Evaluation Of Urban Travel Survey Methodologies

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Report No.2. Government Accession No.FHWAlTX-95/1235-104. Tide and SubtitleEVALUATION OF URBAN TRAVEL SURVEYMETHODOLOGIES1.Author(s)David F. Pearson and George B. Dresser7.Teclmica1 Rewrt Documentation Page3. Recipient's Catalog No.S. Report DateOctober 19946. Performing Organization Code8. Performing Organization Report No.Research Report 1235-1010. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)9. Performing Organization Name and AddressTexas Transportation InstituteThe Texas A&M University SystemCollege Station, Texas 77843-313512. sponsoring Agency Name and AddressTexas Department of TransportationResearch and Technology Transfer OfficeP. O. Box 5080Austin, Texas 78763-508011. Contract or Grant No.Study No. 0-123513. Type of Report and Period CoveredInterim:September 1989 - August 199414. Sponsoring Agency CodeSuppJementuy NotesResearch performed in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and the U.S. Departmentof Transportation, Federal Highway AdministrationResearch Study Title: Improving Transportation Planning Techniques16. Abstract15.This report documents the evaluation of the methodologies used in the travel surveys done in fiveurban areas in Texas in 1990 and 1991. Based on those evaluations, specific recommendations are made inthe areas of sample size estimation, survey methodologies, data specifications, survey instruments, etc.Surveys evaluated include household surveys, workplace surveys, special generator surveys, external stationsurveys, and truck surveys. Several travel data gaps are also identified where current survey efforts are notsufficient in terms of providing data for their estimation or modeling.17. Key WordsTravel Surveys, Household Surveys, WorkplaceSurveys, External Surveys, Special GeneratorSurveys, Truck Surveys19. Security CJassif.(of this report)UnclassifiedForm DOT F 1700.7 (8·72)18. Distribution StatementNo Restrictions. This document is available to thepublic through NTIS:National Technical Information Service5285 Port Royal RoadSpringfield, Virginia 2216120. Security CJassif.(of this page)21. No. of Pages22. PriceUnclassified166Reproduction of completed page authorized

EVALUATION OF URBAN TRAVEL SURVEY METHODOLOGIESbyDavid F. PearsonAssociate Research ScientistTexas Transportation InstituteandGeorge B. DresserResearch ScientistTexas Transportation InstituteResearch Report 1235-10Research Study Number 0-1235Research Study Title: Improving Transportation Planning TechniquesSponsored by theTexas Department of TransportationIn Cooperation withU.S. Department of TransportationFederal Highway AdministrationOctober 1994TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTEThe Texas A&M University SystemCollege Station, Texas 77843-3135

IMPLEMENTATION STATEMENTThis report presents a comprehensive evaluation of the methodologies used in the travelsurveys conducted in five urban areas in Texas in 1990 and 1991.Recommendations areincluded to improve the survey designs, methods of data collection, data specifications, and theoverall validity of the results of the surveys. These recommendations may be implemented infuture survey activities undertaken by the Texas Department of Transportation to improve theoverall data being collected and used in travel demand modeling.v

DISCLAIMERThe contents of this report reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for theopinions, findings, and conclusions presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect theofficial views or policies of the Federal Highway Administration or the Texas Department ofTransportation.This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.Additionally, this report is not intended for construction, bidding, or pennit purposes. GeorgeB. Dresser, Ph.D., was the Principal Investigator for the project.vii

TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiLIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiiiSUMMARy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvINTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1TRIP GENERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3TRAVEL SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9DALLAS-FORT WORTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9HOUSTON-GALVESTON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16TEXARKANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181990-1991 HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24San Antonio, Amarillo, and Brownsville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Tyler and Shennan-Denison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32EVALUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Sample Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Data Collection Methodology . 41Data Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43ALTERNATIVE METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Sample Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Data Collection Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Data Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65WORKPLACE SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69DALLAS-FORT WORTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70TEXARKANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721990-1991 WORKPLACE SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76EVALUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Sample Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Data Collection Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Data Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91Sample Size and Selection Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93Data Collection Methodology and Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104IX

Freestanding Workplaces .Non-Freestanding Workplaces .Non-Freestanding Alternative .General Considerations .104110113114SPECIAL GENERATOR SURVEYS . 1151990-1991 SPECIAL GENERATOR SURVEYS . 115San Antonio . 115Amarillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Tyler . 117EVALUATION . 117RECOMMENDATIONS . 117EXTERNAL STATION SURVEYS . 125SanAntonio . 125Amarillo . 130Brownsville . 130Tyler . 130Sherman-Denison . 132EVALUATION . 132RECOMMENDATIONS . 133TRUCK SURVEYS .San Antonio .Amarillo .Brownsville .Sherman-Denison .Tyler .EVALUATION .RECOMMENDATIONS .Commercial Truck Survey .For-Hire Passenger Carrier Survey .135135136136136138138138138142GAPS IN TRAVEL SURVEYS . 145REFERENCES . 147x

LIST OF 2728293031321960s Origin-Destination Household Survey Instrument . 10North Central Texas Council of Governments 1984 Home Interview Survey . 14Houston-Galveston 1984 Household Survey . 19Texarkana 1989 Household Survey Instruments . 25San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Household Information Survey Instrument . 29San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Household Trip Survey Instrument . 30Boston 1990 Regional Household Activity Diary . 45Revised Household Information Survey Instrument . 66Revised Household Trip Survey Instrument . 67North Central Texas Council of Governments 1984 Employee Travel Survey . 73North Central Texas Council of Governments 1984 Nonemployee Travel Survey . . 74Texarkana Urban Area Travel Surveys, 1989 Employee Travel Survey . 77Texarkana Urban Area Travel Surveys, 1989 Nonemployee Travel Survey . 78San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Travel Survey,Workplace General Information Survey Form . 82San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Travel Survey,Workplace Employee Travel Interview Form . 84San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Travel Survey,Workplace Nonemployee Travel Interview Form . 85Workplace Employee Travel Survey, Part 1: Household Information . 105Workplace Employee Travel Survey, Part 2: Trip Information . 106Workplace Visitor Travel Interview Form, Freestanding Workplace . 108Workplace General Information Survey Form. . . 109Activity Center General Information Survey Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111Workplace Visitor Travel Interview Form, Non-Freestanding Workplace . 112San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Travel Survey,Special Generator General Information Survey Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Travel Survey,Special Generator Employee Questionnaire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Travel Survey,Special Generator Nonemployee Questionnaire: Mall, Military Base . 121Special Generator Employee Travel Survey,Part 1: Household Information Survey . 122Special Generator General Information Survey Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123Special Generator Employee Travel Survey,Part 2: Trip Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124San Antonio-Bexar County Travel 1990 Survey,Postcard Survey Instrument . 126Amarillo 1990 Travel Survey, External Travel Survey Interview Form . 127Tyler-Smith County 1991 Travel Survey . 128Tyler-Smith County 1991 Travel Survey, External Travel Survey Interview Form 129xi

33343536Brownsville 1990 Travel Survey,Pedestrian External Travel Survey Interview Form .External Travel Survey Interview Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .San Antonio-Bexar County 1990 Truck Travel Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sherman-Denison Area 1991 Commercial Truck Travel Survey .xii131134137139

LIST OF 728Production Trip Rate Cross-Classification Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Sample Requirements, Dallas-Fort Worth Household Survey . 12Desired Household Responses, Houston-Galveston Survey . 16Household Response Matrix, Texarkana Household Survey . 22Household Sample Goals, San Antonio Household Survey . 33Amarillo Household Initial Sampling Goals . 33Brownsville Household Initial Sampling Goals . 34Household Response Matrix for Recommended Usable Surveys,Tyler Household Survey . 34Household Response Matrix for Recommended Usable Surveys,Sherman-Denison Household Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Number of Surveyed Households in the 1990 San AntonioHousehold Survey . 37Estimated Percentage Error in Trip Production Ratesby Trip Purpose, 1990 San Antonio Household Survey . 38Expanded Trip Rates and Estimated Errors, San Antonio1990 Household Survey . 39Expanded Person Trips per Household by Trip Purpose . 42Comparison of Zero Trip Households and Households NotReporting Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Stratification of Household Samples . 521990 Percentage Distributions of Households by HouseholdSize and Income, EI Paso . 52Percentage Distribution of Households in 1980 by HouseholdSize and Income (1980 Dollars), San Antonio-Bexar County . 53Percentage Distribution of Households in 1980 by HouseholdSize and Income (1990 Dollars), San Antonio-Bexar County . 541990 Percentage Distributions of Households by HouseholdSize and Income, San Antonio-Bexar County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Estimated Percentage Distributions of Households in 1990by Household Size and Income, EI Paso . 551990 Person Trips per Household, San Antonio-Bexar County . 57Sample Standard Deviations of 1990 Person Tripsper Household, San Antonio-Bexar County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Relative Trip Rate Values, San Antonio-Bexar County . 58Proportional Distribution for Allocation of OverallTrip Rate Error (2:10%) . 58Distribution of Overall Trip Rate Error (2:10%) . 59Trip Rate Errors by Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Initial Estimates of Sample Sizes by Category . 61Recommended Sample Sizes by Category, EI Paso . 61Xlll

n of Urban Areas for Borrowing Information inComputing Sample Sizes for Household Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1984 Dallas-Fort Worth Travel Survey . 71Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1989 Dallas-Fort Worth Travel Survey . 75Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1990 San Antonio Travel Survey . 79Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1990 Amarillo Travel Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1990 Brownsville Travel Survey . 80Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1991 Tyler Travel Survey . 80Workplace Survey Sample Quotas,1991 Sherman-Denison Travel Survey . 81Average and Range of Size, EstablishmentsSurveyed, 1990-1991 Workplace Surveys . 89Example of Selecting Firms Using WeightedSystematic Sampling Technique . 97Distribution of a 5 Percent Sample of EmployerslWorkplacesin San Antonio-Bexar County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Total Employment for a 5 Percent Sample of Employers/Workplaces in San Antonio-Bexar County . 98Average Employment per Workplace for a 5 Percent Sample ofEmployerslWorkplaces in San Antonio-Bexar County . 98Estimated Percentage Distribution of EmployerslWorkplacesBy Employment Type in San Antonio-Bexar County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99Estimated Percentage Distribution of EmployeesBy Employment Type in San Antonio-Bexar County . 99Recommended Percentage of EmployeesTo Be Surveyed in Workplace Surveys . 100Sample Sizes Required for San Antonio (Example) . 100Number of Employees to Be Sampled by Area TypeIn San Antonio-Bexar County . 101Estimated Number of Workplaces to Be SampledIn San Antonio-Bexar County . 102Proportionate Distribution of Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT)By Vehicle Classification Houston-Galveston Region . 142XIV

SUMMARYThe travel surveys accomplished in Texas in 1990 and 1991 represent a significant efforton the part of the urban areas and the Texas Department of Transportation. This report hasevaluated the methodologies used in those surveys and, where considered appropriate, presentedrecommendations for improvements. The following paragraphs present brief summaries of thefindings in this report.HOUSEHOLD SURVEYSThe household surveys methodologies were considered to be reasonable in most respects.Recommendations were made in the areas of sample size determination, survey methodology, anddata specifications. A need for additional research and work in the area of activity surveys inlieu of trip surveys was also identified.WORKPLACE SURVEYSThe evaluation of the workplace surveys conducted in 1990 and 1991 indicated that thesurvey methodology was theoretically flawed. Recommendations were made for a procedure forthe determination and computation of sample sizes for workplace surveys, a revised methodologyfor the conduction of those surveys, and additional data elements to be collected.SPECIAL GENERATOR SURVEYSThe evaluation of the special generator surveys revealed no serious problems with themethodology or data being collected in the surveys. Recommendations were made for revisionsto the data being collected to maintain consistency with the data from both workplace andhousehold surveys.EXTERNAL STATION SURVEYSThe evaluation of the external station surveys indicated several areas of potential concern.One was the time that data were actually being collected and another was the methodology beingused. Recommendations were made for the methodology to be used in external station surveysxv

and the time that the surveys should be conducted. Revisions to the survey instruments were alsorecommended to obtain additional data elements for travel demand and air quality modeling.TRUCK SURVEYSWhile no significant problems were found in the evaluation of the truck surveymethodologies, the issue of how the results could be applied and used was raised.Recommendations were made for the methodology and procedures to use in conducting acommercial truck survey and a for-hire passenger carrier survey.Included with thoserecommendations were discussions on the use and expansion of the resulting survey results forestimating total commercial truck travel and for-hire passenger carrier travel within an urban area.DATA GAPSSeveral gaps that have not been addressed in current survey procedures were identifiedrelative to travel occurring within urban areas. Previous recommendations dealt with one of thoseareas, but other areas still need to be addressed. These will require new survey efforts or possiblemodifications to existing survey efforts to collect the necessary data for estimating and modelingthese trips.In summary, the recommendations in this report are intended to provide basic guidelinesfor improving travel surveys in Texas. The collection of travel data must be tailored to meet theindividual needs of travel models within urban areas. The methods used for collecting that datawill continue to be evaluated and improved.XVl

INTRODUCTIONEstimating travel demand is a critical part of transportation planning. It is typicallyaccomplished through a process which involves four major steps:trip generation, tripdistribution, mode split, and trip assignment. Trip generation involves estimating the number oftrips being produced and attracted by discrete subareas (zones) within the urban area. Tripdistribution is the process by which the number of trips that are interchanged between zone pairsis estimated. Mode split is the process of estimating the number of those trips that will use eachavailable transportation mode. Trip assignment is the process of predicting the route or line (e.g.,transit) that the trips will take in going from one zone to another. The results of these steps areestimates of the travel demand on the facilities being analyzed. Additional refmement typicallyis necessary before final estimates of the travel demand are developed.In 1989, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) contracted with the TexasTransportation Institute (TTl) to review, analyze, and make recommendations for improving thetransportation planning techniques used by the Department. The overall objective of the projectis to ensure that the transportation planning techniques being used in Texas are state of the artand the best currently available. This report is ouly one of many produced as a part of thatoverall project. It reviews and analyzes one important aspect of estimating and predicting urbantravel demand, obtaining the data and information used in developing trip generation models.More specifically, this report deals with the design and conduct of urban travel surveys in Texas.This report is organized into nine sections following the introduction. The first sectiondiscusses the development of trip generation models. The second section discusses the travelsurveys in general. The third through seventh sections discuss each of the five surveys astypically done in Texas, the techniques and methodologies currently in use, an evaluation of themethods, and present recommendations for improvements. The eighth section discusses othersurveys which mayor may not be used, the methods available, and recommendations concerningtheir application in Texas. The fmal section summarizes the previous six sections and therecommendations.1

TRIP GENERATIONTrip generation is the process of estimating the number of trips that are produced andattracted by discrete subareas, or zones, within an urban area. These trips are classified into twoprincipal categories, home based and non-home based. A home based trip's origin or destinationis the home. All other trips are non-home based. The zone where a home based trip is producedis the zone in which the home is located, regardless of whether the zone is the origin ordestination. The zone where a non-home based trip is produced is the origin zone for the trip.The zone where a home based trip is being attracted is the non-home zone. The zone where anon-home based trip is attracted is the destination zone. These defmitions are significant becausethey form the basis on which the trip generation models are subsequently developed. Tripproductions are estimated using models based on the characteristics of the household. Tripattractions are estimated using models based on the characteristics of the land use activitiesattracting the trips. The development of trip generation models are therefore predicated anddependent on the data available for model development and calibration.Trip generation models generally fall into two categories, linear regression models andcross-classification models. The type of model used is, in many cases, dependent on the dataavailable for developing and calibrating the model. Other considerations are the trip purposesbeing estimated and whether specific models are being employed for each trip purpose.Linear regression has been and continues to be used in trip generation modeling. Themodels used relate the number of trips (either productions or attractions) to various independentvariables at the zone level. Trip productions are usually related to socioeconomic characteristicsof the households at the zone level such as household size, number of autos owned, householdincome, age of head of household, number of licensed drivers, etc. Trip attractions are usuallyrelated to the characteristics of the land use activity or intensity measures such as employment,acres of development, amount of parking, square feet of leasable area, etc. The variables usedtypically depend on the trip purpose and whether productions or attractions are being estimated.Cross-classification, also referred to as category analysis, is considered a disaggregateapproach to estimating trips. Trip rates (e.g., trips per household or trips per employee) arestratified (i.e., cross-classified) by certain socioeconomic characteristics which have been found3

to influence the type and number of trips produced or attracted. For example, Table 1 showsproduction trip rates in terms of trips per household cross-classified by household income andhousehold size. The estimation of the trips produced by a zone would involveTable 1Production Trip RateCross-Classification ExampleHousehold SizeIncome Ran!!e1234 0.310.371.601.44 7,500 - 9,9990.840.921.622.05 10,000 - 19,9991.111.361.551.66 20,000 - 29,9991.231.942.222.76 30,000 & Over1.502.132.282.43o - 7,499estimating the number of households in the zone which had the characteristics of the categoriesby which the trip rates were stratified. For example, the number of households with two personsin them and with an average household income between 7,500 and 9,999 would be multipliedby the trip rate of 0.92 to estimate the number of trips produced by those households. Thehouseholds within each zone would be disaggregated into each cross-classification category andmultiplied by the appropriate trip rate to estimate the number of trips produced. Trip rates canbe developed for estimating trip attractions in a similar manner. Each trip purpose may also haveseparate trip rates.The data for developing and calibrating trip generation models generally come from travelsurveys. Up until the mid-1980s, the trip rates and models used in Texas were based on origindestination travel surveys conducted in the 1960s and early 1970s. Beginning in the 1980s,TxDOT and several Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in Texas began an effort toupdate the base information for their trip generation models and procedures. Travel surveys werefirst conducted in the Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston-Galveston urban areas in 1984. A surveywas subsequently done in Texarkana in 1989.4Following these efforts, TxDOT made a

commitment to expand these surveys and improve the amount and quality of data available fortransportation modeling in Texas. This effort corresponded with the conduction of the 1990census and consisted of having a number of travel surveys conducted in urban areas within thestate.5

TRAVEL SURVEYSTravel surveys are the means by which the information used to develop trip generationmodels is obtained and, in some instances, may be used to study and/or analyze travel patternswithin an urban area. In the sixties and early seventies, surveyors conducted home interviewsin randomly selected homes throughout the urban area.In addition to the home interviewsurveys, external station and truck/taxi surveys were conducted. These methods provided themost reliable and accurate information, but they required a great deal of time, manpower, andmoney. These surveys gathered information on the characteristics of the household and thenumber, purpose, and mode of travel for each trip made by persons five years and older in thehousehold during a 24-hour period, typically during the middle of the week, the number and typeof trips entering and leaving the study area, and the number of taxicab and truck trips being madewithin the study area. The information gathered from the surveys and from secondary sources(e.g., employment) was used to develop trip production and trip attraction models. The modelswere used to predict the number of trip productions and attractions in the future by assuming thatthe trip making characteristics would remain stable over time with any increase/decrease in travelbeing caused by changes in households and/or land use activities.While trip generation models have changed somewhat over time (i.e.

29 San Antonio-Bexar County Travel 1990 Survey, Postcard Survey Instrument . 126 30 Amarillo 1990 Travel Survey, External Travel Survey Interview Form . 127 31 Tyler-Smith County 1991 Travel Survey . 128 32 Tyler-Smith County 1991 Tra

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Urban law in Sub-Saharan Africa 9 A new approach to urban legal reform 10 Triggers for urban legal reform 11 Considerations when initiating reforms 14 . urban infrastructure has to be provided, new areas for urban growth developed,

These three quotes present an invitation to study an “urban revolution” that continues to shape our urban world today. Lewis Mumford writes of security and city walls, Christopher Friedrichs documents a common urban civilization, and Melville Branch praises the urban

Previous editions of this Standard were issued in 2003, 2012, and 2016. The 2019 edition of this Standard was approved by the American National Standards Institute as an American National Standard on December 4, 2019. v This is a preview of "ASME PVHO-2-2019". Click here to purchase the full version from the ANSI store.