionMixing of suspensions is very important hydraulic operation. It frequently appears atpreparation of dispersions, their homogenisation, mass transfer operations between solidparticles and liquid that is often accompanied by a chemical or biochemical reaction. It isestimated that about 60 % of mixing is related to the heterogeneous system: particulate solidphase-liquid.Number of papers on particle suspension in agitated vessels was published. Review ofthis knowledge was presented by Rieger and Ditl [1] and latterly by Kasat and Pandit [2]. Ditland Rieger presented in [3] review of recommendation for designing of mixing equipment forsuspensions, however, based on measurements with two volumetric particle concentrations2,5 % and 10 % only. From their conclusions it follows, that it is generally understood thataxial-flow pattern impellers are the most suitable agitators in such cases. This article extendsimpeller-designing recommendations for particle suspension with many axial-flow impellerstypes in wide range of concentrations and particle diameters. It is written to help designers tochoose between alternative impellers and to calculate the critical (just-suspended) impellerspeed and power consumption necessary for off-bottom suspension of solid particles.2. Theoretical backgroundIn order to design mixing apparatuses it is important to know the reference state of justoff-bottom particle suspension that is often defined as the state at which no particle remains incontact with the vessel bottom for longer than a certain time (e.g. 1 sec). The impeller speedcorresponding to this state is referred to as the critical (just-suspended) impeller speed nc.On the basis of inspection analysis of the equation of continuity, the Navier-Stokesequation and the equation expressing balance of forces affecting the suspended particle Riegerand Ditl [1] proposed the following relationship among the modified Froude number Fr , thedimensionless particle diameter dp/D and the mean volumetric concentration of solid phase cv dp n2d ρ f Fr c, cv .(1)g ρ D This relation holds for geometrically similar mixing equipment and turbulent regime.

The results of critical (just-suspended) impeller speed measurements for the given solidphase concentration cv can be correlated in the power form, separately for relatively fine andlarge particlesγi dp Fr ′ Ci (2) D with different exponents γ1 and γ2 and coefficients C1 and C2 for relatively fine and largeparticles, respectively.Using superposition principle Rieger [4] substituted the two relationships for relativelyfine and large particles with following single correlation for whole range of dimensionlessparticle diameters dp/Dγ1 dp C1 D Fr ′ 1 10(3)γ 1 γ 2 10 d C p1 1 CD 2 The values of coefficients Ci and γi depend on particle volumetric concentration cv. Amathematical description of these dependencies was proposed by Rieger [5, 6] in the formCi Ai exp(Bi cv )(4)andγ i α i β i cv .(5)The suspension efficiency of impellers can be compared by means of the dimensionlesspower consumption necessary for suspension of solid particles. The following dimensionlesscriterion πs was proposed by Rieger [7] for this purpose32773P ρ 1 2 d 2 Po (Fr ) 2 .πs ρ su g ρ D D (6)3. ExperimentalAll measurements were carried out in transparent cylindrical vessels with dished bottom.The vessels were equipped with four radial baffles of width b 0.1·D. The height of the liquidlevel was equal to the vessel diameter H D. The geometrical configuration of the mixingequipment is shown in Fig. 1 and geometrical parameters are summarized in Table 1. Thefollowing axial impellers have been tested: Pitched three-blade turbines with various pitch angles α 24 , 35 a 45 (see Figs. 4a,7c and 12) Standard pitched six-blade turbine with pitch angle α 45 Pitched blade turbine with diagonally folded blades with various blade number iL 3, 4and 6, blade shape of this impeller type according to Czech standard CVS 69 1043 (seeFigs. 4c and 8) Pitched cylindrical three-blade turbine according to Czech standard CVS 69 1042.2 (seeFig. 4b) Hydrofoil impeller LIGHTNIN type A310 (see Fig. 6) Marine propeller EKATO (see Fig. 7a)

Propeller designed on Anhalt University of Applied Sciences / Hochschule Anhalt (FH)[8] (see Fig. 7b)All impellers have been operated to pump the liquid downwards the vessel bottom.Aqueous suspensions of glassy beads with large range of volumetric concentration cvand mean volumetric diameter dp of particles have been used as model suspensions. Particlesize distribution and the mean diameters were characterised by a sieve and sedimentationanalysis. Experimental conditions are summarized in Table 1. Critical impeller speed forsuspension was determined visually according Zwietering definition [9]– no particle remainslonger than 1 sec on the vessel bottom.Fig. 1. Layout of geometrical arrangement of mixing equipment.Table. 1. Geometrical parameters of the mixing equipment and suspensions properties.ImpelleriL3SL24αβγD [mm]D/dH 2 /dd p [mm]cv24 --200 30030,50,15 3,792,5 % 15 %--200 30030,50,15 3,792,5 % 15 %--200 30030,50,15 3,792,5 % 15 %--200 40030,50,1 1,52,5 % 40 %200 30030,50,15 3,792,5 % 15 %67 25 48 200 30030,50,15 3,792,5 % 15 %200 30030,50,15 3,792,5 % 15 %3TL---30,50,15 3,972,5 % 15 %A310---200 300 (Po)30030,50,15 0,932,5 % 15 %3SL3533SL456SL4563RLL34RLL46RLL6MP (EKATO)P (FH)335 45 ---3852,670,5 0,750,1 1,02,5 % 15 %---3852,670,5 0,750,1 1,02,5 % 15 %4. Experimental resultsAll measurements took place under the turbulent regime and results were evaluated inthe form of dimensionless suspension and power characteristics. The primary experimentaldata obtained were transformed into dimensionless criteria and plotted as suspensioncharacteristics. Suspension characteristics for the turbulent region are dependencies of

modified Froude number Fr on the dimensionless particle size dp/D at constant volumetricparticle concentration cv.The regression of the suspension characteristics was evaluated in the power formaccording to Eq. (2) and the appropriate straight lines are depicted in logarithmic coordinates(see example in Fig. 2). From these characteristics it can be seen that the exponent γ2 forrelatively large particles tends to zero. The plot of exponent γ1 on the particle volumetricconcentration cv indicates that it rises linearly with increasing cv. The dependencies ofcoefficients C1 and C2 on particle concentration cv can be approximated in semi-logarithmiccoordinates by straight lines. It is in agreement with correlations Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) proposedby Rieger [5, 6]. Example of experimental data evaluation is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. All theseconclusions resulting from experimental data evaluation are valid for all tested axialimpellers. Values of constants Ai, Bi, αi and βi of Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) obtained by this way arelisted in Table 2 for all tested axial impellers.10,0cv 2,5 %cv 5 %Fr cv 10 %cv 15 %1,00,10,00010,0010,010,1dp/DFig. 2. Suspension characteristics Eq. (2) – pitched three-blade turbine with diagonallyfolded blades according to Czech standard CVS 69 50,2

0,8γ10,70,60,50,400,050,10,150,2cvFig. 3. Dependence of coefficients Ci and γi from Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) on volumetric particleconcentration cv – pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades according toCzech standard CVS 69 1043.Table. 2. Values of constants Ai, Bi, αi and βi of Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) for tested axial impellers.ImpellerH 2 /dd p /D3SL240,54,9·10 1,9·103SL353SL456SL453RLL4RLL6RLL3TLA310MP (EKATO)P (FH)0,50,50,50,50,50,50,50,50,5Re-4-22,5 % 15 %63300 226800-4-22,5 % 15 %51000 180600-4-22,5 % 15 %41000 161600-4-32,5 % 40 %40800 359500-4-22,5 % 15 %35600 156100-4-22,5 % 15 %33900 144300-4-22,5 % 15 %30300 129100-4-22,5 % 15 %40400 121200-4-32,5 % 15 %78900 244100-4-32,5 % 15 %126200 321300-4-32,5 % 15 %112200 286500-4-32,5 % 15 %106500 285700-4-32,5 % 15 %96100 2943004,9·10 1,9·104,9·10 1,9·102,5·10 6,0·104,9·10 1,9·104,9·10 1,9·104,9·10 1,9·107,6·10 2,0·104,9·10 3,1·102,6·10 2,6·100,752,6·10 2,6·100,52,6·10 2,6·100,75cv2,6·10 2,6·10

A2B2α2β20,403 0,0351,663,68005,630,399 0,3231,004,370011,677,400,487 0,660 ,92 0,486 1,485 0,7046,23004RLL8,809,290,500 0,789 0,6175,48006RLL5,9810,07 0,472 0,879 0,4636,84003TL24,73 18,42 0,614 2,262 0,8785,6900[14, 15]A31027,50 15,04 0,561 1,447N/AN/AN/AN/A[15, 16]11,038,340,418 0,772N/AN/AN/AN/A[17]9,4710,36 0,432 1,009N/AN/AN/AN/A[17, 16]14,533,150,487N/AN/AN/AN/A[17]17,889,350,545 358,583SL45MP (EKATO)P (FH)α1β11,630Ref.[9][10][12]The values of power number Po were found constant in turbulent region what is in agood agreement with generally understood theoretical considerations. Representative valuesof power numbers for the turbulent region have been evaluated along their limits on 95 % ofconfidence level and obtained results are listed in Table 3.Table. 3. Values of power number Po of tested axial impellers.ImpellerH 2 /dRePo3SL240,519300 1407000,37 0,013SL350,519300 1077000,79 0,043SL450,514700 975001,27 0,046SL450,580000 1200001,813RLL0,524300 1297000,79 0,034RLL0,521900 1163000,99 0,046RLL0,513700 667001,34 0,053TL0,547700 1265000,73 0,02[14]A3100,523500 1413000,34 0,03[17]0,534000 2025000,44 0,04[17]0,7533800 1763000,39 0,04[17]0,534000 1839000,45 0,05[17]0,7534000 1749000,40 0,04[17]MP (EKATO)P (FH)Ref.[9][11][13]

5. Discussion5.1. Effect of the blade shape on particle suspension with three-blade axial impellers5.1.1. Impellers according to Czech standardsFirst of all selected impellers with profiled blades according to Czech standards werecompared with standard three-blade turbine. These compared impellers are shown in thefollowing Fig. 4.a)b)c)Fig. 4. Three-blade axial impellers according to Czech standards: a) – Standard pitchedthree-blade turbine with pitch angle α 45 , b) – Pitched cylindrical three-blade turbineaccording to CVS 69 1042.2, c) – Pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded bladesaccording to CVS 69 1043.The pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades has the lowest values ofjust-suspended impeller speed in the whole measured range of dimensionless particle diameterdp/D and the volumetric concentration of solid phase cv. The values of just-suspended impellerspeed are practically the same for other used impellers in lower particle volumetricconcentrations. However, the cylindrical three-blade turbine has the highest values of criticalimpeller speed for higher concentrations of solid phase.The suspension efficiency of impellers used in experiments is compared by means ofdimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottom particle suspension. Fromcomparison of the dimensionless criterion πs (see Fig. 5) it follows that the pitched threeblade turbine with diagonally folded blades requires lower power consumption for suspensionthan the pitched three-blade turbine and the pitched cylindrical three-blade turbine. Thestandard pitched three-blade turbine has the highest energetic requirements for off-bottomparticle suspension. This is valid for the whole measured range of the dimensionless particlediameter dp/D and the volumetric concentration of solid phase cv.

ig. 5. Dependence of the dimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottomparticle suspension πs of three-blade axial impellers according to Czech standards on thedimensionless particle diameter dp/D for particle volumetric concentration cv 10 %.5.1.2. Hydrofoil ImpellersDuring last 15 years the leading mixing manufacturers developed so called hydrofoilimpellers having the blade pitch varying from 45 at the hub to about 22 at the impeller tip.Selected types of hydrofoil impellers are shown in Fig. 6 and 7. Axial impellers of moresimple design (standard pitched three-blade turbine with pitch angle α 45 , see Figs. 4a and7a) and pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades (see Figs. 4c and 8) andtheir suspension ability were taken as a standard for comparison with impellers having moresophisticated design.Fig. 6. Hydrofoil impeller LIGHTNIN type A310.

a)b)c)Fig. 7. Comparison of propeller blade shape and standard pitch blade: a) – Marine propellerEKATO, b) – Propeller designed on Anhalt University of Applied Sciences / HochschuleAnhalt (FH), c) – standard pitched three-blade turbine with pitch angle α 45 .Fig. 8. Pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades and blade shape of thisimpeller type according to Czech standard CVS 69 1043 (α 67 ; β 25 ; γ 48 ;h d 0.2 )From Fig. 9 it is seen that both Marine propeller EKATO and propeller impellerdesigned on Anhalt University of Applied Sciences / Hochschule Anhalt (FH) have bettersuspension efficiency when operated at reasonably higher impeller clearance, position H2/d 0.75 was found significantly better than H2/d 0.5. It is probably due to the propellerhydraulics that has been originally designed for operation in an infinite space. The effect ofimpeller clearance was also tested for impeller LIGHTNIN A310, however, practically nodifference in suspension efficiency was observed within the range H2/d 〈0.5 0.75〉.

0,1MP (EKATO), H2/D 0,5MP (EKATO), H2/D 0,75P (FH), H2/D 0,5πsP (FH), H2/D 0,750,010,0010,00010,0010,01dp/DFig. 9. Dependence of the dimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottomparticle suspension πs of tested propellers on the dimensionless particle diameter dp/D forparticle volumetric concentration cv 10 %.The final comparison of suspension efficiency by means of the dimensionless powerconsumption necessary for particle suspension of single tested impellers is seen from Fig. 10for particle concentrations 10 % by volume. To be fair, all impellers were compared at theimpeller clearances giving the best suspension efficiency. From this comparison of energeticrequirements it follows that hydrofoil impellers have higher suspension efficiency than thestandard 45 pitched-blade impellers. Moreover, all hydrofoil impellers have roughly thesame suspension efficiency when compared at optimum impeller clearance. Geometricalsimplicity of the pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades according to Czechstandard CVS 69 1043 at the comparable suspension efficiency with the other hydrofoilimpellers makes this impeller the most favourable one.

0,1A310, H2/d 0,5MP (EKATO), H2/d 0,75P (FH), H2/d 0,753SL45, H2/d 0,5πs3RLL, H2/d 0,50,010,0010,00010,0010,01dp/DFig. 10. Dependence of the dimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottomparticle suspension πs of three-blade axial impellers on the dimensionless particle diameterdp/D for particle volumetric concentration cv 10 %.5.2. Effect of the blade number on particle suspension with pitched blade turbine withdiagonally folded bladesThe pitched blade turbine with diagonally folded blades is a high efficiency impeller(see Fig 10), moreover, it has very simple blade shape. For this reason experiments werefocused on effect of the blade number on particle suspension with this impeller type. Theexperiments were carried out with pitched blade turbines with diagonally folded bladeshaving three, four and six blades. Impeller blade shape was shown in Fig. 8.From comparison of the suspension efficiency by means of the dimensionless criterionπs (see Fig. 11) it can be said that dimensionless power consumption necessary for particlesuspension is practically independent of the blade number of pitched blade turbine withdiagonally folded blades. Values of the just-suspended impeller speed decrease withincreasing blade number of this impeller type. However, impellers with lower blade numberhave lower torgue. It is valid for the whole measured range of the dimensionless particlediameter dp/D and the volumetric concentration of solid phase cv.

0,13RLLπs4RLL6RLLcv 10 %0,01cv 2,5 %0,0010,00010,0010,010,1dp/DFig. 11. Dependence of the dimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottomparticle suspension πs of pitched blade turbine with diagonally folded blades on thedimensionless particle diameter dp/D.5.3. Effect of the pitch angle on particle suspension with pitched three-blade turbineThe pitched blade turbine is one of the simplest types of axial-flow impellers. It is usedvery frequently in a chemical industry. For this reason we decided to investigate the effect ofthe pitch angle on particle suspension with pitched three-blade turbine. Pitch blade angles α 24 , 35 and 45 were tested and compared. The pitched three-blade turbine is shown in theFig. 12.The dependence of the dimensionless criterion πs on the dimensionless particlediameter dp/D for the volumetric concentration of solid particles cv 2.5 % and 10 % isshown in Fig. 13. From the comparison of the suspension efficiency in the whole measuredrange of the dimensionless particle diameter dp/D and the particle volumetric concentration cvit can be seen that the pitch blade angle has minimum effect on the suspension efficiency inregion of the relatively fine particles. The pitched three-blade turbine with blade angle α 45 has the highest energetic requirement for suspension among the compared pitched bladeimpellers in the region of relatively large particles. It follows from different mechanism ofparticle suspension in region of relatively fine and large particles, as it was shown in [18].Values of the just-suspended impeller speed decrease with increasing pitch angle of thisimpeller type.

Fig. 12. Pitched three-blade turbines with various pitch angles α 24 , 35 and 45 .0,1cv 10 %πs24 35 45 cv 2,5 %0,010,0010,00010,0010,010,1dp/DFig. 13. Dependence of the dimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottomparticle suspension πs of pitched three-blade turbines with various pitch angles α 24 , 35 and 45 on the dimensionless particle diameter dp/D.6. ConclusionsVery important parameters for designing of mixing apparatuses for suspensions are thecritical (just-suspended) impeller speed and power consumption necessary for off-bottomsuspension of solid particles. On the basis of numerous suspension measurements there were

proposed correlations for calculation of just-suspended impeller speed of eleven impellertypes and geometries in the wide range of concentrations and particle diameters.The following conclusions might be drawn from comparison of the suspensionefficiency by means of the dimensionless power consumption necessary for off-bottomsuspension of solid particles: Hydrofoil impellers have higher suspension efficiency than the standard 45 pitchedblade impellers. All hydrofoil impellers have roughly the same suspension efficiency when compared atoptimum impeller clearance. Propellers are more sensitive on impeller clearance than the other impellers ininvestigated range. Geometrical simplicity of the pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded bladesaccording to Czech standard CVS 69 1043 at the comparable suspension efficiency withthe other hydrofoil impellers makes this impeller the most favourable one. Dimensionless power consumption necessary for particle suspension is practicallyindependent of the blade number of pitched blade turbine with diagonally folded blades. Pitch blade angle has minimum effect on the suspension efficiency in region of therelatively fine particles. The pitched three-blade turbine with blade angle α 45 hasthe highest energetic requirement for suspension among the compared pitched bladeimpellers in the region of relatively large particles.List of symbolscoefficients of equation (4)Aicoefficients of equation (4)Bibaffle widthbcoefficients of equations (2), (3) and (4)Cimean volumetric concentration of solid phasecvvessel diameterDimpeller diameterdmean volumetric particle diameterdpρ nc2 d FrmodifiedFroudenumberFr g ρacceleration due to gravitygheight of the liquid levelHimpeller off-bottom clearance (measured from the lowest point on theH2blades)width of impeller bladehcritical (just-suspended) impeller speedncpower consumptionPPpower number Po Poρ su n 3 d 5ReReynolds number Re nd 2 ρµGreek symbolspitch anglesα, β, γcoefficients of equation (5)αicoefficients of equation (5)βicoefficients of equations (2), (3) and [s-1][W][1][1][ ][1][1][1]

µπsdynamic viscositydimensionless power consumption necessary for particle suspensionρρsu ρP ρ 2 1 2 πs ρ su g ρ D liquid densitysuspension densitysolid – liquid density mpeller geometry abbreviations3SL24Pitched three-blade turbine with pitch angle α 24 3SL35Pitched three-blade turbine with pitch angle α 35 3SL45Pitched three-blade turbine with pitch angle α 45 6SL45Pitched six-blade turbine with pitch angle α 45 Pitched three-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades3RLLPitched four-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades4RLLPitched six-blade turbine with diagonally folded blades6RLLPitched cylindrical three-blade turbine3TLHydrofoil impeller LIGHTNIN type A310A310MP (EKATO) Marine propeller EKATOPropeller designed on Anhalt University of Applied Sciences / HochschuleP (FH)Anhalt (FH)References[1] Rieger, F., Ditl, P.: Suspension of solid particles. Chem. Eng. Sci., 1994, vol. 49, p.2219-2227.[2]Kasat, G. R., Pandit, A. B.: Review on Mixing Characteristics in Solid-Liquid andSolid-Liquit-Gas Reactor Vessels. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 2005, vol. 83, p. 618-643.[3]Ditl, P., Rieger, F.: Designing Suspension-Mixing Systems. CEP., 2006, vol.102, No.1,p. 22-30.[4]Rieger, F.: Calculation of critical agitator speed necessary for complete suspension. In:8th Polish Seminar on Mixing. Warszawa: Politechnika Warszawska. 1999, p. 211-214.[5]Rieger, F.: Effect of particle content on agitator speed for off-bottom suspension. Chem.Eng. J., 2000, vol. 79, p. 171-175.[6]Rieger, F.: Effect of particle content on agitator speed for off-bottom suspension. Chem.Eng. Proces., 2002, vol. 41, p. 381-384.[7]Rieger, F.: Efficiency of agitators while mixing of suspensions. In: 6th Polish Seminar onMixing. Zakopane: Politechnika Kraków, 1993, p. 79-85.[8]Sperling, R. et al.: Entwicklung, Validierung und Anwendung eines numerischBerechnungsprogramms für Suspendierprozesse in Rührkessel im Hinblick aufOptimiere Auslegung. [Research report]. Köthen: Anhalt University of AppliedSciences / Hochschule Anhalt (FH), 1999.[9]Jirout, T., Rieger, F.: Particle suspension with pitched three-blade turbine. In:Proceedings of 7th International Scientific Conference "MECHANICALENGINEERING 2003" [CD-ROM]. Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo STU, 2003, p. 1-10. (inCzech)

[10] Jirout, T., Moravec, J., Rieger, F., Heiser, M.: Electrochemical and VisualMeasurement of Particle Suspension with Pitched Six-Blade Turbine. In: 16thInternational Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2004 [CD-ROM].Praha: Česká společnost chemického inženýrství, 2004, p. 1-11.[11] Rieger, F.: Efficiency of agitators while mixing of suspensions. In: 6th Polish Seminar onMixing. Zakopane: Politechnika Kraków, 1993, p. 79-85.[12] Jirout, T., Rieger, F.: Effect of particle concentration on particle suspension withpitched blade turbine with diagonally folded blades. In: 50. konference chemického aprocesního inženýrství CHISA 2003 [CD-ROM]. Praha: Česká společnost chemickéhoinženýrství, 2003, p. 1-9. (in Czech)[13] Jirout, T., Rieger, F., Rzyski, E.: Mieszadła z łamanymi łopatkami. Wpływ liczbyłopatek na wytwarzanie zawiesin. Inżynieria i aparatura chemiczna, 2002, vol. 41, No. 4(specjalny), p. 53-54. (in Polish)[14] Jirout, T., Rieger, F.: Particle suspension with profiled blade impeller. In: MechanicalEngineering 2004 [CD-ROM]. Bratislava: Strojnícka fakulta STU v Bratislave, 2004, p.1-8. (in Czech)[15] Rieger, F., Jirout, T.: Equipment for Efficient Mixing of Suspension. In: Proceedings of7th International Conference: Theoretical and Experimental Backgrouds ofDevelopment of New High Performing Chemical Technologie and Equipment.Ivanovo: Rossijskaja akademia nauk, 2005, p. 35-39.[16] Rieger, F., Jirout, T., Ditl, P., Kysela, B., Sperling, R., Jembere, S.: The Effect ofConcentration on Axial Impeller Speed for Particle Suspension. In: 11th EuropeanConference on Mixing - Preprints. Düsseldorf: VDI-GVC, 2003, p. 503-509.[17] Jirout, T., Kysela, B., Rieger, F., Ditl, P., Sperling, R., Jembere, S.: SuspensionEfficiency of Axial Impellers. In: 15th International Congress of Chemical and ProcessEngineering CHISA 2002 [CD-ROM]. Praha: Česká společnost chemickéhoinženýrství, 2002, p. 1-11.[18] Rieger, F.: Mechanism of Particle suspension in agitated vessel. In: 26th InternationalConference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering [CD-ROM]. Bratislava:Slovenská spoločnost chemického inženierstva, 1999, p. 1-8. (in Czech)

Impeller design for mixing of suspensions . Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Process Engineering, Technická 4, 166 07 Prague 6, Czech Republic Abstract This paper deals with effect of impeller type on off-bottom particle suspension. On the . Geometrical parameters of the

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