4. Advertising Research And Marketing

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4. Advertising Research and Marketing4.1 Advertising Research4.1.1 History1879 - N. W. Ayer conducts custom research in an attempt to win the advertisingbusiness of Nichols-Shepard Co., a manufacturer of agricultural machinery.1895 - Harlow Gale of the University of Minnesota mails questionnaires to gatheropinions about advertising from the public.1900s - George B. Waldron conducts qualitative research for Mahin’s AdvertisingAgency.1910s - 1911 can be considered the year marketing research becomes an industry.That year, J. George Frederick leaves his position as editor of Printer’s Ink to beginhis research company, the Business Bourse with clients such as General Electricand the Texas Co. Also in 1911, Kellogg's ad manager, R. O. Eastman creates theAssociation of National Advertisers which is now known as the Association ofNational Advertising Managers. The group’s first project is a postcardquestionnaire to determine magazine readership. The results introduce the conceptof duplication of circulation. In 1916, R. O. Eastman starts his own company, theEastman Research Bureau which boasts clients such as Cosmopolitan, ChristianHerald, and General Electric.1920s - In 1922, Dr. Daniel Starch tests reader recognition levels of magazine andnewspaper advertisements and editorial content. In 1923, Dr. George Gallup beginsmeasuring advertising readership.1930s - In 1936, Dr. George Gallup validates his survey methodology by using thesame tools polling voters during public elections. This allows him to successfullycompare and validate his study's results against the election’s results.1940s - Post World War II, the U.S. sees a large increase in the number of marketresearch companies.

1950s - Market researchers focus on improving methods and measures. In theirsearch for a single-number statistic to capture the overall performance of theadvertising creative, Day-After-Recall (DAR) is created.1960s - Qualitative focus groups gain in popularity. In addition, some advertiserscall for more rigorous measurement of the in-market effectiveness of advertising inorder to provide better accountability for the large amounts being spent onadvertising. In response, Seymour Smith and Associates, using AdvertisingResearch Foundation data as a jumping-off point, develops the CommunicusSystem, a comprehensive approach to isolating the in-market impact of advertisingacross media.1970s - Computers emerge as business tools, allowing researchers to conductlarge-scale data manipulations. (Honomichl p. 175) Multiple studies prove DAR(Recall) scores do not predict sales. The measure, persuasion, also known asmotivation, is validated as a predictor of sales. The measure known as“breakthrough” is re-examined by researchers who make a distinction between theattention-getting power of the creative execution (attention) and how well“branded” the ad is (brand linkage). Herbert Krugman seeks to measure non-verbalmeasures biologically by tracking brain wave activities as respondents watchcommercials. (Krugman) Others experiment with galvanic skin response, voicepitch analysis, and eye-tracking.1980s - Researchers begin to view commercials as a “structured flow ofexperience” rather than a single unit to be rated on the whole, creating moment-bymoment systems such as the dial-a-meter.1990s - Ameritest Research creates Picture Sorts to provide accurate non-verbalmeasurements in a moment-by-moment system. Picture Sorts results are graphed tovisually represent commercial viewers' moment-by-moment image recognition(Flow of Attention), positive and negative feelings (Flow of Emotion), and brandvalues (Flow of Meaning).Trends in in-market tracking include a greater focus onthe multimedia nature of entire advertising campaigns.2000s - Global advertisers seek an integrated marketing research system that willwork worldwide so they can compare results across countries. For a look at trendspredicted for advertising research in the 21st century, see Seven Trends for the

Future. Dr. Robert Heath publishes the seminal and controversial monograph “TheHidden Power of Advertising” which challenged the traditional models used inadvertising research and shows how most advertising is processed at an emotionallevel (not a rational level). His monograph leads to re-examination of in-marketresearch approaches that compare the behaviors of those who have seen advertisingversus those who have not, such as the Communicus System, and the developmentof brand new pretesting systems such as the OTX AdCEP system.4.1.2 Types of advertising researchThere are two types of research, customized and syndicated. Customized researchis conducted for a specific client to address that client’s needs. Only that client hasaccess to the results of the research. Syndicated research is a single research studyconducted by a research company with its results available, for sale, to multiplecompanies. Pre-market research can be conducted to optimize advertisements forany medium: radio, television, print (magazine, newspaper or direct mail), outdoorbillboard (highway, bus, or train), or Internet. Different methods would be appliedto gather the necessary data appropriately. Post-testing is conducted after theadvertising, either a single ad or an entire multimedia campaign has been run inmarket. The focus is on what the advertising has done for the brand, for exampleincreasing brand awareness, trial, frequency of purchasing.Pre-testingPre-testing, also known as copy testing, is a specialized field of marketing researchthat determines an ad’s effectiveness based on consumer responses, feedback, andbehavior.Campaign pre-testingA new area of pre-testing driven by the realization that what works on TV does notnecessarily translate in other media. Greater budgets allocated to digital media inparticular have driven the need for campaign pre-testing. The addition of a mediaplanning tool to this testing approach allows advertisers to test the wholecampaign, creative and media, and measures the synergies expected with anintegrated campaign.

Post-testingPost-testing/Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-marketresearch monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brandpreference, product usage and attitudes. Some post-testing approaches simply trackchanges over time, while others use various methods to quantify the specificchanges produced by advertising—either the campaign as a whole or by thedifferent media utilized.Overall, advertisers use post-testing to plan future advertising campaigns, so theapproaches that provide the most detailed information on the accomplishments ofthe campaign are most valued. The two types of campaign post-testing that haveachieved the greatest use among major advertisers include continuous tracking, inwhich changes in advertising spending are correlated with changes in brandawareness, and longitudinal studies, in which the same group of respondents aretracked over time. With the longitudinal approach, it is possible to go beyondbrand awareness, and to isolate the campaign's impact on specific behavioral andperceptual dimensions, and to isolate campaign impact by medium.4.2 MarketingIs the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, forthe purpose of influencing buyer behavior and/or precipitate behavioral change.From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s materialrequirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies theseneeds and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships.Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes forcreating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and managingcustomer relationships in ways that also benefit the organization and itsshareholders. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through marketanalysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer buyingbehavior and providing superior customer value.There are five competing concepts under which organizations can choose tooperate their business; the production concept, the product concept, the sellingconcept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing concept. The four

components of holistic marketing are relationship marketing, internal marketing,integrated marketing, and socially responsive marketing. The set of engagementsnecessary for successful marketing management includes, capturing marketinginsights, connecting with customers, building strong brands, shaping the marketofferings, delivering and communicating value, creating long-term growth, anddeveloping marketing strategies and plans.The marketing orientation evolved from earlier orientations, namely, theproduction orientation, the product orientation and the selling orientation.4.2.1 ProductionProduction methods until the 1950s A firm focusing on a production orientationspecializes in producing as much as possible of a given product or service. Thus,this signifies a firm exploiting economies of scale until the minimum efficientscale is reached. A production orientation may be deployed when a high demandfor a product or service exists, coupled with a good certainty that consumer tasteswill not rapidly alter (similar to the sales orientation).4.2.2 ProductQuality of the product until the 1960s A firm employing a product orientation ischiefly concerned with the quality of its own product. A firm would also assumethat as long as its product was of a high standard, people would buy and consumethe product.4.2.3 SellingSelling methods 1950s and 1960s A firm using a sales orientation focusesprimarily on the selling/promotion of a particular product, and not determiningnew consumer desires as such. Consequently, this entails simply selling an alreadyexisting product, and using promotion techniques to attain the highest salespossible.Such an orientation may suit scenarios in which a firm holds dead stock, orotherwise sells a product that is in high demand, with little likelihood of changes inconsumer tastes that would diminish demand.

4.2.4 MarketingNeeds and wants of customers 1970s to the present day The 'marketingorientation' is perhaps the most common orientation used in contemporarymarketing. It involves a firm essentially basing its marketing plans around themarketing concept, and thus supplying products to suit new consumer tastes. As anexample, a firm would employ market research to gauge consumer desires, useR&D (research and development) to develop a product attuned to the revealedinformation, and then utilize promotion techniques to ensure persons know theproduct exists.4.2.5 Holistic MarketingEverything matters in marketing 21st century The holistic marketing conceptlooks at marketing as a complex activity and acknowledges that everything mattersin marketing - and that a broad and integrated perspective is necessary indeveloping, designing and implementing marketing programs and activities. Thefour components that characterize holistic marketing are relationship marketing,internal marketing, integrated marketing, and socially responsive marketing.4.2.6 Contemporary approachesRecent approaches in marketing include relationship marketing with focus on thecustomer, business marketing or industrial marketing with focus on an organizationor institution and social marketing with focus on benefits to society. New forms ofmarketing also use the internet and are therefore called internet marketing or moregenerally e-marketing, online marketing, "digital marketing", search enginemarketing, or desktop advertising. It attempts to perfect the segmentation strategyused in traditional marketing. It targets its audience more precisely, and issometimes called personalized marketing or one-to-one marketing. Internetmarketing is sometimes considered to be broad in scope, because it not only refersto marketing on the Internet, but also includes marketing done via e-mail, wirelessmedia as well as driving audience from traditional marketing methods like radioand billboard to internet properties or landing page.

4.2.7 Relationship marketing / Relationship managementBuilding and keeping good customer relations 1960s to present day Emphasis isplaced on the whole relationship between suppliers and customers. The aim is toprovide the best possible customer service and build customer loyalty.4.2.8 Business marketing / Industrial marketingBuilding and keeping relationships between organizations 1980s to present day Inthis context, marketing takes place between businesses or organizations. Theproduct focus lies on industrial goods or capital goods rather than consumerproducts or end products. Different forms of marketing activities, such aspromotion, advertising and communication to the customer are used.4.2.9 Societal marketingBenefit to society 1990s to present day Similar characteristics to marketingorientation but with the added proviso that there will be a curtailment of anyharmful activities to society, in either product, production, or selling methods.4.2.10 BrandingBrand value 1980s to present day In this context, "branding" refers to the maincompany philosophy and marketing is considered to be an instrument of brandingphilosophy.4.2.11 Advertising ResearchAdvertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted toimprove the efficiency of advertising.

Advertising Research and Marketing 4.1 Advertising Research 4.1.1 History 1879 - N. W. Ayer conducts custom research in an attempt to win the advertising . The group’s first project is a postcard questionnaire to determine magazine readership. The results introduce the concept of duplicat

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