Workbook – Worked Solutions Chapter 4 – The Periodic .

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Workbook – Worked SolutionsChapter 4 – The Periodic Table.75Chapter 9 – The Mole Concept.76Chapter 10 – Properties of Gases .87Chapter 11 – Stoichiometry .98Chapter 13 – Volumetric Analysis: Acid-Base.111Chapter 15 – Volumetric Analysis: Oxidation-Reduction .123Chapter 16 – Rates of Reaction .135Chapter 17 – Chemical Equilibrium.137Chapter 18 – pH and Indicators.144Chapter 19 – Environmental Chemistry – Water.151Chapter 21 – Fuels and Heats of Reaction.156Chapter 24 – Stoichiometry II .160

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsWorkbook Chapter 4 – The Periodic TableW4.2 (b)In 100 atoms of boron there are:81 atoms of mass 11 81 11 89119 atoms of mass 10 19 10 ��Total mass of 100 atoms 1081Average mass of 1 atom 10.81Answer: Relative atomic mass of boron 10.81W4.3In 100 atoms of neon there are90 atoms of mass 20 90 20 180010 atoms of mass 22 10 22 ��Total mass of 100 atoms 2020Average mass of 1 atom 20.2Answer: Relative atomic mass of neon 20.2W4.5In 100 atoms of nickel there are:70 atoms of mass 58 70 58 406026 atoms of mass 60 26 60 15604 atoms of mass 62 4 62 ��–Total mass of 100 atoms 5868Average mass of 1 atom 58.68Answer: Relative atomic mass of nickel 58.6875

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsWorkbook Chapter 9 – The Mole ConceptW9.1(a) 1 mole of Li atoms 7 g(b) 1 mole of Na atoms 23 g(c)1 mole of Ca atoms 40 g(d) 1 mole of Fe atoms 56 g(e) 1 mole of Ag atoms 108 g(f)1 mole of Pb atoms 207 gW9.2(a)1 mole of Cl atoms 35.5 g10 moles of Cl atoms 35.5 10 355 g(b)1 mole of Br atoms1 mole of Br2 molecules0.125 moles of Br2 molecules(c)1 mole of H2 O (1 2) 16 18 g0.25 mole of H2 O 18 0.25 4.5 g(d)1 mole of S atoms1 mole of S8 molecules0.5 moles of S8 molecules(e)1 mole of HNO3 molecules 1 14 (16 3) 63 g0.5 moles of HNO3 molecules 63 0.5 31.5 g(f)1 mole of SO4 2- ions0.5 moles of SO4 2- ions(g)1 mole of O atoms 16 g1 mole of O2 molecules 16 2 32 g0.05 mole of O2 molecules 32 0.05 1.6 g76 80 g 80 2 160 g 160 0.125 20 g 32 g 32 8 256 g 256 0.5 128 g 32 (16 4) 96 g 96 0.5 48 g

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW9.3(a)Relative Molecular Mass NaOHi.e 1 mole of NaOH 4 moles of NaOH 23 16 1 40 40 g 40 4 160 g 40 (2 35.5) 40 71 111 111g 111 0.5 55.5 g(b)Relative Molecular Mass CaCl2i.e 1 mole of CaCl2 0.5 moles of CaCl2(c)Relative Molecular Mass Cl2i.e. 1 mole of Cl2 2 moles of Cl2(d)Relative Molecular Mass MgOi.e. 1 mole of MgO 0.05 mole of MgO(e)Relative Molecular Mass Fe2 O3i.e. 1 mole of Fe2 O3 3 moles of Fe2 O3(f)Relative Molecular Mass C2 H6i.e. 1 mole of C2 H6 0.1 mole C2 H6(g)Relative Molecular Mass CaCO3 40 12 (3 16) 40 12 48 100i.e. 1 mole of CaCO3 100 g 0.6 mole of CaCO3 100 0.6 60 g(h)Relative Molecular Mass NaCl 23 35.5 58.5i.e. 1 mole of NaCl 58.5 g 0.3 moles of NaCl 58.5 0.3 17.55 g(i)Relative Molecular Mass H2 O (2 1) 16 18i.e. 1 mole of H2 O 18 g 4 moles of H2 O 18 4 72 g 2 35.5 71 71g 71 2 142 g 24 16 40 40 g 40 0.05 2g (2 56) (3 16) 112 48 160 160 g 160 3 480 g (2 12) (6 1) 24 6 30 30 g 30 0.1 3g77

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(j)Relative Molecular Mass Ca(NO3 )2i.e.1 mole of Ca(NO3 )2 0.075 moles of Ca (NO3 )2 40 (14 2) (16 6) 40 28 96 164 164 g 164 0.075 12.3 g(k)Relative Molecular Mass (NH4 )2 SO4 (2 14) (8 1) 32 (4 16) 28 8 32 64 132i.e. 1 mole of (NH4 )2 SO4 132 g 0.02 moles of (NH4 )2 SO4 132 0.02 2.64 g(l)Relative Molecular Mass CuOi.e. 1 mole of CuO 0.25 moles of CuO(m)Relative Molecular Mass SO3i.e. 1 mole of SO3 0.1 moles of SO3(n)Relative Molecular Mass Cu2 O (63.5 2) 16 127 16 143i.e.1 mole of Cu2 O 143 g 0.25 moles of Cu2 O 143 0.25 35.75 g(o)Relative Molecular Mass (NH4 )2 CO3 (2 14) (8 1) 12 (3 16) 28 8 12 48 96i.e. 1 mole of (NH4 )2 CO3 96 g 3 moles of (NH4 )2 CO3 96 3 288 g(p)Relative Molecular Mass Br2i.e. 1 mole of Br2 0.25 moles of Br2(q)Relative Molecular Mass H2 SO4i.e. 1 mole of H2 SO4 0.8 moles of H2 SO478 63.5 16 79.5 79.5 g 79.5 0.25 19.875 g 32 (3 16) 32 48 80 80 g 0.1 80 8g 2 80 160 160 g 160 0.25 40 g (2 1) 32 (4 16) 2 32 64 98 98 g 98 0.8 78.4 g

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(r)Relative Molecular Mass FeCl2i.e 1 mole of FeCl2 4 moles of FeCl2(s)Relative Molecular Mass C12 H26i.e. 1 mole of C12 H26 1 10-4 moles of C12 H26 56 (2 35.5) 56 71 127 127 g 127 4 508 g (12 12) (26 1) 144 26 170 170 g 170 1 10-4 0.017 gW9.4(a)Relative Molecular Mass CH4 12 (4 1) 12 4 16Mass80Number of moles of CH4 –––––––––––––––– ––– 5Rel molecular mass16(b)Relative Molecular Mass SO2 32 (2 16) 32 32 64Mass288Number of moles of SO2 –––––––––––––––– –––– 4.5Rel molecular mass64(c)Relative Molecular Mass H2 O (2 1) 16 2 16 18Mass0.32Number of moles of H2 O � ––––– 0.0178Rel molecular mass18(d)Relative Molecular Mass H2 SO4 (2 1) 32 (4 16) 2 32 64 98Mass441Number of moles of H2 SO4 –––––––––––––––– ––––– 4.5Rel molecular mass98(e)Relative Molecular Mass NH4 NO3 14 (4 1) 14 (3 16) 14 4 14 48 80Mass10Number of moles of NH4 NO3 –––––––––––––––– ––– 0.125Rel molecular mass8079

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(f)Relative Molecular Mass C6 H12 O6 (6 12) (12 1) (6 16) 72 12 96 180Mass18Number of moles of C6 H12 O6 � –––– 0.1Rel molecular mass180W9.5(a)Relative Molecular Mass CaCO3 40 12 (3 16) 40 12 48 100Mass500Number of moles of CaCO3 � –––– 5Rel. molecular mass 100(b)Relative Molecular Mass NaCl 23 35.5 58.5Mass351Number of moles of NaCl � –––– 6Rel. molecular mass 58.5(c)Relative Molecular Mass NaOH 23 16 1 40Mass4Number of moles of NaOH � ––– 0.1Rel molecular mass 40(d)Relative Molecular Mass KNO3 39 14 (3 16) 39 14 48 101Mass25.25Number of moles of KNO3 � –––––– 0.25Rel molecular mass101(e)Relative Molecular Mass CuSO4 .5H2 O 63.5 32 (4 16) (5 18) 63.5 32 64 90 249.5Mass24.95Number of moles of CuSO4 .5H2 O � –––––– 0.1Rel molecular mass249.580

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW9.6(a)1 mole of H2 O contains 6 1023 molecules0.25 moles of H2 O contain 0.25 6 1023 molecules 1.5 1023 molecules(b)1 mole of CH4 contains 6 1023 molecules7.2 moles of CH4 contain 7.2 6 1023 molecules 4.32 1024 molecules(c)1 mole of CO2 contains 6 1023 molecules8 moles of CO2 contain 8 6 1023 molecules 4.8 1024 molecules(d)1 mole of H2 SO4 contains 6 1023 molecules0.001 mole of H2 SO4 contains 0.001 6 1023 molecules 6 1020 molecules(e)1 mole of NH3 contains 6 1023 molecules5 10-3 mole of NH3 contains 5 10-3 6 1023 3 10 21 moleculesW9.7(a)Relative molecular mass O2 2 16 321 mole of O2 contains 6 1023 moleculesi.e. 32 g of O2 contain 6 1023 molecules6 10231 g of O2 contains ––––––– molecules326 1023 0.40.4 g of O2 contain ––––––––––– molecules32 7.5 1021 molecules(b)Relative molecular mass Cl2 2 35.5 711 mole of Cl2 contains 6 1023 moleculesi.e. 71 g of Cl2 contain 6 1023 molecules6 10231 g of Cl2 contains ––––––––––– molecules716 1023 142142 g of Cl2 contain ––––––––––––– molecules71 1.2 1024 molecules81

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(c)Relative molecular mass CO2 12 (2 16) 441 mole of CO2 contains 6 1023 moleculesi.e. 44g of CO2 contain 6 1023 molecules6 10231 g of CO2 contains ––––––––– molecules4440 6 102340 g of CO2 contain –––––––––––– molecules44 5.45 1023 molecules(d)Relative molecular mass CH4 12 (4 1) 161 mole of CH4 contains 6 1023 moleculesi.e.16 g of CH4 contain 6 1023 molecules6 10231 g of CH4 contains –––––––– molecules1650 6 102350 g of CH4 contain –––––––––––– molecules16 1.875 1024 moleculesW9.8(a)Relative atomic mass Al 27i.e. 1 mole of Al 27 g 6 1023 atoms of Al 27 g271 atom of Al –––––––– g6 10232 102527 2 1025atoms of Al –––––––––––– g6 1023 900 g82

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(b)Relative atomic mass Mg 24i.e. 1 mole of Mg 24 g 6 1023 atoms of Mg 24 g241 atom of Mg –––––––– g6 102324 3 10213 1021 atoms of Al –––––––––––– g6 1023 0.12 g(c)Relative atomic mass Ag 108i.e. 1 mole of Ag 108 g 6 1023 atoms of Ag 108 g1081 atom of Ag ––––––– g6 1023108 1.15 10121.15 1012 atoms of Ag –––––––––––––––– g6 1023 2.07 10-10 g(d)Relative molecular mass H2 O (1 2) 16 2 16 18i.e. 1 mole of H2 O 18 g 6 1023 molecules of H2 O 18 g181 molecule of H2 O –––––––– g6 102318 1.5 10251.5 1025 molecules of H2 O ––––––––––––– g6 1023 450 g83

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(e)Relative molecular mass CO2 12 (2 16) 12 32 44i.e. 1 mole of CO2 44 g 6 1023 molecules of CO2 44 g441 molecule of CO2 ––––––– g6 10238 102144 8 1021molecules of CO2 ––––––––––– g6 1023 0.5867 gRevision Question W9.9(b)1 mole of Al2 (SO4 )3 contains 2 moles of Al3 3 moles of Al2 (SO4 )3 contain 2 3 6 moles Al3 (c)Relative Molecular Mass Na2 SO3 (2 23) 32 (3 16) 46 32 48 1261 mole of Na2 SO3 contains 6 1023 SO3 2- ionsi.e. 126 g of Na2 SO3 contain 6 1023 SO3 2- ions6 10231 g of Na2 SO3 contains –––––––– SO3 2- ions1262.1 6 10232.1 g of Na2 SO3 contain –––––––––––– SO3 2- ions126 1 1022 SO3 2- ions(d)1 mole of Mg contain 6 1023 atomsi.e. 24 g of Mg contain 6 1023 atoms6 10231 g of Mg contains –––––––– atoms240.36 6 10230.36 g Mg contains –––––––––––––– atoms24 9 1021 atoms84

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(e)1 mole of Ca contains 6 1023 atoms of Cai.e. 40g of Ca contain 6 1023 atoms of Ca6 10 231g Ca contains –––––––– atoms of Ca408 6 10238g Ca contain ––––––––––– atoms of Ca40 1.2 1023 atoms of Ca6 1023 atoms of Mg 24g241 atom of Mg –––––––– g6 102324 1.2 10231.2 1023 atoms of Mg –––––––––––– g6 1023 4.8g(f)Mass0.2Number of moles of Mg �–– –––– 8.33 10–3 moleRelative Atomic Mass24(g)Mass7Number of moles of Fe �– ––– 0.125 moleRelative Atomic Mass 560.125 mole of Mg will contain the same number of atoms as 0.125 mole of Fe.1 mole of Mg 24 g 0.125 mole Mg 0.125 24 3 g(h) Relative molecular mass HNO3 1 14 (3 16) 63Mass6.3Number of moles of HNO3 –––––––––––––––– –––– 0.1 moleRel molecular mass 631 mole of HNO3 contains 3 moles of O atoms 0.1 mole of HNO3 contain 3 0.1 0.3 mole of O atoms.85

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(i)Relative molecular mass CH4 12 (4 1) 16Mass6.4Number of moles of CH4 � –––– 0.4Rel molecular mass161 mole of CH4 contains 4 moles of H atoms 0.4 mole of CH4 contain 4 0.4 1.6 moles of H atoms(j)Mass22Number of moles of Cu �– ––––– 0.346Relative Atomic Mass 63.5Mass46Number of moles of Al �– –––– 1.704Relative Atomic Mass 27Mass2.6Number of moles of Fe �– –––– 0.046Relative Atomic Mass 56(k)Mass39Number of moles of K �– ––– 1Relative Atomic Mass 391 mole of K will contain the same number of atoms as 1 mole of C.Mass of 1 mole of C 12 g-(l)1 mole of Mg(NO3 )2 contains 2 moles of NO3 ions 2 moles of Mg(NO3 )2 contain 2 2 4 moles of NO3 - ions(m)Relative molecular mass CO2 12 (2 16) 44Mass22Number of moles of CO2 –––––––––––––––– ––– 0.5Rel molecular mass440.5 mole of CO2 will contain the same number of molecules as 0.5 mole of H2 O.1 mole of water 0.5 mole of water 0.5 18 9 g86 18 g

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsWorkbook Chapter 10 - Properties of GasesW10.1GivenV1 30 cm3p1 975 kPaT1 25 C 273 298 Kp1 V1–––––T1s.t.p.V2 ?p2 100 kPaT2 273 Kp2 V2–––––T2 975 30–––––––– 298100 V2––––––––273 V2975 30 273 ––––––––––––––298 100 267.96 cm3W10.2GivenV1 2.5 Lp1 300 kPaT1 T2p1 V1s.t.p.V2 ?p2 100 kPap2 V2––––– –––––T1T2300 2.5 100 V2300 2.5 V2 ––––––––––100 7.5 L87

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.3OldV1 1.2 m3p1 101 kPaT1 5 C 273 278 KNewV2 ?p2 108 kPaT2 30 C 273 303 K.p1 V1p2 V2––––– –––––T1T2101 1.2––––––––––278108 V2 ––––––––––303101 1.2 303 V2 8 108 1.22 m3W10.5(a)Rel molecular mass O2 2 16 32i.e. 1 mole of O2 32 g32 g of O2 occupies 22.4 L at s.t.p22.41 g of O2 occupies ––––– L3222.4 10 10 g of O2 occupies –––––––––– L32 7L(b)Rel molecular mass CO2 12 (2 16) 12 32 44i.e. 1 mole of CO2 44 g44 g of CO2 occupies 22.4 L at s.t.p22.41 g of CO2 occupies ––––– L4422.4 12 12 g of CO2 occupies –––––––––– L44 6.11 L88

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(c)Rel molecular mass NH3 14 (3 1) 14 3 17i.e. 1 mole of NH3 17 g17 g of NH3 occupies 22.4 L at s.t.p22.41 g of NH3 occupies –––––– L1722.4 8 8 g of NH3 occupies –––––––––– L17 10. 54 L(d)Rel molecular mass CO 12 16 28i.e. 1 mole of CO 28 g28 g of CO occupies 22.4 L at s.t.p22.41 g of CO occupies –––––– L2822.4 25 25 g of CO occupies –––––––––– L28 20 L(e)Rel molecular mass NO2 14 (2 16) 14 32 46i.e. 1 mole of NO2 46 g46 g of NO2 occupies 22.4 L at s.t.p22.41 g of NO2 occupies –––––– L4622.4 12 12 g of NO2 occupies –––––––––– L46 5.84 L89

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsRel molecular mass H2 S (2 1) 32 2 32 34i.e. 1 mole of H2 S 34 g34 g of H2 S occupies 22.4 L at s.t.p(f)22.41 g of H2 S occupies ––––– L3422.4 13 13 g of H2 S occupies –––––––––– L34 8.56 LW10.6p 200 kPa 200 103 PaV 100 cm3 100 10-6 m3n ?R 8.31 J mol-1 K-1T 30 C 273 303 KpV nRTpVn ––––RT200 103 100 10-6 �–––––8.31 303 7.94 10-3 moles90

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.7p 101.325 kPa 101325 PaV 512 cm3 512 10-6 m3n ?R 8.31 J mol-1 K-1T 20 C 273 293 KMass of liquid 1.236 gpV nRTpVn ––––RT101325 512 10-6 �––––8.31 293 0.0213 molei.e. 0.0213 mole 1.236 g1.2361 mole of liquid ––––––0.0213 58.03i.e. Relative molecular mass of liquid 58 (to nearest whole number)91

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.8p 101.3 kPa 101300 PaV 200 cm3 200 10-6 m3n ?R 8.31 J mol-1 K-1T 25 C 273 298 KMass of liquid 1.0 gpV nRTpVn –––RT101300 200 10-6 �–––8.31 298 8.18 10-3 molei.e. 8.18 10-3 mole 1.0 g1.01 mole of liquid ––––––––––––8.18 10-3 122.25i.e. Relative molecular mass of gas 122 (to nearest whole number)92

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.9LaboratoryV1 328 cm3p1 9.8 104 PaT1 100 C 273 373 Kp 1 V1s.t.p.V2 ?p2 1 105 PaT2 273 Kp2 V2 ––––––––––T1T29.8 104 3281 105 373 8 104 328 273 V2 �––––––373 1 105 235.26 cm3Mass of condensed liquid 102.84 – 101.41 1.43 gAt s.t.p. 235.26 cm3 of the vapour have a mass of 1.43g1.4331 cm of the vapour has a mass of ––––––– g235.2622,400 1.43 22,400 cm of the vapour have a mass of 63 136.16 gi.e Relative molecular mass 136 (to nearest whole number)93

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.10p 1.02 105 Nm-2V 67 – 6 61 cm3 61 10-6 m3n ?R 8.31 J mol-1 K-1T 100 C 273 373 KMass of liquid injected 13.179 – 12.910 0.269 gpV nRTpVn –––RT1.02 105 61 10-6 �––––––8.31 373 2.01 10-3 molei.e. 2.01 10-3 mole 0.269 g0.2691 mole of liquid ––––––––––––2.01 10-3 133.83i.e. Relative molecular mass of liquid 134 (to nearest whole number)94

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.11p 1 105 Nm-2V 4.98 10-3 m3n ?R 8.31 J mol-1 K-1T 27 C 273 300 KpV nRTpVn ––––RT1 105 4.98 10-3 �–––––8.31 300 0.20 molesi.e. 0.20 moles 5.6 g5.61 mole of gas –––––0.2 28i.e. Relative molecular mass of diatomic gas 28 gas N2The element is nitrogen.95

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW10.12(iii)p 1 105 Nm-2V 3.15 10-4 m3n ?R 8.31 J mol-1 K-1T 300 KpV nRTpVn –––R1 105 3.15 10-4 �–––––8.31 300 1.26 10-2 molei.e. 1.26 10-2 mole 1.1 g1.11 mole of gas –––––––––––1.26 10-2 87.30i.e. Relative molecular mass of gas 87.30W10.13(b)s.t.pV1 500 cm3p1 1.01 105 Nm-2T1 273 Kp 1 V1newV2 ?p2 2.02 105 Nm-2T2 819 Kp2 V2 ––––––––––T1T21.01 105 5002.02 105 – 91.01 105 500 819 V2 �–––––––2.02 105 273 750 cm396

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(c)Rel molecular mass N2 2 14 28i.e. 1 mole of N2 28 g28 g of N2 occupy 22.4 L at s.t.p.22.4 1 g of N2 occupies ––––– L 0.8 L28(e)MassDensity –––––––––Volume2.5Mass of one moleMass of one mole �––– �––Molar volume22.4 Mass of one mole 22.4 2.5 56 gi.e. Relative molecular mass of gas 56W10.14(vi)p 1.0 105 Nm-2V 168 cm3 168 10-6 m3n ?R 8.4 N m mol-1 K-1T 300 KpV nRTpVn –––––RT1.0 105 168 10-6 �–––––8.4 300 6.67 10-3 molesi.e. 6.67 10-3 moles 0.3 g0.31 mole of liquid ––––––––––––6.67 10-3 44.98i.e. Relative molecular mass of liquid 44.9897

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsWorkbook Chapter 11 - StoichiometryW11.1(a)Relative molecular mass Na2 CO3 .10H2 O (23 2) 12 (16 3) 10 [(1 2) 16] 46 12 48 (10 18) 46 12 48 180 286180% H2 O ––––– 100 62.94 %286(b)Relative molecular mass MgSO4 .7H2 O 24 32 (16 4) 7 [(1 2) 16] 24 32 64 (7 18) 24 32 64 126 246126% H2 O ––––– 100 51.22 %246W11.2Relative molecular mass Fe2 O3 (56 2) (16 3) 112 48 160112% Fe ––––– 100 70 %160Relative molecular mass Fe3 O4 (56 3) (16 4) 168 64 232168% Fe ––––– 100 72.41%232Magnitite Fe3 O4 contains the higher % of 98Rel. At. Mass64.964.9–––––– 5.411213.513.5––––– 13.5121.621.6–––––– 1.3516i.e. Empirical formula C4 H10 OSimplest ratio(divide by 1.35)5.41––––– 41.3513.5––––– 101.351.35–––––1.35 1

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsMolecular Formula empirical formula n74 (C 4 H10 O) n74 [(12 4) (1 10) 16] n74 (48 10 16) n74 74 nn 1 Molecular Formula (C 4 H10 O) 1 C4 H10 Oi.e. Molecular Formula empirical formula C4 H10 en2.271.1Rel. At. Mass26.7––––– 2.23122.2–––– 2.2171.1––––– 4.4416Simplest ratio(divide by 2.2)2.23––––– 12.22.2––––– 12.24.44––––– 22.2i.e. Empirical formula CHO2Molecular Formula empirical formula n90 (CHO 2 ) n90 [12 1 (16 2)] n90 (12 1 32) n90 45nn 2 Molecular Formula (CHO 2 ) 2 C2 H2 O4i.e. Molecular Formula C2 H2 O499

Chemistry Live! – Worked ogenOxygen13.621.6Rel. At. Mass64.8––––– 5.41213.6––––– 13.6121.6–––––– 1.3516i.e. Empirical formula C4 H10 OMolecular Formula empirical formula n74 (C 4 H10 O) n74 [(12 4) (1 10) 16] n74 (48 10 16) n74 74nn 1 Molecular Formula (C 4 H10 O) 1 C4 H10 Oi.e. Molecular Formula C4 H10 O100Simplest ratio(divide by 1.35)5.4–––––– 41.3513.6––––– 101.351.35–––––1.35 1

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.6Lead iodine lead iodide2.07 g4.61 gmass of lead 2.07 gmass of lead iodide 4.61 g mass of iodine in lead iodide 4.61 – 2.07 2.54 gmassnumber of moles of Pb in lead iodide �Rel. atomic mass2.07 –––––– 0.01207massnumber of moles of I in lead iodide �Rel. atomic mass2.54 ––––– 0.02127Ratio of Pb : I 0.01 : 0.02 1 : 2 Empirical Formula PbI2101

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.7CuSO4 .xH2 O CuSO4 x H2 O3.94 g2.52 gmass of CuSO4 2.52 gmass of CuSO4 .xH2 O 3.94 gmass of H2 O in CuSO4 .xH2 O 3.94 – 2.52 1.42 gRel. mol. mass CuSO4 63.5 32 (16 4) 63.5 32 64 159.5Rel. mol. mass H2 O (1 2) 16 18massnumber of moles of CuSO4 in CuSO4 .xH2 O ––––––––––––––Rel. mol. mass2.52 –––––– 0.0158159.5massnumber of moles of water in CuSO4 .xH2 O l. mol. mass1.42 ––––– 0.078918Ratio of CuSO4 : H2 O 0.0158 : 0.0789 1 : 5i.e. CuSO4 .5H2 O is the formula of the hydrated salt.102

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.8M oxygen M2 O9.76 g20.9 gmass of M 9.76 gmass of M2 O 20.9 gmass of O2 20.9 – 9.76 11.14 gmassnumber of moles of O2 –––––––––––––––Rel. mol. mass11.14 ––––––– 0.696316Since in the compound M2 O the ratio M : O 2 : 1 number of moles of metal 0.6963 2 1.3926i.e. 1.3926 moles of M 9.76 g9.761 mole of M ––––––––1.3926 7.01 7i.e. Relative atomic mass of M 7W11.9Rel. mol. mass Mg3 N2 (24 3) (14 2) 72 28 100i.e.3Mg N2 3Mg 3 moles 3 (24) g 72 g Mg 1 g MgMg3 N2Mg3 N2 (shortened version of equation)1 mole100 g100 g100 –––– g Mg3 N27233 10033 g Mg –––––––– g Mg3 N272 45.83 g Mg3 N2103

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.10Relative molecular mass Fe2 O3 (56 2) (16 3) 112 48 1602Al Fe2 O3Fe2 O31 mole160 g160 g Fe2 O3 1 g Fe2 O3112 –––– g Fe16030 g Fe2 O330 112 g Fe160Al2 O3 2Fe2Fe (shortened version of equation)2 moles2 (56) g112 g Fe 21 g FeW11.11Relative mol. mass NH4 NO3 14 (1 4) 14 (16 3) 14 4 14 48 80NH4 NO3NH4 NO31 molei.e. 80 g NH4 NO380 g NH4 NO380–––––– g NH4 NO322,400 N2 O 2H2 ON2 O (shortened version of equation)1 mole22.4 L of N2 O at s.t.p.22,400 cm3 of N2 O 1cm3 of N2 O550 80 g NH4 NO3 550 cm3 of N2 O22,400 1.96 g NH4 NO3104

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.12Rel. molecular mass CaC2 40 (12 2) 40 24 64CaC2 2H2 OCaC21 molei.e. 64 g CaC264 g CaC264 g CaC222,400 C2 H2 Ca(OH)2C2 H2 (shortened version of equation)1 mole22.4 L of C2 H2 at s.t.p.22,400 cm3 of C2 H2 1cm3 of C2 H2350 64 g CaC2 350cm3 of C2 H222,400 1 g CaC2W11.13Relative mol. mass NH4 Cl 14 (1 4) 35.5 14 4 35.5 53.52NH4 Cl Ca(OH)22NH4 Cl2 moles2 (53.5) gi.e. 107 g NH4 Cl107 g NH4 Cl107 g NH4 Cl44,800 2NH3 CaCl2 2H2 O 2NH3 (shortened version of equation) 2 moles 2 (22.4) L of NH3 at s.t.p. 44.8 L of NH3 44,800 cm3 of NH3 1cm3 of NH3107 800 g NH4 Cl 800 cm3 of NH344,800 1.91 g NH4 Cl105

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.14Relative mol. mass KClO 3 39 35.5 (16 3) 39 35.5 48 122.52KClO 32KClO 32 moles2 (122.5) gi.e. 245 g KClO3245 g KClO 3 2KCl 3O23O2 (shortened version of equation)3 moles3 (22.4) L of O2 at s.t.p67.2 L of O267,200 cm3 of O2245 g KClO 3 1cm3 of O267,200700 245 g KClO 3 700 cm3 of O267,200 2.55 g KClW11.15Massnumber of moles of Cu Rel. atomic mass12.7 0.263.5massnumber of moles of S Rel. atomic mass3.2 0.132(iii)Ratio of Cu : S 0.2 : 0.1 2 : 1(iv)Cu2 Scopper (I) sulfate106

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.16Relative mol. mass CaCO3 40 12 (16 3) 40 12 48 1002CaCO3 2SO2 O2 2CaSO4 2CO22 moles of CaCO3 reacts with 2 moles of SO21 mole of CaCO3 reacts with 1 mole of SO2100 g CaCO3 reacts with 22.4 L of SO222.41 g CaCO3 reacts with L of SO21001000 22.41000g CaCO3 reacts with L of SO2100 224 L of SO2W11.17Na2 SO3 2HCl 2NaCl SO2 H2 O(i)Relative mol. mass Na2 SO3 (23 2) 32 (16 3) 46 32 48 126massnumber of moles of Na2 SO3 Rel. mol. Mass6.3 0.05126(ii)Na2 SO3 SO2 (shortened version of equation)1 mole 1 mole1 mole 22.4 L0.05 mole of Na2 SO3 (0.05 22.4) L of SO2 at s.t.p. 1.12 L of SO2(iii)1 mole of SO2 contains 6 1023 molecules22.4 L of SO2 contains 6 1023 molecules6 10231 L of SO2 contains molecules22.41.12 6 10231.12 L of SO2 contains molecules22.4 3 1022 molecules107

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.184FeS2 11O2 2Fe2 O3 8SO2(i)Rel. mol. mass FeS2 56 (32 2) 56 64 120Rel. mol. mass Fe2 O3 (56 2) (16 3) 112 48 160i.e.4FeS24 moles4(120) g480 g FeS2 1 g FeS2320 g Fe2 O34809.6 g FeS2 2Fe2 O3 (shortened version of equation)2 moles2(160) g320 g Fe2 O39.6 320 480 6.4 g Fe2 O3(ii)4FeS24 moles4(120) g480 g FeS2 8SO2 (shortened version of equation) 8 moles 8 (22.4) L 179.2 L of SO2 at s.t.p.1 g FeS2179.2 L of SO24809.6 179.29.6 g FeS2 of SO2480 3.584 L of SO2108

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions1 mole of SO2 contains 6 1023 molecules22.4 L of SO2 contains 6 1023 molecules(iii)6 10231 L of SO2 contains molecules22.43.584 6 10233.584 L of SO2 contains molecules22.4 9.6 1022 gen9.68Oxygen100 – (38.7 9.68) 100 – 48.38 �–Rel. At. Mass38.7––––– 3.23129.68––––– 9.681Simplest ratio(divide by 3.23)3.23–––– 13.239.68–––– 33.2351.62––––– 3.23163.23–––– 13.23i.e. Empirical formula CH3 O(b)Molecular Formula empirical formula n62 (CH3 O) n62 [12 (1 3) 16] n62 (12 3 16) n62 31nn 2 Molecular Formula (CH3 O) 2 C2 H6 O2i.e. Molecular Formula C2 H6 O2109

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW11.20MnO2 4HCl MnCl2 Cl2 2H2 O(i)Rel. mol. mass MnO2 55 (16 2) 55 32 87massnumber of moles of MnO2 –––––––––––––Rel. mol. mass4.35 –––– 0.0587(ii)1 mole of MnO2 reacts with 4 moles of HCl 0.05 mole of MnO 2 reacts with (0.05 4) mole of HCl 0.2 mole of HCl(iii)Rel. mol. mass MnCl2 55 (35.5 2) 55 71 126MnO2 MnCl2 (shortened version of equation)1 mole 1 mole0.05 mole 0.05 moleMass of MnCl2 Number of moles Rel. mol. mass 0.05 126 6.3 g(iv)MnO2 Cl2 (shortened version of equation)1 mole 1 mole1 mole 22.4 L0.05 mole MnO 2 (0.05 22.4) L of Cl2 at s.t.p. 1.12 L of Cl2(v)1 mole of Cl2 contains 6 1023 molecules0.05 mole of Cl2 contains 0.05 6 1023 molecules 3 1022 molecules110

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsWorkbook - Chapter 13 – Volumetric Analysis: Acid - BaseW 13.137.9 % w/v HCl means there are 37.9 g HCl in 100 g of solution 1001 g HCl in g of solution37.95 1005 g HCl in g of solution37.9 13.19 gW13.2(a) 0.54 g/L 0.54 1000 mg/L 540 mg/L 540 ppm(b) 0.18 g/L 0.18 1000 mg/L 180 mg/L 180 ppm(c) 0.077 g/100 cm3 0.077 10 g/L 0.77 g/L 0.77 1000 mg/L 770 mg/L 770 ppm(d) 0.0009 g/100 cm3 0.0009 10 g/L 0.009 g/L 0.009 1000 mg/L 9 mg/L 9 ppm111

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW13.3(a) Rel. mol mass HCl 1 35.5 36.536.5 g HCl in 1L of solution 1M solution11g HCl in 1L of solution M solution36.56565 g HCl in 1L of solution M solution36.5 1.78 M(b) Rel. mol mass KOH 39 16 1 5656 g KOH in 1L of solution 1M solution11 g KOH in 1L of solution M solution562525 g KOH in 1L of solution M solution5625 425 g KOH in 250 cm of solution M solution563 1.79 M(c) Rel. mol mass H2 SO4 2(1) 32 4(16) 2 32 64 9898 g H2 SO4 in 1L of solution 1M solution11g H2 SO4 in 1L of solution M solution982222 g H2 SO4 in 1L of solution M solution9822 1022 g H2 SO4 in 100 cm of solution M solution983 2.24 M112

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(d) Rel. mol mass NaOH 23 16 1 4040 g NaOH in 1L of solution 1M solution11 g NaOH in 1L of solution M solution401010 g NaOH in 1L of solution M solution401010g NaOH in 2 L of solution M solution40 2 0.125 M(e) Rel. mol mass Na2 CO3 2(23) 12 3(16) 46 12 48 106106 g Na2 CO3 in 1L of solution 1M solution11 g Na2 CO3 in 1L of solution M solution10612.512.5 g Na2 CO3 in 1L of solution M solution10612.5 512.5 g Na2 CO3 in 200 cm3 of solution M solution106 0.59 M113

Chemistry Live! – Worked SolutionsW13.480 mg /100 cm3 0.08 g /100 cm3Rel. mol mass C2 H5 OH 2(12) 5(1) 16 1 24 5 16 1 4646 g C2 H5 OH in 1L of solution 1M solution11 g C2 H5 OH in 1L of solution M solution460.080.08 g C2 H5 OH in 1L of solution M solution460.08 100.08 g C2 H5 OH in 100 cm3 of solution M solution46. 0.0174 MW13.5(a)Volume MolarityNumber of moles of NaOH 100020 0.1 1000 2 10-3 mole 2 10-3 40 0.08 g(b)Volume MolarityNumber of moles of HNO3 100025 0.01 –––––––––1000 2.5 10-4 moles 2.5 10-4 63 (Mr HNO3 1 14 3(16) 63 0.0158 g114

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions(c)Nu

Chemistry Live! – Worked Solutions 76 Workbook Chapter 9 – The Mole Concept W9.1 (a) 1 mole of Li atoms 7 g (b) 1 mole of Na atoms 23 g (c) 1 mole of Ca atoms 40 g (d) 1 mole of Fe atoms 56 g (e) 1 mole of Ag atoms 108 g (f) 1 mole of Pb atoms 207 g W9.2 (a) 1 m

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