STUDY MATERIAL CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR SUPERVISE

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Revised on 08/02/2019 (updated PFE information, alarm, and NOE)FIRE DEPARTMENT CITY OF NEW YORKSTUDY MATERIALCERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FORSUPERVISE FUEL-OIL TRANSFER IN BUILDINGSP-98This booklet is provided for free to the publicINCLUDED IN THIS BOOKLET YOU WILL FIND THE FOLLOWING: THE P-98 NOTICE OF EXAMINATION (NOE) P-98 STUDY MATERIAL, INCLUDING AN APPENDIXTO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHICH CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS YOUSHOULD APPLY FOR, PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: If you are: SUPERVISING THE TRANSFER OF FUEL OIL BY A TRANSFERPUMP OR AUTOMATIC PUMP FROM A TANK ON THE LOWEST FLOOR TO ATANK OR EQUIPMENT INSTALLED ABOVE SUCH FLOOR YOU NEED THEP-98 C of F If you are: SUPERVISING THE TRANSFER OF DIESEL FUEL OIL TO FILL ANEMERGENCY GENERATOR STORAGE TANK BY MANUAL MEANS IN ABUILDING CONSTRUCTED PRIOR TO DECEMBER 6, 1968 YOU NEEDTHE C-92 C of F If you are: SUPERVISING THE USE OF STATIONARY FUEL OIL-FIREDEQUIPMENT THAT IS NOT FULLY AUTOMATIC OR REQUIRES PREHEATINGOF OIL YOU NEED THE P-99 C of F 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedNOE Revised 1/2015P-98 Study Material.doc

TABLE OF CONTENTS1. NOTICE OF EXAMINATION . 42. ABOUT THE STUDY MATERIAL . 93. INTRODUCTION . 113.1 SUPERVISION OF FUEL-OIL PIPING AND STORAGE OPERATION .113.2 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS .113.3 LICENSES AND CERTIFICATES .114. OIL CIRCULATION IN THE SYSTEM . 124.1 OIL BURNER OPERATION .144.2 OIL BURNER CONTROLS .164.3 EFFECTS OF IMPROPER OPERATION OF AN OIL BURNER SYSTEM .185. FUEL–OIL PIPING AND STORAGE . 195.1 FUEL-OIL TYPE .205.2 FUEL TANKS, PIPING AND VALVES .205.3 INSPECTION CHECKLIST .215.3.1 Instruction Cards .215.3.2 Inspections and Tests .215.3.3 Operator’s Inspection after Repair .225.4 TERMINAL OPENING .235.5 FLOW CONTROL DEVICES TO OIL BURNER: .235.6 FUEL-OIL STORAGE .235.7 ABATEMENT OF AIR CONTAMINANTS .235.8 EQUIPMENT CLASSIFICATION: .246. PUMPS . 256.16.26.36.46.56.66.76.86.9TRANSFER PUMPS .25MULTIPLE PUMPS .25EMERGENCY VENTS .26DISCHARGE PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS .26AUTOMATIC PUMP ALTERNATION .26AUTOMATIC VALVES .26OPERATION AFTER REPAIRS .26INSTALLATION OF PIPING AND TUBING .26ABATEMENT OF AIR CONTAMINANTS .277. FUEL-OIL PIPING HANDLING SYSTEM . 287.1 FLOW RATE .287.2 BURNER “LOOP” SYSTEMS.297.3 STAND-BY GENERATOR “LOOP” SYSTEMS .298. FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM . 308.1 LIGHTING .308.2 FUSIBLE LINK .308.3 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS .308.3.1 Typical Fire Extinguishers .328.3.2 Fire Extinguishing Practices .328.3.3 Portable Fire Extinguisher Inspections .338.3.4 Portable Fire Extinguisher Tags .348.4 ALARMS .358.4.1 Indicators and Alarms .35 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.2

8.5 HOW TO CONTACT THE FDNY.368.6 RECORD KEEPING .369. APPENDIX . 37 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.3

1. NOTICE OF EXAMINATIONTitle: Certificate of Fitness to Supervise Fuel-Oil Transfer In Buildings (P-98 PremisesRelated).Date of Exam: Written tests are conducted Monday through Friday (except legal holidays)8:00 AM to 2:30 PM.REQUIREMENTS FOR WRITTEN EXAMApplicants must be at least 18 years of age and must have a reasonable understandingof the English language. Applicants must apply the exam in person and bring thefollowing materials and required fee:1. Applicant must provide two forms of identifications; at least one form ofidentification must be government issued photo identification, such as a Stateissued Drivers’ License or Non Driver’s License or a passport.2. Applicants must present a completed application for certificate of fitness ds/pdf/business/cof-application-form.pdf3. Applicants must present a letter of recommendation from his/her employer. Theletter must be on official letterhead, and must state the applicant’s full name,experience and the address where the applicant will work. If the applicants areself-employed or the principal of the company, they must submit a notarized letterattesting to their qualifications. For more info: Sample of recommendation df/business/cof-samplerec-letter.pdf Sample of self-employed df/business/cof-sample-selfrec-letter.pdf4. Applicants not currently employed may take the exam without therecommendation letter. If the applicants pass the exam, FDNY will issue atemporary letter with picture for the job seeking purpose. The C of F card will notbe issued unless the applicants are employed and provide the recommendationletter from his/her employer.5. Special requirements for the P-98 Certificate of Fitness:Individuals who renew their W-98 Certificate of Fitness will receive P-98 Certificateof Fitness cards. The P-98 Certificate of Fitness card must indicate the COFholder’s work address on the new COF card. W-98 COF cards are no longerrenewable.6. APPLICATION FEE:Pay the 25 application fee in person by one of the following methods: Cash Credit card (American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa) Debit card (MasterCard or Visa) Personal or company check or money order (made payable to the New YorkCity Fire Department)A convenience fee of 2% will be applied to all credit card payments. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.4

For fee waivers submit: (Only government employees who will use their C of Ffor their work- related responsibilities are eligible for fee waivers.) A letter requesting fee waiver on the Agency’s official letterhead statingapplicant full name, exam type and address of premises; AND Copy of identification card issued by the agencyEXAM INFORMATIONThe P-98 exam will consist of 35 multiple-choice questions, administered on a “touchscreen” computer monitor. It is a time-limit exam. Based on the amount of the questions,you will have 53 minutes to complete the test. A passing score of at least 70% is requiredin order to secure a Certificate of Fitness.Call (718) 999-1988 for additional information and forms.Please always check for the latest revised booklet at FDNY website before you take pdf/business/cof-p98-noe-study-materials.pdfIf all the requirements are met and pass the exam a certificate will be issued the sameday. Applicant who fails the exam will receive a failure report. To retake the examapplicants will need to submit a new application and payment.ALTERNATIVE ISSUANCE PROCEDURE (AIP)This certificate of fitness can be obtained by a training program that has been reviewedand approved by FDNY for an exemption. Applicants who qualify for AIP must apply bymail. For more detail information applicants must review the P-98 AIP ads/pdf/business/cof-p98-aip.pdfOTHER RELATED FEESTo change a mailing address: Submit a letter requesting the change of mailing address and a copy of yourC of F with 5.00 fee.To change a work location, Submit a letter from your current employer (on company letterhead)confirming that you are an employee and stating your new work locationwith a copy of your C of F and a 5.00 feeTo request a replacement certificate: Submit a driver’s license or passport, social security number, mailingaddress and a 5.00 fee. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.5

RENEWAL REQUIREMENTSThis Certificate of Fitness must be renewed every THREE YEARS. The renewal fee is 15. FDNY also reserves the right to require the applicants to take a re-examinationupon submission of renewal applications.You will receive a courtesy notice of renewal 90 days before the expiration date. However,it is your responsibility to renew your Certificate. It is very important to renew your C ofF before it expires. Renewals submitted 90 days (up to one year) after the expiration datewill incur a 25 penalty in addition to the renewal fee. Certificates expired over one yearpast expiration date will not be renewed. New exams will be required.The certificate can be renewed On-line, by Mail or in Person. Renewal onlineIf you are an individual, make sure you have your 12 digit Certificate of Fitness AccessID. This can be found on your Renewal Notice. If you do not have your Renewal Notice,your Access ID is your 8 digit Certificate of Fitness number and the last four digits ofyour social security number. If you are submitting renewals on behalf of a company'semployees, the company must be approved by FDNY and have an 8 digit Company Code.To request approval, email [email protected] fee can be paid by one of the following methods: Credit card (American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa) Debit card (MasterCard or Visa) E-checkA fee exempted applicants cannot renew online only by mail or in person.If all the requirements are met, the certificate of fitness will be mailed out within 10 days.For online renewal go to: https://a836-citypay.nyc.gov/citypay/FDNYCOF Renewal by mailMail your Renewal Notice (or if you did not receive a Renewal Notice, a copy of yourcertificate), along with your fee payment, Personal or company check or money order(made payable to the New York City Fire Department)For fee waivers submit: (Only government employees who will use their C of F fortheir work- related responsibilities are eligible for fee waivers.) A letter requesting fee waiver on the Agency’s official letterhead stating applicantfull name, exam type and address of premises; AND Copy of identification card issued by the agency and if applicable, supportingdocuments to:NYC Fire Department (FDNY)Cashier's Unit9 MetroTech Center, 1st FloorBrooklyn, NY 11201 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.6

If all the requirements are met, the certificate of fitness will be mailed out within four tosix weeks. Renewal in personSubmit your Renewal Notice (or if you did not receive a Renewal Notice, a copy of yourcertificate), along with your fee payment by one of the following methods: Cash Credit card (American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa) Debit card (MasterCard or Visa) Personal or company check or money order (made payable to the NewYork City Fire Department)A convenience fee of 2% will be applied to all credit card payments for original or renewalcertificates.For fee waivers submit: (Only government employees who will use their C of F for hisor her work-related responsibilities are eligible for fee waivers.) A letter requesting fee waiver on the Agency’s official letterhead stating applicantfull name, exam type and address of premises; AND Copy of identification card issued by the agency and if applicable, yoursupporting documents to:NYC Fire Department (FDNY)Cashier's Unit9 MetroTech Center, 1st FloorBrooklyn, NY 11201If all the requirements are met, the certificate of fitness will be issued the same day. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.7

EXAM SITE:FDNY Headquarters, 9 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY. Enterthrough the Flatbush Avenue entrance (between Myrtle Avenueand Tech Place). 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.8

2. ABOUT THE STUDY MATERIALThis Study Material contains some of the information you will need to prepare for theconsolidated examination for the Certificate of Fitness for Supervision of Fuel-oil Transferin Buildings (P-98). The study material includes information taken from the relevantsections of the Chapter 6 of the New York City Fire Code and Chapter 13 of the New YorkCity Mechanical Code. Other study material information provides guidance on the properoperation and maintenance of fuel-oil piping and storage systems.All questions on the Certificate of Fitness examination are multiple choice, with fouralternative answers to each question. Each question has only one correct answer. If youdo not answer a question or if you mark more than one answer you will be scored asincorrect. A score of not less than 70% correct is required on the examination in order toqualify for the Certificate of Fitness. Read each question carefully before marking youranswer. There is no penalty for guessing.SAMPLE QUESTIONSThe following questions represent the “format” of the exam questions,not the content of the real exam.1. Which of the following are allowed to be used while taking a Certificate ofFitness examination at 9 Metro Tech Center?I. cellular phoneII. study material bookletIII. reference material provided by the FDNYIV. mp3 playerA. III onlyB. I, II, and IIIC. II and IVD. I onlyOnly reference material provided by the FDNY is allowed to be used during Certificate ofFitness examinations. Therefore, the correct answer would be A. You would touch “A” onthe computer terminal screen.2. If the screen on your computer terminal freezes during your examination, whoshould you ask for help?A. the person next to youB. the firefighters in the testing roomC. the examiner in the testing roomD. the computer help deskIf you have a computer related question, you should ask the examiner in the testingroom. Therefore, the correct answer would be C. You would touch “C” on the computerterminal screen.3. If you do not know the answer to a question while taking an examination, whoshould you ask for help? 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.9

A. the person next to youB. the firefighters in the testing roomC. the examiner in the testing roomD. you should not ask about test questions since FDNY staff cannot assist applicantsYou should not ask about examination questions or answers since FDNY staff cannotassist applicants with their tests. Therefore, the correct answer would be D. You wouldtouch "D" on the computer terminal screen. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.10

3. INTRODUCTIONFuel-oil is generally used in buildings in stationary equipment for two purposes, either tofuel emergency generators or to fuel equipment used to heat the building. Regardless ofthe use, the person supervising the Fuel-Oil Transfer in the Building from one floor toanother must hold a P-98 Certificate of Fitness. Certificate of Fitness holders mustmaintain all qualifications and comply with all requirements applicable to suchcertificate holders throughout the term of their certificate. The P-98 Certificate of Fitnessis premise-related.The use of the word “should” throughout these study materials generally refers topolicies, procedures and/or best practices recommended by the FDNY, and may not be acodified requirement.The use of the word “shall” throughout these study materials generally refers to arequirement of the Fire Code or the FDNY.3.1 SUPERVISION OF FUEL-OIL PIPING AND STORAGE OPERATIONA stationary fuel-oil storage tank, and related piping, that is installed on the lowest floorof a building and that transfers fuel-oil through piping to another stationary fuel-oilstorage tank, or to fuel-oil burning equipment, installed above such floor, shall be underthe GENERAL SUPERVISION of a P-98 Certificate of Fitness holder. The periodicinspection and testing of such tanks and piping shall be conducted under thePERSONAL SUPERVISION of such P-98 Certificate of Fitness holder.3.2 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTSPeriodic Inspection and Testing Fuel-oil storage tanks and piping systems shall be inspected at least onceWEEKLY for any evidence of leaks. Fuel-oil storage tanks subject to this section shall have their float switchestested at least once WEEKLY to ensure that they are in good working order.3.3 LICENSES AND CERTIFICATESNo oil burning equipment may be operated until a certificate of compliance has beenissued by the NYC Department of Buildings (NYCDOB), the requirements of the NYCDepartment of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) air pollution control code have beenmet, and a permit for the storage and use of fuel-oil has been issued by the NYC FireDepartment.This COF is required for all existing and new buildings where fuel is beingtransported from the lowest levels to tanks or equipment on upper floors pursuantto the new NYC Fire Code and Mechanical Codes. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.11

4. OIL CIRCULATION IN THE SYSTEMThe following material provides an overview description of the process of oil circulationfrom the tank at the lowest floor of a building to the burner on the floor above such floorthrough the pump. When reading the following, refer to DIAGRAM #1 on the APPENDIXpage.The oil storage tank provides the supply of oil for combustion in the oil burner. It isinside a dike. In case of a leak the diked area will contain the oil. In its normal condition,#2 fuel-oil is thin and light and is easily pumped through the circulation system.A suction pump circulates the oil throughout the system. Dirt and sediment are presentin the fuel-oil coming from the oil storage tank. The oil filter removes most of thesecontaminants from the oil before the oil reaches the burner’s strainer. The suction linehas to be 6 inches from the bottom of the tank for sediments not to be absorbed. Thevacuum gauge is a device that measures pressure below atmospheric pressure. Excessivevacuum readings indicate that there is an obstruction in the suction line (such as dirtyoil strainer). When this occurs the flow of oil can be stopped by closing the shut-off valve.This permits the operator to clean the filter/strainer or to perform other maintenance.MAIN OIL STORAGE TANK ON THELOWEST LEVELMAIN OIL STORAGE TANK DIKE 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.12

The main fuel valve is electricallyoperated and will open or closethe line leading to the atomizeronly for oil burners. It will shutdown the burner system if thereis a failure of ignition orcombustion.Oil circulates through the pipingsystem back to the storage tankthrough the oil return line. Aback pressure relief valve isprovided for safety if thepressure becomes too great. Daytanks may be located throughoutthe building above the lowestfloor.A separate pump is required foreach day tank to supply eachfloor. In case of a leak in thepiping, leak collector is provided.Leak collector is stored by thestorage tank. It has a oil levelgauge which shows the amountcollected.LEAK COLLECTOR INSIDE THEWALLS 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.DAY TANK FILTERLEAK COLLECTOR WITH OILLEVEL GAUGE13

A gauge will show how much fuel oil is inside amain storage tank/day tank. An example canbe seen on image.4.1 OIL BURNER OPERATIONCombustion is the chemical union of the oxygenin the air with combustible elements in fuel-oil(hydrogen and carbon). The end result of thisprocess is the production of heat energy. Oilfiring equipment is used to liberate heat energyfrom fuel-oil. Oil burners are the principalcomponents of the oil firing equipment andprovide the means of supporting the process ofcombustion.Carbon and hydrogen are the two principalLEVEL GAUGEelements of fuel-oil. During the combustionprocess, the carbon content of fuel-oil (about85%) unites with the oxygen in the air and forms carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.The hydrogen content of the oil (about 14%) unites with the oxygen and produces water.The objective is to have a complete combustion process. This objective is met when fueloil combines with the greatest possible amount of oxygen.It must be changed to a gas or vapor and mixed with air in order to support combustion.An oil burner is primarily a device for processing the liquid fuel for combustion byaccelerating the change from liquid to a vapor that can be mixed with air and burned.This process of breaking down or atomizing the oil is necessary to ensure prompt ignitionand rapid combustion. Although there are various types of oil burners, i.e. generator orboiler, they all vaporize or atomize the oil before it enters the combustion chamber whereit is mixed with air in predetermined proportions.An oil burner uses an oil pump and mixes air and oil within the nozzle itself. In oilburners, the oil and air mixture is delivered to the nozzle at a pressure dependent uponthe make of the burner. The air that contacts the oil prior to its leaving the nozzle isreferred to as primary air. The introduction of air from the blower or fan into thecombustion chamber after the oil has left the nozzle is referred to as secondary air. Everybrand of oil burner is essentially different from that of other manufacturers. Dieselgenerators use injection nozzles without primary air, thus it is important that anoperator of a system understand the functions of his/her particular system completely.Oil burners require approximately 2000 cubic feet of air per gallon of oil consumed. Themixture of oil and air is sprayed in vapor form into a firebox area (the combustionchamber) where combustion takes place. The mixture of air and fuel in the burner mustbe strictly controlled; otherwise it could become an explosive mixture. During the processof combustion, one part of carbon unites with two parts of oxygen to produce carbondioxide (CO2). Each time 1 pound of carbon is burned, 14,544 BTU of heat are liberated.Carbon dioxide is recognized as the end product of complete combustion. Should fuel besupplied without the proper amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and soot will be produced. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.14

It would be produced at 4,480 BTU at heat liberated. Carbon monoxide is considered asthe end product of incomplete combustion. In addition to being inefficient in theproduction of heat, the presence of carbon monoxide is highly dangerous.If the proper amount of air has been thoroughly mixed with the oil, and the temperatureof the flame is correct, the free carbon burns completely. A correctly adjusted oil burnerflame will have an:Orange-colored flame body with small red tips. The tips will be slightly cloudy.A red, smoky flame is an indication of a lack of air.A white, almost dazzling flame is an indication of a great amount of excess air.An insufficient air supply is one cause of dense, black smoke and soot; an excessive airsupply can put out the flame.The oil spray entering a combustion chamber burns in suspension. If any part of thespray mixture contacts the walls of a combustion chamber, it will cause a smoky fire.Over a period of time carbon deposits may build up in the combustion chamber andcause a burner failure.Insulated firebrick makes up the walls of a combustion chamber. Insulated firebrick islightweight firebrick that becomes cherry red 15 seconds after the burner starts. Therefractory material in a combustion chamber should be closed to the flame and the oilshould be burned by the reflected heat. Reflected heat, which increases combustionefficiency, is heat that is reflected back into the combustion chamber and maintains thefire after the ignition is turned off.1. Diesel generators operate differently. They have an internal combustion engine. Air iscompressed by a piston and diesel fuel is injected into the cylinder. The mixtureignites andturns theengine.Insufficientcompressionair or acloggedignition nozzlewill result inimpropercombustion.The outputwill be blacksmoke andexcessiveLOW VOLTAGE BATTERY FOR GENERATORvibration ofthe engine. Diesel generators should be tested at minimum monthly. 2015 New York City Fire Department - All rights reservedThis study material is provided for free to the public.15

2. Generators are used as an emergency power supply if the grid fails. They range from1k VA - 10k VA for small portable diesel generators and 8kVA – 2000k VA for largeoffice complexes, factories and power stations. Diesel generators also provide back uppower to utility grids. Power failures are particularly critical for hospitals and largeoffices. Computer service centers have emergency power generators which aretypically powered by diesel fuel and configured to start automatically, as soon as apower failure occurs. Power generators are selected based on the load they areintended to supply. Ideally diesel engines should run at least around 60-75% of theirmaximum rated load, and at around 75% of their maximum speed, and must be testrun every month to avoid damage under certain conditions that occur when an engineis left idling as a ‘standby’ generating unit ready to run up when needed.Fuel-oil comes in several grades, from range oil or no. 1 fuel-oil, to diesel oil or no. 2 fueloil; to the heavier no. 4, no. 5, and no. 6 fuel-oils. Strainers and or filter are required inthe oil line to separate dirt and sediment. The grade of fuel-oil used in a burner shall bethat for which the burner is approved and a

5. Special requirements for the P-98 Certificate of Fitness: Individuals who renew their W-98 Certificate of Fitness will receive P-98 Certificate of Fitness cards. The P-98 Certificate of Fitness card must indicate the COF holder’s work address on the new COF card. W-98 COF ca

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