Induction & Synchronous Motors - NEMSCO

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gMotorsInduction &Synchronous Motors100 - 20,000 HP75 - 15,000 kWPegasus MHVQuantum LMVCustom 8000TMTMTM

Experience MattersWe’ve manufactured motors for over 125 years.In 1879, GE founder, Thomas Edison constructed the first electric motorfor a 110 to 120 Volt line at Menlo Park, NJ. This device still exists and isoperative! It is located in the Edison Historical Collection in New Jersey.Since 1987, GE has produced over 15,000 medium/high voltage machines.We’ve been a certified ISO 9001:2000 Quality System since 1992. Six Sigmaprocesses have been hardwired into our manufacturing processes since1995. And now we presently offer a full range of large motors andgenerators up to 100,000HP (75,000KW).ApplicationsThese motors are designed and manufactured to operate efficientlyin environments and industries where reliability, ruggedness, andeasy maintenance are critical. Examples include pumps, compressors,fans, refineries, mixers, conveyors, mills plus many others.Industries- Power & Energy- Oil & Gas- Chemical & Petrochemical- Mining- Pulp & Paper-Mining & MetalsCementWater and WastewaterAutoMarineStandards & CodesGE Motors can hold to these standards and certifications: NEMA, IEC,CSA, API 541 & 547, ATEX, GOST, ABS, NEC DIV 2, Ex-e and Ex-n forZone 2, Ex-p for Zone 1 or 2.Squirrel CageInduction MotorsWound-RotorInduction MotorsSynchronousMotorsSimplicity, Low Cost, AdaptabilitySoft Start, Adjustable SpeedHigh Efficiency, Power Factor Control Horizontal and Vertical Solid and Hollow Shaft 100 - 20,000 hp, Up to 16,000 Volts Horizontal 100 - 15,000 hp, Up to 16,000 Volts Horizontal and Vertical 300 - 7500 hp, Up to 16,000 VoltsThe wound-rotor induction motor,although more expensive than thesquirrel cage motor, has some distinctapplication advantages. Historically ithas been used for hard-to-start, highinertia fans, or where power systemrequirements demand a soft start.With a liquid rheostat, or a staticsecondary speed control, the woundrotor is an important alternative drivewhere limited range adjustable speedis required.Because of its higher efficiency and specialability to provide a system power factorimprovement, the synchronous motor isoften the choice for large drivers. Its largeair gap relative to that in an inductionmotor allows the use of larger stator slots.This is an important advantage for highvoltage, high power applications.Additionally the designer has greaterflexibility in combining starting torquesand other characteristics to match widelyvarying system requirements.The squirrel cage induction motor is theone most widely used for driving pumps,fans and compressors. Its advantagesinclude an inherent simplicity in bothmotor construction and control, lowerinitial cost particularly in the smallerratings, and adaptability to the worstof environments. Squirrel cage motorsare available with either standard orpremium efficiency. Special designsand features are available for variablefrequency supply applications.2

Enclosures Designed for PerformanceDripproof (DPG)This standard enclosure is suitable formost indoor industrial conditions. Coolingair enters through the end-shields atboth ends, passes over the coil end-turns,the rotor and stator, then exits throughopenings in the sides of the frame.Louvered openings provide protectiongreater than required by NEMA standards.Air flow is designed carefully to eliminatehot spots and minimize noise. For largerratings, or for special quieter operatingdesigns, cooling air intake and dischargeopenings are located in an easilyremoved “top hat” enclosure. Cooling airenters through both ends of the top hat,passes through the machine as in thestandard dripproof motor, and exitsthrough openings in the side of thetop hat. Louvered openings provideprotection greater than NEMA drip-proofstandards.This type enclosure will be used when filtersand/or low noise levels are specified.Totally Enclosed Water-to-AirCooled (TEWAC) - IP54 or IP55The TEWAC enclosure isolates all criticalmotor components from its surroundings.Consequently, it can be used indoors orout in clean or dirty environments. It isprovided with a water-cooled heatexchanger mounted in the top portionof the motor for cooling the recirculatedventilating air. Motor heat is conductedaway by circulating water and not bydischarged hot air. Thus it is suitable forconfined areas. It is also the quietest ofall available enclosures.Weather Protected Type I(WPI)Weather Protected Type II(WPII)A weather protected Type I machine isan open machine with its ventilatingpassages constructed to minimize theentrance of rain, snow, and air-borneparticles to the electric parts.Its ventilation openings are also constructed to prevent the passage of acylindrical rod 0.75”/19 mm in diameter.Features included with this enclosure:This enclosure is designed for use outdoors in adverse conditions. Air intake isin the removable top hat portion to minimize entrance of ground level dirt, rain orsnow, or heavy gas concentrations.This enclosure can be modified to includefilters for extremely dirt conditions. Airpassage includes several abrupt 90degree changes in direction plus anintake area of reduced velocity to allowsolid particles or moisture to drop outbefore the ventilating air contacts activeparts of the motor. Inlet and exhaustopenings permit a direct blow throughof high velocity winds and airborneparticles. Thus, all but super-fine dust andforeign material is virtually eliminated. Custom Polyseal sealed statorwinding insulation Bearing protection Special attention to leads and lead exitsfrom the motor frame into the conduit box Weatherproof conduit box Anti-corrosion treatment on bothexternal and internal metal parts Corrosion resistant guard screens Space HeatersTotally Enclosed Fan Cooled(TEFC) - IP54 or IP55Totally Enclosed Air-to-AirCooled (TEAAC) - IP54 or IP55A Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC)motor can be applied in applications,which are indoor or outdoor, and isgenerally used when a corrosive orhazardous atmosphere is present.The enclosure is designed to keep theexternal atmosphere of the motor separated form the internal component of themotor. The frame is ribbed and the endshields are constructed out of cast iron,which provides rigidity and adds to thecooling capacity. The cooling fan (typically located opposite of the drive end)is attached to the motor shaft and isprotected by a fan cover. The fan coverhas a grill, which allows the passage ofambient air drawing in by the rotation ofthe fan. The air is then directed over thelength of the ribbed frame of the motor.TEAAC enclosure also provides isolationof critical motor components from thesurroundings. In contrast to the TEWAChowever, the TEAAC enclosure dischargesthe waste heat in the immediate area ofthe motor. The construction of this enclosure utilizes a top mounted air-to-airheat exchanger. External air is drawn inby a shaft mounted fan enclosed in ahousing on the end opposite the drive.This air is forced through the coolingtubes at high velocity to promote efficient cooling and cleaning of the tubes.Cooling is accomplished by circulatingthe internal air over the heat exchangertubes where the heat is dissipated andthe cool air is returned to the active partsof the machine.3

Superior ConstructionStator Frame And Magnetic CoreInsulation System High Dielectric Strength Stable Contaminant Resistant Strong Accessible Long and Trouble Free LifeDesigned to provide optimum physical protectionand good accessibility forinspection. The heavy dutystator frame and endshields are made offabricated steel or cast-ironribbed-construction tomaintain alignment. Statorlaminations are precision punched from high quality, low losselectrical sheet steel and coated with a thermally stable insulating film. Most ratings are of rectangular frame construction, utilizing packaged cores. The magneticcore consists of laminations highlycompressed for mechanical strengthand completely wound before thecore package is inserted into theframe. This construction permits freeaccess to the coil end-turns duringmanufacture and simplifies insertionof the winding and bracing systems.This visual accessibility also helpsto ensure increased quality inmanufacturing.This insulation system helps to ensurelong life and reliability and meets thestringent mechanical and thermalrequirements of todays applications. One material alone doesnot have all the properties needed. Therefore an epoxy solventless resin vacuum-pressure-impregnation (VPI) process is usedto unite superior insulation materials into a complete insulationsystem creating a reduced voids structure and assuring long lifeand reliability. The insulation begins with the strand insulationmaterials selected for the individual machine design on thebasis of expected surge levels, operating temperature andsystem compatibility. The turn insulation materials range fromseveral types of enamel insulation, or double polyglass insulation to micaceous tape covering each turn or conductor group.Insulation System Quality AssuranceMany tests are made during the manufacture of the windings to assure thateach machine meets the high standardsset for quality materials and manufacturing processes. High potential tests areconducted at various stages of manufacturing. Following insertion of the coils intothe stator slots, each coil is subjected toan impulse test of the turn insulation. Finally, prior to shipment,the standard IEC high-potential test of twice rated voltage plus1000 volts is applied to the completed stator. When required,a sealed winding conformance test is provided as an option.Coil InsulationSpecial care is taken at the coillead termination during tapingto assure the filling of all voidsat this critical point.Protective armor of heavyglass tape for protectionagainst mechanical shockand abrasion.4Once assembled, the coils are inserted into the statorslots and the end connections are brazed and taped.GE’s Coil Lock bracing system supports the coils andmakes the entire structure more rigid.The binding agent used is GE’s thirdgeneration epoxy resin, selected andtested to IEEE-429 for chemicalcompatibility, thermal / dimensionalstability, and electrical properties.The slot sections of coils aremolded under heat and pressureto bond the strands and turnstogether assuring the dimensionalaccuracy of the finished coil.Above 6000 volts, a semi-conductingpaint is applied to the slot portionand graded beyond the core toprovide corona protection.The homogeneous nature of themica composite insulation ensuresuniform ground insulation dielectric strength superior to micaflake tapes and wrappers.

RotorsSquirrel Cage Rotor Lower Rotor InertiaGreater Stall TimeStrong Bar to End-Ring JointsReduced Windage NoiseOptimum Torque vs. Slip DesignThe squirrel cage induction motor is basically a rugged yet simplearrangement of shaft, magnetic circuit and electric winding.The magnetic circuit consists of discs punched from electricalgrade thin sheet steel assembled to form a laminated magneticcore mounted on the shaft. The laminations are coated witha thermally stable insulating film to reduce magnetic lossesand yet maintain dimensional stability in the face of the severethermal and mechanical stresses of starting as well as normaloperation. The rotor winding consists of a number of uninsulated metal bars in the outer surface of the magnetic core parallelto the shaft and short circuited by metal rings at both ends.Fabricated aluminum or copper rotor construction is availablefor Custom 8000 and PegasusTM MHV motors.Copper Squirrel CageConstruction Copper bar rotor construction isavailable upon request or to meetAPI 541 4th Edition Specification. Greater capability of startinghigh inertia loads.Aluminum Squirrel CageConstruction Fabricated aluminum rotor windingsare repairable. GE Motors AI-Tight construction is available now onfabricated aluminum rotors. This newprocess technique assures rotorintegrity and reliable performance. Bar tension maintains punchingtightness. A larger number of rotor bar shapesfor optimum torque vs. slip designs.5 Cage migration eliminated with endrings tight against the punchings. Lower rotor inertia. Lower weightbars and end-rings reduce thecentrifugal force, retaining ringsare not required on the end-ringfor standard designs. Closed rotor slots, reducedwindage noise.

Synchronous Rotor Starting Winding Versatility Brushless Excitation for Minimum Maintenanceand Maximum ReliabilitySynchronous rotors are designed primarily for applicationsrequiring highly efficient motors. Each pole assembly is madefrom high strength steel laminations with a DC field windingencircling the pole body. The field winding consists of a rectangular section of insulated copper wire wound directly on aninsulated pole body and bonded by a high temperature, highstrength insulating epoxy resin which, when cured, results ina coil impervious to dirt, moisture and other contaminants.Synchronous motors are provided with an Amortisseur, orstarting winding, consisting of copper alloy bars located inthe pole face, parallel to the shaft, and brazed at the ends tocopper alloy rings. The Amortisseur winding is tailored for theapplication to provide the required starting performance.Several types of synchronous rotor construction are useddepending on the size and speed. All 4 pole motors havea laminated rotor of which the poles are an integral part.Slower speed machines utilize individually removable laminatedpoles dovetailed or bolted to the spider. Motors with dovetailedpoles generally have a laminated spider shrunk on and keyedto the shaft. A shaft mounted brushless excitation systemis most generally used. Brushless excitation requires lessmaintenance with no brushes to change and is ideally suitedfor hazardous or contaminated environments.Wound Rotor Versatile Adjustable Speed Soft StartsSome applications require an induction motor with a provisionfor changing the impedance of the rotor winding for adjustablespeed operation or soft start. The wound rotor winding isphase wound with the same number of poles as the statorso that it may be connected through its slip-rings to avariable external impedance such as the liquid rheostator other speed control system.The magnetic construction of the wound rotor is similar to thesquirrel cage motor. However, the rotor winding is fully insulatedto ground for all expected continuous and transient operatingvoltage levels and connected to have the same number of polesas the stator winding. Since they are subject to severe mechanical forces, the rotor winding end-turns are constrained withglass banding bonded with a high temperature, high strength,thermosetting resin.The rotor winding is connected to the stationary control elements by collector rings mounted on the shaft. The collectorrings are positioned externally to the rest of the motor, whenpossible, to prevent the brush dust from contaminating the rotorand stator windings.The system includes: An easily controlled stationary exciter field, An exciter rotating element in which multiphaseAC power is generated, A rotor-mounted rectifier system consisting ofsilicon diodes, thyristors and static switching devices.A full line of slip ring synchronous motors is also available.6

BalancingAfter assembly, all rotors are dynamically balanced to theAPI 541 balancing grade to achieve quiet running and longbearing life. API 541 balancing grade is less than one-third ofthe ISO 2.5 balancing grade usually adopted by the industry.Step balancing techniques according to API 541 are appliedto all 4-pole spider shaft designs and all 2-pole machines.All 2-pole flexible rotor designs have a central rotor balancing plane according API 541. The balancing machines arecapable of balancing even the largest rotors prior to assembly. The completed motor is run at no-load rated voltageand frequency for a final check to make certain vibrationis within the required limits. This sophisticated vibrationmonitoring system meets API Standard requirements.Sight GageSpherical SeatSleeve BearingOil FillerInboard SealMachine SealSleeve BearingsOutboard SealLubrication RingSelf-aligning spherical-seat bearings are used on machinesrequiring the capability and performance of sleeve bearings.They employ construction features and sealing systemsdesigned to keep the oil in and the dirt out. With seal additionsthe motor can conform to the IP-55 (dust & water jet) standard.The babbit-lined bearing shell is supported by a rugged housingand employs an oil ring that carries the oil from the reservoirup to the bearing. The opposite drive end bearing is insulatedto minimize damaging shaft currents. Sight holes and splitconstruction allow easy inspection and replacement withoutuncoupling the driven load.Oil Sight CageOil ReservoirOil DrainPressure EquilizationGasketInner CapAnti-Friction BearingsFilter PlugNut andLockwasherAnti-FrictionBearingBall or roller type bearings on horizontal machines are selectedbased on customer requirements. They are regreasable andoperate smoothly providing long life with low running bearingnoise. They are also assembled with grease in a sealed housingto avoid contamination. The lubrication system includes a wellsized relief plug to allow the purging of excess or old greaseduring relubrication. External, labyrinth seals can be addedto horizontal machines to provide IP-56 (Dust exclusion)protection capability.SealDrain PlugVertical Thrust BearingsPressure Equalizing ChannelAnti-Friction Bearing(Spherical Roller Type)Anti-Friction Bearing(Angular Contact Ball Type)Oil DeflectorOil ChamberTop CoverRTDThrust bearings such as angular contact ball (anti-friction),spherical roller (anti-friction) and sleeve tilting pad (hydrodynamic plate bearing) are designed to meet the requirements ofload capacity, lifetime and maintenance. Compliance with theAPI 541 design life and procedure is also available. Regardlesstheir type, thrust bearings are always lubricated by an oil bath.Depending on the speed, lubricating oil, bearing size and typeand environmental conditions, bearings are self cooled or watercooled by a coiled heat exchanger placed inside the housing.The picture shows a cut view exemplifying a spherical rollerand contact angular type bearings construction.Coiled Heat ExchangerOil SleeveUpper Endshield7

StatorTypeDescriptionInstallationQty / MotorFunctionRTDResistance temperaturedetector. The followingoptions are available:Copper; 10 ohms @ 250CPlatinum: 100 ohms @ 00CNickel: 120 ohms @ 00CInside StatorCoil Slot6Two per phaseMay be connected toa monitor, alarm,or shut-off device.ThermostatBi-metallic sensortype Klixon7 (normallyopen or normally closed)Surface ofend-turns1-3Supplies a signal whena preset, non-adjustabletemperature is reached,for alarm or shut-off.Thermistor(PTC)Positive temperaturecoefficient thermistorconnected to a solidstate relayInside StatorCoil Slot6Two per phaseTogether with the solid staterelay, supplies a signalwhen a preset, non-adjustabletemperature is reached,for alarm or shut-off.TypeDescriptionInstallationQty / MotorFunctionRTDResistance temperaturedetector. The followingoptions are available:Copper; 10 ohms @ 250CPlatinum: 100 ohms @ 00CNickel: 120 ohms @ 00CIn bearinghousing2One per bearingMay be connected toa monitor, alarm,or shut-off device.ThermometerBi-metallic orcapillary tube typeIn bearinghousing2One per bearingSupplies local or remoteindication of temperature.ThermocoupleElement generating avoltage proportionalto temperatureIn bearinghousing2One per bearingMay be connected toa monitor, alarm,or shut-off device.BearingsVibration EquipmentSeismic-type such as RobertshawTM measures overall vibration. 1-6 units are located on the frame.Proximity-type such as Bentley NevadaTM measures the shaft vibration. 2-5 units are located on the bearing housing.Acceleration-type such as MetrixTM measures bearing housing vibration. 1-6 units are located on the bearing housing.Other AccessoriesWhenever required, the following accessories may be supplied: Surge protection Tachometers(capacitors and lightning arresters) Overspeed switches Current transformers Slide rails Pressure switch Sole-plates Space HeatergGE MotorsUSAFort Wayne, IN 46802800 541 7191www.gemotors.comimagination at work82008 General Electric Company All rights reserved.GE, g, Custom 8000, Pegasus, Quantum, Polyseal andBently Nevada are trademarks of General Electric Company.Klixon is a trademark of Sensata Technologies.Robertshaw is a trademark of Robertshaw Industrial Products.Metrix is a trademark of Metrix Instrument Company.DEA-M1030B 0808

Synchronous Motors High Efficiency, Power Factor Control Horizontal and Vertical 300 - 7500 hp, Up to 16,000 Volts Because of its higher efficiency and special ability to provide a system power factor improvement, the synchronous

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