FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 - UK Finance

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FRAUD THE FACTS 2019The definitive overview of payment industry fraud1 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

UK Finance is the collective voice for the banking and finance industry.Representing more than 250 firms across the industry, it seeks to enhancecompetitiveness, support customers and facilitate innovation.The Economic Crime team within UK Finance is responsible for leadingthe industry’s collective fight against economic crime in the UK, includingfraud, anti-money laundering (AML), sanctions, anti-bribery, corruption andcybercrime.UK Finance seeks to ensure that the UK is the safest and most transparentfinancial centre in the world – working with members, law enforcement,government agencies and industry to create a hostile environment for criminals.We represent our members by providing an authoritative voice to influenceregulatory and political change, both in the UK and internationally. We also actas advocates on behalf of members to both media and customers, articulatingthe industry’s achievements and building its reputation.We do this by: Managing the industry strategic threat management process, which provides an up-to-theminute picture of the threat landscape. Sponsoring the Dedicated Card and Payment Crime Unit (DCPCU), a unique proactiveoperational police unit with a national remit, formed as a partnership between UK Finance,the City of London Police, and the Metropolitan Police. Managing intelligence-sharing through the industry intelligence hub (Financial Fraud Bureau)and the Fraud Intelligence Sharing System (FISS) which feed intelligence to police and otheragencies in support of law enforcement activity. Providing a single point of contact for companies suffering data breaches, to ensurecompromised account information can be speedily, safely and securely repatriated to thebanks. Delivering UK-wide awareness campaigns (Take Five) to inform customers about threats andhow to stay safe Informing commentators and policymakers through our press office andpublic affairs functions. Introducing procedures between police and bank branches to prevent vulnerable peoplefalling victim to fraud (Banking Protocol). Providing expert security assessments of new technology, as well as the impact of newlegislation and regulation. Publishing the official fraud losses for the UK payments industry, as well as acting as thesourceindustrystatisticsand data.OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD2 definitiveFRAUD THEFACTSof2019 THEfraudDEFINITIVEOVERVIEW

CONTENTSIntroduction 4Trends & Statistics 6Card Fraud 11Unauthorised debit, credit and other payment card fraud12Remote purchase (Card-not-present) fraud15Counterfeit Card Fraud 17Lost and Stolen Card Fraud18Card ID theft 20Card not-received fraud 22Internet/e-commerce card fraud losses25Card fraud at UK cash machines26Card fraud abroad 27Cheque Fraud 29Unauthorised remote banking fraud 32Authorised Push Payment (APP) Fraud40Purchase Scam 44Investment Scams 45Romance Scams 46Advance fee scams 47Invoice and mandate scams 48CEO Fraud 49Impersonation: Police / Bank Staff50Impersonation: Other 513 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

INTRODUCTIONFraud poses a major threat to the UK. It’s a crime that the finance industry iscommitted to tackling, but it’s also one that requires the combined efforts ofevery sector, both public and private, to overcome.Our Fraud the Facts 2019 report lays barethe extent of the challenge. Last year theadvanced security systems and innovations inwhich the finance industry invests to protectcustomers stopped more than 1.6 billion ofunauthorised fraud. But despite this, criminalssuccessfully stole 1.2 billion through fraud andscams in 2018.These crimes can have a devastating impacton victims. And even if the customer gets themoney back from their finance provider, theorganised criminal gangs which perpetratethese frauds still profit from the proceeds.Money that may go on to fund illicit actswhich damage our society – crimes suchas terrorism, drug trafficking and peoplesmuggling.During 2018 the finance industry continued toexpand and bolster its defences to protectcustomers: The Banking Protocol – a ground-breakingrapid response scheme through whichbranch staff can alert police and TradingStandards to suspected frauds taking place– is now operational in every police forcearea of the UK and prevented customersfrom losing 38 million of their money tocriminals and led to 231 arrests in 2018. In November a trial began for a new antispoofing system to help root out scamtext messages, with the industry workingclosely with the mobile network operatorsand service providers. The followingmonth saw the launch of new technologythat will help track suspicious paymentsas they move through the system andidentify money mules accounts. The Dedicated Card and Payment CrimeUnit, the specialist police unit sponsoredby the banking industry which tackles theorganised criminal groups responsible forfinancial fraud and scams, prevented 94.5million of fraud, secured 48 convictionsand disrupted 11 organised crime groupslast year. UK Finance is currently hosting, and partfunding a government-led programmeto reform the system of economic crimeinformation sharing, known as SuspiciousActivity Reports, so that it meets theneeds of crime agencies, regulators,consumers and businesses.As I write this, following work between theindustry, consumer groups and the regulator,a new authorised push payment (APP) scamsvoluntary code has just been published.4 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Bringing new protections for consumers, thevoluntary code will be implemented on 28May 2019, with the first group of signatoriesannounced on the same date. The codedelivers a significant commitment fromall firms who sign up to reimburse victimsof authorised push payment scams in anyscenario where their bank or payment serviceprovider is at fault and the customer has metthe standards expected of them under thecode.There is a moral duty upon us all to act. Everypart of society across both the public andprivate sectors, from online retailers to leisure,travel and social media companies, must worktogether to beat fraud. The finance industryhas a strong track record of combining withgovernment and law enforcement. It’s nowtime for others to join the fight.But fraud is a threat that the finance industrycannot tackle alone. As this report shows,data breaches at third parties continue to bea major contributor to fraud losses. There hasbeen a number of high-profile incidents in2018, many targeting well-known brands, wherecustomer data was stolen. Whether it’s at aretailer, utility company, transport provider orelsewhere, the theft of personal and financialdata can both directly lead to fraud losses orbe used by criminals as part of their scams.The data can be used for months and evenyears after the breach takes place.These incidents occur outside of the financeindustry’s control, yet it is banks and theircustomers who bear the impact. So, it’simperative that any organisation that controlscustomer data does everything in its power tokeep it secure.KATY WOROBECManaging Director: Economic Crime,UK Finance.5 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD


2018 overviewUnauthorised financial fraud losses across payment cards, remote banking andcheques totalled 844.8 million in 2018, an increase of 16 per cent compared to2017.Banks and card companies prevented 1.66 billion in unauthorised fraud in 2018.This represents incidents that were detected and prevented by firms and isequivalent to 2 in every 3 of attempted fraud being stopped.In addition to this, in 2018 UK Finance members reported 84,624 incidents ofauthorised push payment scams with gross losses of 354.3 million.Authorised fraud: In an authorised push payment fraudulenttransaction, the genuine customer themselves processes a payment toanother account which is controlled by a criminal.Unauthorised fraud: In an unauthorised fraudulent transaction, theaccount holder does not provide authorisation for the payment toproceed and the transaction is carried out by a third party.Behind the changing fraud figuresCriminals use a wide range of methods tocommit fraud. While it is not possible toplace specific monetary values on particulartactics criminals use, intelligence reported toUK Finance by our members indicates the keydrivers behind the reported figures.The theft of personal and financial datathrough social engineering and data breacheswas a major contributor to fraud losses in2018. The stolen data is used to commit fraudboth directly and indirectly. For example,compromised card details are used to makeunauthorised purchases online and personaldetails are used to take over an account orapply for a credit card in someone else’s name.Criminals also use personal and financial datato defraud customers, using informationgained about an individual to add apparentauthenticity to a scam.Social engineering is a tactic by which criminalsgroom and manipulate people into transferringmoney or divulging their personal andfinancial details, with deception scams beinga common method. In a deception scam, acriminal will typically pose as a representativefrom a genuine organisation such as a bank,the police, a retailer, utility company orgovernment department. Fraudsters use a7 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

range of methods to contact customers indeception scams, including by phone, textmessage, email and social media.To persuade people to act, the criminaloften claims that there has been suspiciousactivity on an account, that a refund is owedor that account details need to be ‘updated’or ‘verified’ and the customer must actquickly. The criminal’s aim is then to trick theirintended victim into giving away their personalor financial information, such as security logindetails and card and bank account information,or into allowing remote access to theircomputer. This stolen information is then usedby the criminal to access an account and makean unauthorised payment.Deception scams are also used by criminals topersuade people into authorising a payment tothem. These include criminals impersonating amember of bank staff or a police officer andclaiming there has been fraudulent activityon an account and that money needs to betransferred to a ‘safe account’; impersonatinga supplier and sending a fake invoice to abusiness; online auction and sales scams; andinvestment scams. Criminals use a range ofcommunication methods to deceive theirvictims, including phone calls and emails.Intelligence also points towards criminalsincreasingly using social media sites to enticevictims with posts advertising items for saleand investments, both of which are fake.During 2018 there were a number of significantdata breaches which received extensive mediacoverage, along with a significant volumeof smaller-scale breaches. The incidentsinclude well-known brands whose customerinformation was compromised as a result of adata breach. They cover a range of sectors andoccur outside of the control of the bankingindustry.Data breaches involving just three significantbrands which occurred during 2018 arereported to have resulted in the attemptedcompromise of around 6.3 million paymentcard details. While this does not cover thefull extent of data that was stolen during theyear, it provides a strong indication of theimpact of data breaches. The InformationCommissioner’s Office reports that during thesecond quarter of 2018/19, there was a totalof 4,056 data security incidents.1 Informationstolen through a data breach can be used formonths or even years after the event.UK Finance’s intelligence hub, the FinancialFraud Bureau (FFB), provides a single point ofcontact for companies suffering data breachesto ensure compromised account informationcan be speedily, safely and securely repatriatedto the banks.Criminals are also using more low-techmethods such as distraction thefts and cardentrapments to steal physical debit and creditcards, which are then used to commit fraud.The number of phishing websites targetedagainst UK banks and building societies hasfallen to the lowest level ever this year.Intelligence suggests that criminals are insteadincreasingly impersonating other organisationssuch as online retailers, travel and leisure firms,HMRC and telecommunication taken/data-security-incident-trends8 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

The industry responseThe financial industry is committed to tackling fraud and scams. It is respondingto the threat by: Investing in advanced security systems to protect customers, including real-time transactionanalysis, behavioural biometrics on devices and technology to identify the different soundtones that every phone has and the environment that they are in. Delivering the Banking Protocol – a ground-breaking rapid response scheme through whichbranch staff can alert police and Trading Standards to suspected frauds taking place. Thesystem is operational in every police force area and prevented 38 million in fraud andenabled 231 arrests in 2018. Sponsoring a specialist police unit, the Dedicated Card and Payment Crime Unit (DCPCU),which tackles the organised criminal groups responsible for financial fraud and scams. In 2018,the Unit prevented an estimated 94.5 million of fraud, secured 48 convictions and disrupted11 organised crime groups. Working with consumer groups to develop a voluntary code to better protect customersand reduce the occurrence of APP fraud. The code was published in February and willbecome effective for signatory firms on 28 May 2019. Working with Pay.UK to implement Mule Insights Tactical Solution (MITS), a new technologythat will help track suspicious payments and identify money mule accounts, andConfirmation of Payee, an account name checking service for when a payment is made, thatwill help to prevent authorised push payment scams. Hosting and part-funding the government-led programme to reform the system of economiccrime information sharing, known in the industry as Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs), sothat it meets the needs of crime agencies, regulators, consumers and businesses. Working closely with mobile network operators and the messaging industry to trial a newanti-spoofing system to help root out scam text messages. Helping customers stay safe from fraud and spot the signs of a scam through the Take Five toStop Fraud campaign, in collaboration with the Home Office. Joining with government and law enforcement to deter and disrupt the criminals responsibleand better trace, freeze and return stolen funds. Implementing new standards to ensure those who have fallen victim to fraud or scams getthe help they need.9 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

New technologyThe banking industry is proactively using technology in the fight against fraud.One example is the use of a system – described as a global digital identity tool– which has been adopted by a number of leading banks to help identify andprevent potential fraud.The system analyses billions of real-timetransactions across many countries includingthe UK, coupled with additional data includingdevice, geographical, behavioural and threatintelligence input. By combining this withhistorical data, the bank can build a picture ofa customer’s behaviour so that any unusualand potentially fraudulent activity can beidentified and flagged up.Tracking technology is also powerful when itcomes to identifying money mule accounts,where banks can analyse data anomalies toreveal webs of linked accounts generatedby mule activity. The Mule Insights TacticalSolution enables the tracking of suspiciouspayments between bank and building societyaccounts, even if the money is split betweenmultiple accounts or travels between differentinstitutions.Later this year, new rules will come into forcerequiring all payment providers to use multifactor authentication for higher-value andhigher-risk transactions. Some card issuersare already beginning to roll out the changes,known as strong customer authentication.The rules mean that when a customer makescertain transactions online, a second level ofsecurity would be required, such as a one-timepasscode sent via text message or biometrics.To combat telephone banking fraud, somebanks are using technology which allows themto identify the different sound tone that everyphone has and the environment that they arein. If someone is calling from an environmentwhich is not their usual one, this can be pickedup and investigated further to detect if fraudis being attempted.Banks are also increasingly looking at‘behavioural biometrics’ tools to identifypotential cases of fraud and prevent themwhere possible. Some banks have adoptedsoftware that monitors the ways in whichconsumers type and swipe on their devices orhow they hold their device in terms of grip,when logged into banking apps.If this ‘behaviour’ changes then the softwarewill flag up potentially suspicious activity andcould prompt a call from the bank. Use ofthis technology has helped to prevent tens ofthousands of pounds of fraud going through.Total 2018 financial fraud losses by type30%56%2%12%Payment CardChequeRemote BankingAuthorised Push Payment10 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD


Unauthorised debit, credit and other payment card fraudVALUE 671.4m19%VOLUME2,617,73940%Fraud losses on UK-issued cards totalled 671.4 million in 2018, a 19 per centincrease from 565.4 million in 2017. At the same time, total spending on alldebit and credit cards reached 800 billion in 2018, with 20.4 billion transactionsmade during the year.Overall card fraud losses as a proportion ofthe amount we spend on our cards increasedduring 2018, rising from 7p per 100 spent in2017 to 8.4p per 100 in 2018 (in 2008 it was12.4p for every 100 spent).The finance industry is tackling card fraud by: Investing in advanced security systemsto protect customers, including realtime transaction analysis and behaviouralbiometrics on devices. Strong customerauthentication for higher value onlinepayments is set to become a legalrequirement from September 2019, addingan extra layer of security in the fightagainst fraud. Developing the fraud screening detectiontools available for retailers to use, such as3D Secure technology which protects cardpurchases online. Speedily, safely and securely identifyingcompromised card details through UKFinance’s intelligence hub so that cardissuers can put protections in place. Working with government and lawenforcement in the Joint Fraud Taskforceto use our collective powers, systems andresources to crack down on financial fraud. Fully sponsoring a specialist police unit, theDedicated Card and Payment Crime Unit,which targets organised criminal groupsresponsible for card fraud.A total of 1.12 billion in card fraud wasstopped by banks and card companies in 2018,a rise of 14 per cent on 2017. This is equivalentto 6.27 in every 10 of attempted card fraudbeing prevented.These figures cover fraud on debit, credit,charge and ATM only cards issued in the UK.Payment card fraud losses are organised intofive categories: remote purchase (card notpresent or CNP), counterfeit, lost and stolen,card not received and card ID theft.Victims of unauthorised payment cardfraud are legally protected against losses.Industry analysis indicates that banks and cardcompanies refund customers in over 98 percent of cases.12 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Fraud volumesUK Finance also publishes the number of fraud incidents to convey more fully the dynamics ofthe fraud environment in the UK. There was a significant rise in the number of cases involvingremote purchase fraud and card ID theft in 2018, which has driven the overall rise in fraudvolumes. However, the resulting gross losses showed smaller increases, indicating that cases arebeing spotted and stopped by card issuers more quickly, with a lower average loss per case.Fraud Type2009201020112012201320142015201620172018% ChangeRemote Purchase 506.424%Of which .736.924.216.3-33%Lost & rd ID rd 5496.622%Fraud 74.811%17/18TOTALDue to the rounding of figures, the sum of separate items may differ from the totals shown.E-commerce figures are estimated.13 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Annual case volumes on UK-issued cards 2013 – 2018It is important to note that the number of cases relates to the number of accounts that havebeen defrauded, as opposed to the number of victims.Card Fraud Type on 9,15663,791119%credit and debit cards% Change17/18Remote Purchase (CNP)Counterfeit (skimmed/cloned)Fraud on lost or stolen cardsCard ID theftCard ,617,73940%Fraud to turnover ratio 2009 - %0.10%Card fraud losses 2018 split by type (as a percentage of total losses )9%11%20091%7%18%14%1%2%201861%76%Lost & StolenCard not receivedCounterfeit cardRemote Purchase(CNP)Card ID Theft14 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Remote purchase (Card-not-present) fraud(internet, telephone, mail order)VALUE 506.4m24%VOLUME2,050,27547%This fraud occurs when a criminal uses stolen card details to buy something onthe internet, over the phone or through mail order.Overall remote purchase fraud increased to 506.4 million in 2018; a rise of 24 per centwhen compared to 2017. Online fraud againstUK retailers totalled an estimated 265.1 millionin 2018, a rise of 29 per cent on the previousyear. Mail and telephone order (MOTO) fraudagainst retailers based in the UK also increased,rising 14 per cent to 92.1 million.While the number of cases of remotepurchase fraud increased by 47 per cent in2018, the gross loss rose by the lower level of24 per cent, suggesting that card issuers areidentifying and stopping individual incidentsmore quickly.During the same period there was a 24 percent increase in genuine remote purchasetransactions, totalling 5.9 billion in 2018, witha 14 per cent increase in value to 387.1 billion.This means that as a proportion of spending,remote purchase fraud is 13p in every 100spent, up from 12p in 2017.Intelligence suggests that this type of fraudresults mainly from the criminal use of carddetails that have been obtained throughdata compromise, including third-party databreaches, phishing emails and scam textmessages. There has been a number of highprofile data breaches affecting UK cardholdersin 2018, as well as lower-profile attacks, whichhave driven the increase in remote purchasefraud, with criminals using the stolen datato make unauthorised purchases online, inparticular. This is demonstrated by the factthat 78 per cent of all remote purchase fraudtook place online ( 393.4 million).Criminals also use social media profiles toadvertise the ‘sale’ of discounted goods toconsumers. When a customer goes to buythe product, the criminal uses their carddetails to purchase the item from a legitimatesource and then keeps the payment from thecustomer.15 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Remote purchase (CNP) fraud losses on UK-issued cards 2009 - %2017408.4-6%2018506.424%0 100m 200m 300m 400m 500m 600mHow to stay safe from remote purchase fraud: If you’re using a retailer for the first time, always take time to research them before you givethem any of your details. Be prepared to ask questions before making a payment. Trust your instincts – if an offer looks too good to believe then it probably is. Be suspiciousof prices that are too good to be true. Only use retailers you trust, for example ones you know or have been recommended to you.If you’re buying an item made by a major brand, you can often find a list of authorised sellerson their official website. Take the time to install the built-in security measures most browsers offer.16 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Counterfeit Card FraudVALUE 16.3m-33%VOLUME58,636-31%This fraud occurs when a criminal creates a fake card using informationobtained from the magnetic stripe. Counterfeit card losses totalled 16.3 millionin 2018, a decrease of 33 per cent compared to 2017 and 90 per cent lower thanthe peak reported in 2008 ( 169.8 million).To obtain the data required to create acounterfeit card, criminals commonly attachconcealed or disguised devices to the cardreader slots of ATMs and unattended paymentterminals (UPTs), such as self-service ticketmachines at railway stations, cinemas and carparks. The counterfeit cards are typically usedoverseas in countries yet to upgrade to Chipand PIN.The significant decrease in this type of fraudsince 2008 is likely to be a result of theintroduction of chip technology in the UK andits subsequent increased adoption around theworld, most notably in the United States.Counterfeit card fraud losses on UK-issued cards 2009 – 4.2-34%201816.30-33% 20m 40m 60m 80m 100mHow to stay safe from counterfeit card fraud: Always protect your PIN by fully covering the keypad with your free hand or purse. If you spot anything suspicious at an ATM or unattended payment terminal, or someone iswatching you, then do not use the machine and report it to your bank. Check your statements regularly and if you spot any payments you don’t recognise thencontact your card company immediately.17 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Lost and Stolen Card FraudVALUE 95.1m2%VOLUME434,99124%This fraud occurs when a criminal uses a lost or stolen card to make a purchaseor payment (whether remotely or face-to-face) or takes money out at an ATMor in a branch.Losses due to lost and stolen fraud rose bytwo per cent in 2018 to 95.1 million. Thenumber of incidents increased by 24 percent during the same period, resulting in alower average loss per individual case. Thisreflects that bank systems are detectingfraudulent spending more quickly, combinedwith the 30 limit on individual contactlesstransactions. Each contactless card also hasan inbuilt security feature, which means fromtime to time cardholders making a contactlesstransaction will be asked to enter their PINto prove they are in possession of their card.The frequency of this will vary between cardissuers. From September 2019, new rules (theEU’s second Payment Services Directive (PSD2))will require a PIN once a customer’s totalcontactless payments exceed a cumulativevalue of roughly 130 ( 150) or when fivecontactless payments have been made.With the rollout of chip technology inthe UK and around the world leading tosignificant decreases in counterfeit card losses,criminals are using more low-tech methods.To carry out this type of fraud criminals usetactics including distraction thefts and cardentrapments at ATMs. To obtain the PIN,criminals typically shoulder-surf victims inshops and at ATMs. Criminals also use smallcameras, attached to ATMs and directed atthe keypad to capture PINs. In some cases,the victims are even tricked into handing theircards and PINs over to a criminal on theirown doorstep, under the impression they areassisting with a police enquiry.Lost and stolen card fraud losses on UK-issued cards 2009 – 4%95.1201802% 20m 40m 60m 80m 100m18 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

How to stay safe from lost and stolen fraud: Always report any lost or stolen cards to your bank or card company straight away. Check your statements regularly and if you spot any payments you don’t recognise thencontact your card company immediately. Make sure you fully cover your PIN with your free hand or purse whenever you enter it. If you spot anything suspicious with an ATM, or someone is watching you, then do not usethe machine and report it to your bank.19 FRAUD THE FACTS 2019 THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF PAYMENT INDUSTRY FRAUD

Card ID theftVALUE 47.3m59%VOLUME63,791119%Card ID theft occurs when a criminal uses a fraudulently obtained card orcard details, along with stolen personal information, to open or take over acard account held in someone else’s name. This type of fraud is split into twocategories, third-party application fraud and account takeover fraud.Losses due to card ID theft ros

Card Fraud 11 Unauthorised debit, credit and other payment card fraud 12 Remote purchase (Card-not-present) fraud 15 Counterfeit Card Fraud 17 Lost and Stolen Card Fraud 18 Card ID theft 20 Card not-received fraud 22 Internet/e-commerce card fraud los

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