Pharmacogn J. 2018; 10(5):859-870A Multifaceted Journal in the field of Natural Products and Pharmacognosywww.phcogj.com www.journalonweb.com/pj www.phcog.netOriginal ArticleEthnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants used by AytaCommunities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, PhilippinesOurlad Alzeus G. Tantengco*1, Marlon Lian C. Condes2, Hanna Hasmini T. Estadilla2, Elena M. Ragragio2Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco1*, Marlon Lian C.Condes2, Hanna Hasmin T.Estadilla2, Elena M. Ragragio2*College of Medicine, University of thePhilippines Manila, Pedro Gil Street,Ermita, Manila City, PHILIPPINES.2Department of Biology, College ofArts and Sciences, University of thePhilippines Manila, Padre Faura St.,Ermita, Manila City, PHILIPPINES.1CorrespondenceOurlad Alzeus G. TantengcoCollege of Medicine, University of thePhilippines Manila, Pedro Gil Street,Ermita, Manila City, PHILIPPINESS.Phone no : 02 562 4524E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgHistory Submission Date: 06-12-2017; Review completed: 05-03-2018; Accepted Date: 11-05-2018DOI : 10.5530/pj.2018.5.145Article Available onlinehttp://www.phcogj.com/v10/i5Copyright 2018 Phcog.Net. This is an openaccess article distributed under the termsof the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International license.ABSTRACTObjectives: This study documented the species of medicinal plants used by Ayta communitiesin Dinalupihan, Bataan. The plant parts used for medicinal purposes, preparations, mode ofadministration of these medicinal plants were determined. The most important species basedon use values and informant consensus factors were also calculated. Methods: A total of 26informants were interviewed regarding the plants they utilize for medicinal purposes. Freeand prior informed consents were obtained from the informants. Taxonomic identification wasdone in the Botany Division of the National Museum of the Philippines. Informant consensusfactor (FIC) and use values (UV) were also calculated. Results: Ayta communities listed a totalof 118 plant species classified into 49 families used as herbal medicines. The Family Fabaceaewas the most represented plant family with 11 species. Leaves were the most used plant part(43%). Majority of medicinal preparations were taken orally (57%). It was found that Psidiumguajava L. and Lunasia amara Blanco were the most commonly used medicinal plants in thethree communities with the use value of 0.814. Conclusion: This documentation providesa catalog of useful plants of the Ayta and serves as a physical record of their culture for theeducation of future Ayta generations.Key words: Ethnobotany, Medicinal plants, Ayta, Philippines, Traditional medicine.INTRODUCTIONThe Flora of the Philippines contains more than 12000plant species, around 1500 of which are used by thetraditional herbalists of the indigenous peoples intraditional medicine.1 Several medicinal plants havemechanical and chemical defense mechanisms thatprotect themselves from herbivores. These chemicalcompounds that deter herbivores have pharmacologicaleffects against human diseases.2 Indigenous communi ties in the Philippines have been using plants as remediesfor several diseases ranging from common ones suchas headache, stomachache, cough, colds, toothache,skin diseases to more serious and fatal ones such asurinary tract infection, chicken pox, and dysentery.3Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in differentAyta communities in other provinces of Central Luzonsuch as Pampanga. A study conducted by Ragragioet al.4 documented that Ayta communities in Porac,Pampanga still use plants as food and medicines.However, there are no published resources on the ethno botanical knowledge of the Ayta groups in Bataan. TheAyta communities of the Bataan Peninsula are consid ered as the least known and researched Ayta group inCentral Luzon, Philippines. The Ayta communities inBataan continue to reside in their forested ancestrallands and extensively depend on forest resources forfood and medicines.5 Indigenous people living nearthe forest and far from market town have higher levelsof ethnobotanical knowledge compared to thoseliving close to the market town.6There were several bioactivity studies conducted onthe indigenous plants used by Ayta communitiesin Bataan especially the Ayta from Sitio Kanawan,Morong, Bataan.7-9 These studies indicate that theindigenous plants from Bataan can be potentialsources of bioactive compounds thus further warrantthe need for extensive documentation of ethno botanicalknowledge of Ayta communities in Dinalupihan,Bataan.The traditional knowledge held by indigenouspeoples is an important resource that should beconserved. This knowledge continues to declinethrough time and there are only few indigenouscommunities with wide traditional and botanicalknowledge.10 In the Philippines, this knowledge isendangered by Western acculturation and mod ernization. The present study answers the need forsystematic documentation the traditional knowledgeof indigenous peoples before it is lost. This researchdocumented the herbal medicines of the three Aytacommunities in Dinalupihan, Bataan. Specifically, itaims to identify the species of these medicinal plants,determine which plant parts are used for medicinalpurposes, preparations and mode of administrationCite this article: Tantengco OAG, Condes MLC, Estadilla HHT, Ragragio EM. EthnobotanicalSurvey of Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines.Pharmacog J. 2018;10(5):859-70.Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018 859
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in Philippinesof these plants and identify the most important species and calculate theinformant consensus factors.MATERIALS AND METHODSStudy SitesThe ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the Ayta communitieslocated in three rural barangays in Dinalupihan, Bataan namely Payangan,Tubo-Tubo, and Bayan-Bayanan during December 2015. Dinalupihanis located 95 kms east of Manila with the geographical coordinates of14 52’ 34” North, 120 27’ 45” East (Figure 1).11 It has a total land areaof 92.52 km2. As of May 1, 2010, the total population of Tubo-tubo is342, Payangan is 554 and Bayan-bayanan is 447. It has a tropical climatewith significant rainfall almost throughout the year. It is considered as anagricultural town whose main resources are palay, sugar cane, corn, rootcrops, legumes and fruits including livestock and poultry.12Study PopulationData were collected through a semi-structured interview of 26 Aytainformants who are knowledgeable on medicinal plants. Informantswere composed of the tribal chieftains, traditional healers and communityelders. This semi-structured interview was composed of questions onmedicinal plants, its utilization as traditional medicine, the diseasestreated by the plants, the plants used for various diseases the parts thatare used, how the parts are prepared and the frequency of use of theseplants.Ayta communities in Bataan has two languages, Filipino and their ethniclanguage which is Ayta Ambala. The older generations are fluent speakersof their ethnic language while the younger generations are more accus tomed to speaking the Filipino language. Few Ayta hold leadershipposition in the community and the municipality of Dinalupihan. Majorityof the Ayta in Dinalupihan, Bataan rely on farming for their living. Theyhave fruit and vegetable plantation in the mountains and they sell theiragricultural produce in the lowland markets. All of the Ayta communitieshave health centers but doctors and midwives only visit them once aweek. The district hospital is far from their communities especially forthose living in the mountains, thus people first consult traditional heal ers for common diseases.Data CollectionFree and prior informed consents were obtained from all the informants.Permits were obtained from the chieftains and council of elders of theFigure 1: Map of Bataan and the location of the study site, Dinalupihan,Bataan (Google Maps, 2015).860 three Ayta communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan. The data were collectedfrom 26 key informants composed of tribal chieftains, traditional healersand other elders through a semi-structured interview.13 This semi-structuredinterview consisted of questions on their knowledge about medicinalplants, the diseases treated by the plants, parts that are used, how theparts are prepared and administered for medicinal purposes. The keyinformants also collected the plants which were used for taxonomicidentification and part of the field collection of the researchers.Specimen CollectionSamples of the functional parts of medicinal plants were collected fortaxonomic identification. The habitat, morphological characteristics, andreproductive parts of the plants were photographed and noted. Voucherspecimens were preserved by immersing them in denatured alcohol andwere sent to Mr. Danilo Tandang, botanist and researcher at the NationalMuseum of the Philippines for identification and authentication. Scientificnames of plants were determined and validated using The Plant Listdatabase.14Data AnalysisThe information on the Ayta individuals (socio-demographic data) andon the medicinal plants based on the interview was tabulated. Two valueswere calculated to quantify the ethnobotanical data gathered: the UseValue (UV) and the Informant Consensus Factor (FIC). The Use Value isdefined as the ratio of the number citations per species (U) to the numberof informants (N) and is given by the formula: UV U/N.13 High UVindicates high use-reports for a plant implying its relative importance tothe local community. Low UV indicates few reports related to its use.15Informant Consensus Factor, on the other hand, is evaluated using theformula: FIC (Nur – Nt)/ Nur – 1: where Nur is the number of usereports in each category and Nt is the number of species used for aparticular category by all informants4. The maximum value attained inthis Formula, 1, means that the informants completely agree that theparticular species cited could cure a particular ailment. A value of 0, theminimum value, means that there is no exchange in information amongthe informants about plants.16 This simply means that the higher FICvalue, the higher the possibility that the medicinal plants cited are theones commonly and consistently used by the Ayta and assumed to beeffective in treating a certain disease.17RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONProfile of the InformantsA total of 26 informants from three barangays participated in the ethno botanical surveys (Table 1). The informants were selected because oftheir knowledge on the medicinal plants they used. Ayta belonging theage group 46 years old and above have the highest number of informantsfor this ethnobotanical survey. The average number of plant species citedby all of the Ayta informants is 25.Differences in educational background as well as profession of infor mants did not have significant impact on the knowledge on indigenousmedicinal plants. It was also observed in the survey that their knowl edge of medicinal plans were passed down from their ancestors throughoral traditions. When Ayta communities encounter diseases, they usemedicinal plants first. When their herbal medicines can no longer curethe diseases, they use over-the-counter medicines or go to the districthospital for consultation and treatment.The use of traditional medicine is an important part of healthcare of theAyta communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan. The result of this study islimited because of the small number of Ayta informants. However, stepsto ensure the reliability of informants for ethnobotanical studies werefollowed based on the recommendations of Tongco.18 This is very impor Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in PhilippinesTable 1: Demographic profiles of the interviewed Ayta in the three different barangays in Dinalupihan, Bataan.Age (average)GenderEducational AttainmentJobBarangay(Village)Number ofRespondents16-2526-4546 – 14818131301763M – Male, F – Female, E – Elementary, H – High school, C - College WC – White collar (professional, managerial and administrative work), BC – Blue collar (performlabor jobs)8, Moraceae and Malvaceae with 5, and Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae,Pandanaceae, Rutaceae, and Cucurbitaceae with 4 species each. The other39 families have one to 3 representative species each.Family Fabaceae is the most represented plant family in this ethnobo tanical survey with a total of 11 species used as medicines. This is similarto the results of Ragragio et al.4 in their study with the Ayta communitiesin Pampanga, Philippines. Family Fabaceae was also the most representedfamily in the Ayta of Pampanga with a total of fifteen species used asmedicines. Another study conducted by Obico and Ragragio 19 on themedicinal plants used by Ayta communities in Porac, Pampanga asinsect repellant also observed highest number of species belonging toFamily Fabaceae. Family Poaceae is the second family with the highestcitation for medicinal use. Several study conducted in Northern Surigaodel Sur and Bukidnon, Philippines also listed highest number of medicinalplants from Poaceae family.20,21Collection Sites of Medicinal PlantsFigure 2: Number of plant species and their respective families.tant in order to establish the reliability of the results even with low numberof informants. The researchers made sure that the informants are reliableand competent in terms of their knowledge in medicinal plants. Therewere several consultations with the tribal leaders to identify key infor mants that will be included in this survey. Quality control was done toverify the data gathered during the interviews. After the completion ofthe study, the researchers went back to the three Ayta communities toverify the results and clarify several inconsistencies in the data gathered.It was observed in this study that most of the traditional healers belongto the older generation. There were very few young Ayta who are knowl edgeable about medicinal plants. This can indicate a decline in knowl edge of the use of medicinal plants that pose a potential disappearanceof this knowledge in the future. There were more women informants inthis ethnobotanical survey compared to men. More medicinal plantspecies were cited by the women informants. This can be due to the factthat majority of traditional healers among Ayta communities in Dinalu pihan were women. They are familiar with medicinal plants used againstcommon diseases because they are usually left at home to take care of thechildren and the elderlies. Men usually go to the mountains to work intheir agricultural lands.Characteristics of Medicinal PlantsThe list of medicinal plants obtained from ethnobotanical surveys aresummarized in Table 2. Scientific and vernacular names, plant partsused, mode of administration and diseases treated were included in thelist. A total of 118 plant species classified into 48 families have been doc umented to be used by the Ayta in the three communities (Figure 2). Themost represented plant family is the Fabaceae family with 11 species, fol lowed by Poaceae with 9 species, then Compositae and Lamiaceae withPharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018 Medicinal plants are collected from the roadside and home gardens ofAyta (68%), mountains and wild habitat (21%) or both (11%) (Figure 3).Based on interviews with the traditional healers in Dinalupihan, mostof the medicinal plants grow randomly along the roadside and backyardof the Ayta. They usually do not cut down the growing plants in theirbackyards and on the roadside because these plants constitute a sourceof medicinal plants that can be used to treat common diseases in theircommunities. Since most of the Ayta communities are located near theforest, they have an abundance of medicinal plants in their surroundings.Some of these medicinal plants are also cultivatedRagragio et al.4 also noted that medicinal plants used by Ayta communitiesin Porac, Pampanga also came from kitchen garden and open fields. Thereare only few identified species that can only be found in the mountains.According to the Ayta informants, it was hard to find species that occurexclusively in the mountains especially those that are located in verysteep mountainsides. Availability of the plants can be an important factorin their uses by the Ayta elders and healers as medicines.Plant Part UsedDifferent parts of the plants are used for various diseases (Figure 4).Leaves are the most used plant part (43%), followed by the roots (18%),stem (15%), peel of the fruit (14%), skin of the stem (4%), flowers (2%)and seeds (1%). There are certain diseases that are treated with the wholeplant. This accounts for 3% of the total plant species identified in thisstudy and most are herbaceous plants.Several ethnobotanical surveys conducted in the Philippines reportedsimilar results with the leaves as the most frequently used plantparts.15,20,22One of the reasons for this is to protect the plants and ensuresustainability in the utilization of the plants. Harvesting the leaves areless destructive for the plants. Leaves are also easy to collect and arethe most abundant plant parts. Secondary metabolites from the leaves861
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in PhilippinesTable 2: List of plants recorded to have medicinal values to the Ayta in Dinalupihan, Bataan.Plant FamilyPlant SpeciesVernacularPlant PartusedAdministrationDisease/ Ailment to be treatedUseValueAcanthaceaeAndrographis paniculata(Burm.f.) NeesSerpentinaLfDrink decoctionCough, diarrhea, stomach ache0.111AcoraceaeAcorus gramineus AitonLubiganLfDrink decoctionUrinary tract infection0.037AmaryllidaceaeAllium sativum L.BawangLfApply on wound; DrinkdecoctionDog bite and rabies; phlegm0.037Allium cepa L.SibuyasPeSmell heated peelMeasles0.037Anacardium occidentale L.KasoyLf, Pe, StDrink decoction, eat the stemand apply directlyToothache; headache0.296Mangifera indica L.ManggaLfDrink decoction; Use inbathingAnhidrosis, Postpartum0.074Dracontomelon dao (Blanco)Merr. & RolfeLamyoStDrink decoctionWound infection0.037Spondias purpurea L.sineguelasFrEat chewedOral sores0.037Goniothalamus amuyon(Blanco) Merr.AmuyongSdStApply the extracts to affectedbody partsApply pounded stem mixedwith oilArthritis and body painArthritis and body pain0.111Annona muricata L.GuyabanoLfDrink decoction; Smell theleavesStomach ache; dizziness0.111Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.DitaPeStDrink decoctionUse for bathingCough, colds, phlegm aqui Lam.PandakakiRt, StUse for garglingToothache0.074Strophanthus caudatus (L.)KurzBagingStApply sap on the woundBleeding wound0.037Cocos nucifera L.Niyog/ BukoRtDrink root decoction;Apply on affected body partKidney stone; Itchiness andsprain0.222FrFrApply directlyApply heated scraped shell onaffected areaChest painWound and snake lamus rotang L.RattanThApplied on head as hia tagala Cham.MalaubeRtDrink decoctionStomach ache and fever0.148CompositaeArtemisia vulgaris L.DamongmariaLfDrink decoction or sapFever, sore throat, colds, coughand phlegm0.569Cyanthillium cinereum (L.)H.Rob.KulantroLf, RtUse for bathing; Smell heatedrootsMeasles0.370Chromolaena odorata (L.)R.M.King & H.Rob.PapaltokLfApply pounded leaves onwounds; Drink decoctionWounds; Stomach ache, diarrhea,fever, vomiting0.296Blumea balsimifera (L.) DC.SambongRt, LfDrink decoction and smellthe leaves; Use for bathingApply fresh leaves as coldcompressKidney stones, hypertension,cold, cough; PregnancyStomachache, fever0.259LfEmilia sonchifolia (L.) DC.ex DC.TagulinawRtLfDrink decoctionDrink decoction or grindinto powder and add milkDiarrheaPost-pregnancy, Diarrhea;Stomach ache, indigestion, colds0.111Pseudelephantopus spicatus(B.Juss. ex Aubl.) Rohr exC.F.BakerDila-dilaLf, RtDrink decoction, eat freshleaves, apply heated leaves onaffected body partSkin infection; rabies and snakeSnake bite, wounds0.074Continued.862 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in PhilippinesPlant SpeciesVernacularPlant PartusedAgeratum conyzoides (L.) L.Baho-bahoLfBalsaminaceaeImpatiens balsamina L.KamantigueFlBegoniaceaeBegonia spPingol-batoLfBixaceaeBixa orellana L.AsueteLf, ShFrBoraginaceaeCordia dichotoma G.Forst.AnonangLf, PePlant FamilyAdministrationDisease/ Ailment to be treatedUseValueApply pounded leaves onwoundsWounds0.037Drink decoctionAsthma0.037Apply heated leavesWhite spots, pimples0.037Apply on foreheadEat fresh fruit or drinkdecoctionFeverHypertension0.111Drink decoction or peelextracts, Apply scraped peelon woundsWounds, infection and fever0.333BromeliaceaeAnanas comosus (L.) Merr.PinyaFrEat fresh fruitsHelminthiasis0.074CactaceaeOpuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.CactusStDrink decoctionDiarrhea0.037CaricaceaeCarica papaya L.papayaLfSmellHeadache0.037CombretaceaeCombretum indicum (L.)DeFilippsBawebaweLf, FrPlace heated leaves onaffected areaSnake venom and animal bites0.222ConvolvulaceaeIpomoea batatas (L.) Lam.KamoteLfEat cooked leavesHypertension0.037Ipomoea sp.KamotengbagingLfEat cooked fruitLow blood, diarrhea,hematochezia0.037Ipomoea sp.KamotengpulaShDrink shoot decoctionAnemia0.037CrassulaceaeBryophyllum pinnatum(Lam.) OkenKataka-takaLfApply heated leaves with salton affected body partSwelling, Boils0.074CucurbitaceaLagenaria siceraria (Molina)Standl.UpoFrEat cooked fruitHypertension0.074Cucurbita sp.KalabasaRtEat cooked rootsPregnancy and post-pregnancy0.111Momordica charantia L.Ampalaya/Ampalayangligaw/MarigosoLfDrink extracted juice fromleavesAppy leaves on stomachCough, phlegm, pneumonia0.074Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)Matsum. & NakaiKalingad/KalingagStStSdDrink decoctionChew young stemApply pounded seeds onaffected jointsAny sickness of the lungsCoughsJoint pains0.037CyperaceaeScleria scrobiculata Nees &MeyenBanglitLf, RtDrink decoctionCoughs, oral sores colds andfever0.037DioscoreaceaeDioscorea hispida Dennst.KalotRtApply on affected body partDog bites and rabies0.037Dioscorea alata L.UbeRtApply on affected body partBoils0.037Jatropha curcas L.Tuba-tuba/Takumbaw/Takumbong/GalumbangLf, PeApply heated leaves with oilon affected body partSprain, arthritis, muscle pain0.148Homalanthus populneus(Geiseler) PaxBalanteRtDrink decoctionSpasm0.037EuphorbiaceaeFabaceaeStomach acheEuphorbia tithymaloides L.Susong dalagaRtDrink decoctionEnhances lactation0.037Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.)Benth.KamatsilePe, StGargle decoctionToothache0.222Mimosa pudica L.MakahiyaLf, St, RtDrink decoctionDysmenorrhea, Post-pregnancy,body pain, kidney disease0.222Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)Walp.Kakawati/KakawataLfApply extract from leaves0.148ShUse decoction for bathingDrink extract from shootItchiness, rashes, skin infectionand phlegmWounds and skin irritationRingwormPharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018 Continued.863
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in PhilippinesPlant FamilyVernacularPlant PartusedCajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.KadyosLf, PeTamarindus indica L.SampalokLfPlant SpeciesDisease/ Ailment to be treatedUseValueApply leaves on eyesSore eyes and measles0.148Use decoction for bathingPost-pregnancy; chicken pox,fever, cough, cold,Cough0.111AdministrationDrink decoction withcalamansiLamiaceaeSenna alata (L.) Roxb.AkapulkoLfPlace pounded leaves onaffected body partRingworm and other fungalinfections0.037Lablab purpureus (L.) SweetBatawShDrink extracted oil fromheated shootAsthma and oral sores0.037Entada phaseoloides (L.)Merr.GugoStUse pounded stem as soapWound and dandruff0.037Leucaena leucocephala(Lam.) de WitIpil-ipilFrEat fresh fruitHelminthiasis0.037Phaseolus lunatus L.Lima-limaLef, RtDrink decoctionSpasm, stomachache0.037Pterocarpus indicus Willd.NarraStDrink decoctionTuberculosis0.037Origanum vulgare L.OreganoLfDrink decoctionAsthma, cough, cold0.222Vitex negundo L.LagundiLfDrink decoctionFever, cough, cold0.148Tectona grandis L.f.TeklaLfDrink decoctionMenstruation, low bloodpressure0.111Hyptis capitata Jacq.LagarelagareanRtSmell heated rootFever and spasm0.037Leucas aspera (Willd.) LinkPansi-pansiLf, ShSmellHeadache and diarrhea0.037Ocimum tenuiflorum L.SulasiLfDrink decoctionCough, cold0.037Vitex parviflora A.Juss.MulawinPeLfUse for bathingUse for bathing; Apply sapand water to abdomenUse decoction for bathingPregnancy0.519Post pregnancyStPremna odorata BlancoAlagawLf, ShApply extracts directlyWounds0.037LauraceaePersea americana Mill.AvocadoLfDrink decoctionDiabetes0.037LeeaceaeLeea sp.Amamali/ImaaliRt,StDrink decoctionToothache; Purge0.037LygodiaceaeLygodium sp.NitoLf, RtDrink decoction or smellheated leaves/rootsNausea, headache, dizziness;kidney disease0.518LythraceaeLagerstroemia speciosa (L.)Pers.BanabaLf, Fr, Pe, StDrink decoctionDiarrhea, urinary tractinfection, kidney stone, delayedmenstruation, headache, lowblood pressure0.370MalvaceaeHibiscus rosa-sinensis L.GumamelaFlApply heated flowers onaffected body partBoils0.111Sida acuta Burm.f.Walis-walisanRtLfEat chewedEat chewedHeadache, FeverFever0.111Gossypium sp.BulakStDrink decoctionCleaning of the uterus afterpregnancy0.037Sterculia foetida L.KalumbangLfApply heated leaves mixedwith oil to affected body partSprain0.037Pterospermum diversifoliumBlumeBayog/BayukanRtDrink decoctionCleaning of the uterus aftermiscarriage0.037Sandoricum koetjape(Burm.f.) Merr.SantolLfDrink decoction; apply toforehead or stomachPhlegmFever, headache, constipation0.111Swietenia mahogany L.MahoganyFrSdDrink decoctionDrink decoctionDiahrrea, MalariaCleaning of the uterus afterpregnancy0.074Meliaceae864 Continued.Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in PhilippinesPlant FamilyPlant SpeciesVernacularMenispermaceaeTinospora rumphii Boerl.MakabuhayTinospora sp.MoraceaeMoringaceaeMusaceaePlant PartusedDisease/ Ailment to be treatedStLfDrink decoctionApply decoction to affectedbody partsDrink decoctionStomach ache, diabetesSprain, sore eyesFever, flatulence, headache0.37Kaytama/KaytanaSt, Fr, Pe, LfDrink decoctionMenstruation, dysmenorrhea,indigestion, pneumonia,cleaning of the uterus, enhancebreastfeeding capability0.222Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr.TibigLfApply leaves to foreheadApply heated leaves tostomachFever; HeadacheStomach ache0.296Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.BaleteRtApply extracted oil fromroots to affected body partBody pain0.037Streblus asper Lour.KaliosFr, StApply extracted oil toaffected body part; Applyfresh stem to neckBody pain and sore throat0.037Artocarpus heterophyllus LamLangkaFt, LfApply extract from fruits;apply heated leavesWounds0.037Ficus sp.TiboyLfApply leaves to foreheadFever0.037Moringa oleifera LamMalunggayLf, Fl, Fr, RtDrink decoctionLow blood pressure, cough0.148Apply roots to affected areaToothacheFtEatenDiarrheaLfDrink decoction; Applyextracted sap to affectedtoothApply heated leaves with oilto affected body partDrink decoctionIndigestion, high/low bloodpressure; toothacheMusa paradisiaca L.SagingLfStMyrtaceaeUseValueAdministrationPsidium guajava L.0.259SprainIndigestionBayabasLf, Fr, PeDrink decoctionDiarrhea, stomach ache,dizziness, toothache, cleaningof the uterus after pregnancy,phlegm, colds, indigestion, oralsores and wounds0.814Syzygium cumini (L.) SkeelsDuhatLf, Fr, Pe, ShDrink decoctionDiarrhea, stomach ache0.148Eucalyptus globulus Labill.KalyptusLfDrink decoctionAsthma0.037OxalidaceaeAverrhoa bilimbi L.KalamyasLfUsed decoction for bathingPost-pregnancy; chicken pox0.037PandanaceaePandanus amaryllifoliusRoxb.PandanLfDrink decoctionHypertension and stomach ache0.185Pandanus L.fPandanglalakiLfDrink decoctionKidney disease, stomach-ache,spasms and fever0.111Pandanus luzonensis Merr.Alas-asLfApply on the foreheadHeadache0.037Pandanus sp.PandangPastulanLfDrink decoctionUrinary Tract Infection0.037PhyllantaceaAntidesma bunius (L.)Spreng.BignayStDrink decoctionArthritis and Low blood pressure0.074PlantaginaceaeScoparia dulcis L.KulakulantranLfDrink decoctionMeasles0.037PoaceaeSchizostachyum lumampao(Blanco) Merr.BuhoLf, Rt, ShDrink decoctionCough, phlegm, colds, fever,enhances lactation0.444Continued.Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018 865
Tantengco, et al.: Medicinal Plants Used by Ayta Communities in PhilippinesPlant FamilyPlant SpeciesVernacularPlant PartusedAdministrationDisease/ Ailment to be treatedUseValueImperata cylindrica (L.)Raeusch.CogonLf, RtDrink decoction0.259LfApply extract of poundedleaves directlyCoughs, colds, fever,hypertension, kidney stone,dizzinessWoundsBambusa blumeana Schult.f.KawayanRt, LfDrink decoctionSpasm, colds, coughs kidneystone, dengue0.185Saccharum spontaneum L.TalahibLf, RtDrink decoctionCoughs, colds, fever, spasms,enhances lactation0.185Cymbopogon citratus (DC.)StapfTangladLf, RtDrink decoctionPregnant women, headache, lowblood pressure, Colds an postpregnancy0.185Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.Sabong SabunganLfSmell heated leavesFever0.111Coix lacryma-jobi L.BalantakanRtDrink decoctionKidney stones0.037Bambusa sp.BambooLfDrink decoctionCoughs, colds0.037Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.Mala-tagyangRtDrink decoctionFor purging0.037RubiaceaeMussaenda philippica A.RichHamiling/KalingagLf, RtChew and swallowDizziness, Sore throat0.185Coffea arabica L.KapiLfApply directlyWound/ bleeding0.037RutaceaeLunasia amara BlancoLunas bundokSt, Fr, LfDrink decoctionStomach ache, colds, body pain,skin irritation, diarrhea, dengue0.814Citrus japonica Thunb.CalamansiFrDrink as juice; Grill and eatwith honeyCough, phlegm0.037Citrus hystrix DC.KabuyawRtDrink decoctionKidney disease0.037Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.SuhaLfUsed decoction for bathingPost-pregnancy, Hypertension0.037SapindaceaeLitchi chinensis Sonn.Alupag/Al
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 10, Issue 5, Sep-Oct, 2018 859 Pharmacogn J. 21 1(5):5 A Multifaceted ournal in the field
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .
On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.
̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions
Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have
Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được
Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
The API Specification and the EEMUA Specification differ slightly in some respects. The main differences in the specifications are in the requirements for the rheological properties and filtrate loss of the slurry. The rheological properties of the slurry at different rates of shear are determined using a direct reading viscometer. Filtrate loss is determined using a filter press. Test methods .