A-Level Biology Question And Answers 2020/2021

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A-Level BiologyQuestion and Answers 2020/2021All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Table of ContentsTopics that only contain interactive questions . 3Biological Molecules and Enzymes (Questions) . 4Biological Molecules and Enzymes (Answers) . 6Cells and Organelles (Questions) . 8Cells and Organelles (Answers) . 10Classification (Questions) . 13Classification (Answers) . 14DNA and the Genetic Code (Questions) . 16DNA and the Genetic Code (Answers) . 18Ecological Concepts (Questions) . 21Ecological Concepts (Answers). 24Evolution (Questions) . 26Evolution (Answers) . 28Gas Exchange (Questions) * . 32Gas Exchange (Answers) . 35Genetic Engineering (Questions) . 37Genetic Engineering (Answers) . 38Homeostasis (Questions) * . 40Homeostasis (Answers) . 42Immunity (Questions) . 44Immunity (Answers) . 45Movement and Support in Animals (Questions). 47Movement and Support in Animals (Answers) . 49Nervous and Hormonal Control (Questions) . 51Nervous and Hormonal Control (Answers) . 53Nutrition and Digestion (Questions) * . 55Nutrition and Digestion (Answers) . 57Photosynthesis (Questions) . 59Photosynthesis (Answers) . 61Reproduction (Questions) * . 63Respiration (Questions) * . 69Respiration (Answers) . 71Transport (Questions) . 73Transport (Answers) . 77* topics that contain interactive resources, multiple choice questions or audio files. To interact with this content, please goto www.s-cool.co.uk/biology.These questions cover the main areas of this subject. Please check the specific areas you need with your exam board. They areprovided “as is” and S-cool do not guaranteed the suitability, accuracy or completeness of this content and S-cool will not beliable for any losses you may incur as a result of your use or non-use of this content. By using these notes, you are acceptingthe standard terms and conditions of S-cool, as stated in the s-cool website (www.s-cool.co.uk).All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Topics that only contain interactive questionsThese topics only contain interactive questions such as animations, multiple choice or audio files. Tointeract with this content, please go to www.s-cool.co.uk/biology. Applications of Genetic EngineeringGeneticsHealth & DiseaseMaking use of the genetic codeAll copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Biological Molecules and Enzymes (Questions)1. a) The diagram shows the formula of a molecule of an organic compound.(i) To which group of organic compounds does this molecule belong?(1 mark)(ii) Give one way in which this molecule differs from other compounds in the group.(1 mark)b) The table shows some of the organic compounds found in a bacterial cell.Compound Percentage of total dry mass Number of different types of cogen 2.51(i) Glycogen and protein are both polymers. Explain why there can only be one type of glycogen molecule, butthere can be many types of protein.(2 mark)(ii) Explain why there are many types of RNA found in this cell.(2 mark)(Marks available: 6)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

2. Succinate is converted to fumarate by the enzyme dehydrogenase. This reaction can be inhibited by addingmalonate.a) Use this information to explain how malonate acts as an inhibitor.(2 marks)b) In an investigation succinate dehydrogenase is mixed with a solution containing both succinate and malonate.What will happen to the rate of fumerate production when the concentration of succinate is increased?(2 marks)(Marks available: 4)3. (a) Give two functions of proteins in cell surface membranes.(2 marks)b) The composition of the inner and outer membranes of a mitochondrion is shown in the table.Phospholipid % Protein %Outer Membrane 4555Inner Membrane 2575Suggest an explanation for the difference in the percentage of protein present in the two mitochondrialmembranes.(2 marks)(Marks available: 4)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Biological Molecules and Enzymes (Answers)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) (i) Amino acid.(ii) Possession of CH3 group/different R group.(2 marks)b) (i) Glycogen consists of glucose/one type of monomer.Many different amino acids combine to form proteins.(ii) Include messenger and transfer RNA.Each gene gives/each protein will be derived from a different messenger RNA.Each amino acid has a different transfer RNA.(Max 4 marks)(Marks available: 6 marks)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) Similar (chemical) structure and shape.Competes for active site.(2 marks)b) Increased rate of fumarate production.Less competition at active site.(2 marks)(Marks available: 4 marks)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) Carrier molecule; enzyme.Receptor site for hormones/antibodies.Transport gate/channel protein.Antibody.(max 2 marks)b) More protein, more enzyme/channel protein.Used in oxidative phosphorylation/production of ATP/electron transport chain.(2 marks)(Marks available: 4)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Cells and Organelles (Questions)1. Cell organelles can be separated by centrifuging a cell extract in a sucrose density gradient. The organellessettle at the level in the sucrose solution which has the same density as their own.Some animal cells were broken open and the cell extract centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient.Three distinct fractions were obtained, A, B and C, as shown in the diagram: Some animal cells were brokenopen and the cell extract centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient.Three distinct fractions were obtained, A, B and C, as shown in the diagram:One fraction contained nuclei, one contained ribosomes and a third contained mitochondria.a) Identify the organelles (i), (iii) and (v) in each fraction and describe one function of each (ii), (iv) and (vi).Fraction Organelle FunctionA(i)(ii)B(iii)(iv)C(v)(vi)(Marks available: 4)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

2. The diagram shows an epithelial cell from the small intestine of a mammal, as seen with an electronmicroscope.a)(i) Suggest one way in which the functions of the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum differ.(ii) Give the evidence from the diagram which supports your answer.b) Explain how two features visible in the diagram are adaptations for the absorption of products of digestion(Marks available: 4)3. Write an essay on how the ultrastructure of different cells is related to their functions.(Marks available: 25)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Cells and Organelles (Answers)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1a) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:(i) Ribosomes(ii) Making proteins/assembling amino acid chain/protein synthesis(iii) Mitochondria(iv) Respiration/ formation of ATP/ Krebs cycle/ Oxidative phosphorylation.(v) Nuceli(vi) DNA/RNA synthesis/ controls protein production/ cell activity/ carries genetic information.(Marks available: 4)(1 mark for knowing names of all organelles, and 1 mark for each function explained).Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) (i) Rough ER associated with protein production/ smoother associated with transport.(ii) Ribosomes present/absent.(2 marks)b) Microvilli increase surface area;Mitochondria involved with active uptake.(2 marks)(Marks available: 4)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

You can give yourself up to 2 marks for discussing any of the following issues, up to a maximum of16:General principlesDescribe the structure of a eukaryotic cell;Suitably describe (differences between) plant and animal cells;Explain structure of prokaryotic cells OR distinguishes them from eukaryotic;Organelles and their specific functions.Describe cell wall in plants/prokaryotic cells, including its structure & role in protecting the cell from osmoticdamage/ example of cell in which specialised;Discuss membrane, internal and external, with role in controlling movement of substances/ reference tospecialisation (e.g. brush border in absorptive cells);Describe nucleus, including associated structures related to nuclear function, such as centrioles in nucleardivision, or nucleoli;Describe mitochondria, including structure and functions of matrix and cristae, and example(s) of cells in whichthey are either numerous or absent;Describe chloroplasts, including structure and functions of grana and stroma, including example(s) of plant cellsin which they are numerous or absent;Describe endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes, including their structure and functions, and examples of cells inwhich they are prominent;Specific examples of cells with particular functions.Describe secretory/nerve cell with explanation of ultrastructure relevant to particular aspects of function such asgolgi complex/ synapse;Outline muscle structure/sliding filament hypothesis, related to its function;Discuss (compare) the structure of male (and female) gamete, and relates differences to function (e.g.flagellum/acrosome);Give other suitable example, relating ultrastructure to function;Breadth (max 3 marks)Deals with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;Describe at least 3 different cells in relating structure to function;All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Consider the full range of organelles (in diagram or writing).Depth (max 3 marks)Give clear diagram of eukaryotic cell;Make clear link between structure and function for on cell;Make clear comparison of two cells that relate structure and function.In the real exam you will also be awarded marks for quality of language (in this case, there were 3 marksavailable). It may be difficult for you to judge your own text; however you may be able to get someone else togive you an opinion.(Marks available: 25)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Classification (Questions)1. a) Define the following terms:(i) Species.(ii) Genus.b) (i) Who devised the binomial system for naming organisms?(ii) Why is this system useful for classification?(Marks available: 4)2. Define the following terms:a) (i) Diploblastic.(ii) Triploblastic.b) Name two advantages that having a coelom gives an organism.(Marks available: 4)3. a) What is phylogenetic classification?b) List the five kingdoms and give an example of the type of organism belonging to each kingdom.(Marks available: 6)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

Classification (Answers)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) (i) All members of a species are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. A species will have aparticular set of characteristics.(ii) A genus is a group of similar or closely related species.(2 marks)b) (i) Carl von Linne/Linnaeus.(ii) Closely related species are grouped together.Latin is used so there is no language barrier; the organism only has one 'true' name.(2 marks)(Marks available: 4)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) (i) An animal possessing 2 major tissue layers. These include the outer layer (the ectoderm) and the innerlayer (the endoderm).(ii) An animal possessing 3 major tissue layers. It has a middle layer (the mesoderm), between the endodermand the ectoderm.(2 marks)b) Choose from:It enables independent movement of the gut wall and the body wall.It provides space of the enlargement and development of internal organs.It may act as a circulatory medium for transport of materials or a storage area of excess or waste materials.All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

(2 marks)(Marks available: 4)Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:a) A system of classification that reflects the evolution of organisms.(1 mark)b) Monera: Bacteria/cyanobacteriaProtoctista: Algae/protozoa.Fungi: Mould/yeast/mushroomsPlantae: Angiosperms/ferns/conifersAnimalia: Sponges/flatworms/mammals(5 marks)(Marks available: 6)All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

DNA and the Genetic Code (Questions)1. a) Draw and label a simple diagram of an RNA nucleotide containing uracil.In 1961 biologists made synthetic mRNA. When they produced mRNA containing only uracil nucleotides, it codedfor one type of amino acid, phenylalanine. When mRNA was produced with alternating uracil and guaninenucleotides, two types of amino acid were coded for, valine and cysteine. This is summarised in the table.Nucleotide sequence in mRNA Amino acids coded ne and cysteineb) For the amino acid phenylalanine what is?(i) the corresponding DNA base sequence,(ii) the tRNA anticodon?c) Explain how the information in the table supports the idea of a triplet code.(Marks available: 8)2. The diagram shows the structure of a tRNA molecule.All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020

a) Give two ways in which the structure of a tRNA molecule differs from that of a DNA molecule.b) Explain how the specific shape of the tRNA molecule shown in the diagram is determined by the pattern ofbonding.c) (i) G

A-Level Biology Question and Answers 2020/2021 All copyright and publishing rights are owned by S-cool. First created in 2000 and updated in 2013, 2015 & 2020. Table of Contents Topics that only contain interactive questions . 3 Biological Molecules and Enzymes (Questions). 4 Biological Molecules and Enzymes (Answers) . 6 Cells and Organelles (Questions). 8 Cells and Organelles .

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