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Organizational BehaviorAbout the TutorialOrganizational behavior is a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli by aperson as an individual or as a part of a group. This is a brief introductory tutorial that explainsthe methodologies applied in the rapidly growing area of organizational behavior in anorganization.AudienceThis tutorial will be useful for students from management streams who aspire to learn thebasics of Organizational Behavior. Professionals, especially project managers, regardless ofwhich sector or industry they belong to, can use this tutorial to learn how to apply themethods of Organizational Behavior in their respective project environments.PrerequisitesThe readers of this tutorial are expected to have a basic understanding of how a projectmanager would deal with a complex project having multiple dimensions and accomplish itwithout overshooting his resources.Disclaimer & Copyright Copyright 2019 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt.Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish anycontents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of thepublisher.We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely aspossible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or itscontents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial,please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com.i

Organizational BehaviorTable of ContentsAbout the Tutorial . iAudience . iPrerequisites . iDisclaimer & Copyright . iTable of Contents . ii1.OB – INTRODUCTION . 1Importance of OB . 12.DETERMINANTS OF OB . 2People . 2Organizational Structure. 2Technology . 3Environment . 33.CONCEPTS OF OB . 4Nature of People . 4Nature of Organization . 54.SCOPE OF OB . 6Individual Behavior . 6Inter-individual Behavior . 6Group Behavior . 65.FUNCTIONS OF A MANAGER . 7Roles of a Manager . 7Various Challenges of a Manager. 8ii

Organizational Behavior6.OB – MODELS . 10Autocratic Model . 10Custodial Model . 10Supportive Model . 10Collegial Model . 107.LEARNING . 12Nature of Learning . 12Factors Affecting Learning . 12How Learning Occurs? . 13Classical Conditioning Theory . 13Social Learning Theory . 14Cognitive Learning Theory . 158.PERSONALITY . 17Inherited Characteristics . 17Learned Characteristics. 17Traits of Personality . 17Major Personality Attributes . 189.THEORIES OF PERSONALITY . 20Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory . 20Erikson’s Theory . 20Sheldon’s Physiognomy Theory . 2110. PERCEPTION . 22Perceptual Process . 22Importance of Perception in OB . 23iii

Organizational Behavior11. MOTIVATION . 24Features of Motivation . 24Importance of Motivation . 24Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory . 2412. THEORY X AND THEORY Y . 27Theory X . 27Theory Y . 28Comparing Theory X & Theory Y . 28Application . 2913. GROUPS IN ORGANIZATION . 30Types of Groups . 30Why Do People Join Groups. 31Group Roles . 32Task-oriented Roles . 32Well-Functioning Groups . 33Reference Groups . 3414. GROUP DECISION MAKING . 36Advantages of Group Decision Making . 36Disadvantages of Group Decision Making . 37Group Decision-Making Techniques . 3715. LEADERSHIP . 40Importance of Leadership . 40Leader Vs Manager . 40Leadership Styles . 40iv

Organizational BehaviorTraditional Theory . 4216. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP . 43Behavioral Theory . 43Contingency Theory . 4417. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT . 45Classification of Conflict . 45Conflict Management Techniques . 4618. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE . 50Elements of Organizational Culture . 50Different Types of Organizational Culture. 50How to Create an Organizational Culture . 5219. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE . 53Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis . 53Importance of Organizational Change . 53Planned Change . 53Types of Planned Change . 5420. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. 56Organizational Development Techniques . 56Sensitivity Technique . 56Survey Feedback . 56Process Consultation . 57Team Building . 57Intergroup Development . 57v

OB – INTRODUCTIONOrganizational BehaviorOrganizational Behavior (OB) can be defined as the understanding, prediction andmanagement of human behavior both individually or in a group that occur within anorganization.Internal and external perspectives are the two theories of how organizational behavior can beviewed from an organization’s point of view. In this tutorial, we will be learning in detail aboutboth the theories.Importance of OBWhile working in an organization, it is very important to understand others behavior as well asmake others understand ours. In order to maintain a healthy working environment, we need toadapt to the environment and understand the goals we need to achieve. This can be doneeasily if we understand the importance of OB.Following points bring out the importance of OB: It helps in explaining the interpersonal relationships employees share with each otheras well as with their higher and lower subordinates. The prediction of individual behavior can be explained. It balances the cordialcommunication. It assists in marketing. It helps managers to encourage their sub-ordinates. Any change within the organization can be made easier. It helps in predicting human behavior & their application to achieve organizationalgoals. It helps in making the organization more effective.relationship in an enterprise by maintaining effectiveThus studying organizational behavior helps in recognizing the patterns of human behavior andin turn throw light on how these patterns profoundly influence the performance of anorganization.1

DETERMINANTS OF OBOrganizational BehaviorThere are three major factors that affect OB. The working environment being the base for allthree factors, they are also known as the determinants of OB. The three determinants are: People Structure TechnologyPeopleAn organization consists of people with different traits, personality, skills, qualities, interests,background, beliefs, values and intelligence. In order to maintain a healthy environment, allthe employees should be treated equally and be judged according to their work and otheraspects that affects the firm.Example: A company offers campus placement to trainees from different states like Orissa,Haryana, Arunachal Pradesh and many more. However, during and after training, all traineesare examined only on the basis of their performance in the tasks assigned.Organizational StructureStructure is the layout design of an organization. It is the construction and arrangement ofrelationships, strategies according to the organizational goal.Example: Organizational structure defines the relation of a manager with employees and coworkers.2

Organizational BehaviorTechnologyTechnology can be defined as the implementation of scientific knowledge for practical usage. Italso provides the resources required by the people that affect their work and task performancein the right direction.Example: Introduction of SAP, big data and other software in the market determinesindividual and organizational performance.EnvironmentAll companies function within a given internal and external environment. Internal environmentcan be defined as the conditions, factors, and elements within an enterprise that influences theactivities, choices made by the firm, and especially the behavior of the employees. Whileexternal environment can be defined as outside factors that affect the company's ability tooperate. Some of them can be manipulated by the company’s marketing, while others requirethe company to make adjustments.Some examples of internal environment include employee morale, culture changes,financial changes or issues, and some examples of external environment include politicalfactors, changes to the economy and the company itself.3

CONCEPTS OF OBOrganizational BehaviorThe concept of OB is based on two key elements namely: Nature of people Nature of the organizationNature of PeopleIn simple words, nature of people is the basic qualities of a person, or the character thatpersonifies an individual they can be similar or unique. Talking at the organizational level,some major factors affecting the nature of people have been highlighte

Organizational Behavior 5 Nature of Organization Nature of organization states the motive of the firm. It is the opportunities it provides in the global market. It also defines the employees’ standard; in short, it defines the character of the company by acting as a mirror reflection of the company. We can understand the nature of any firm with its social system, the mutual interest it .

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