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The Complete Pilot SeriesThe CompletePrivate PilotTwelfth EditionBob Gardner

The CompletePrivate PilotTwelfth EditionBob GardnerAviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.Newcastle, Washington

Original illustration: Dick Bringloe and Don SzymanskiPhoto credits: front cover photo Pipistrel, used withpermission,; back cover photo Cirrus,used by permission;, Jim Fagiolo; p.1-7, courtesy NASA;p.1-8, Robert Gardner; p.1-14, courtesy General AviationNews & Flyer; p.1-15, Robert Gardner; p.1-23, NASA;pp.2-14 and 3-1, Robert Gardner; p.3-4, courtesy Safe Flight;pp.3-6 and 3-11, Sigma-Tek Aircraft Instruments; p.3-8,courtesy American Avionics; p.5-10, Robert Gardner; p.5-12,NASA; p.9-9, Robert Gardner; p.10-2, Henry Geijsbeek;p.10-9, courtesy NARCO; p.11-2, courtesy Garmin; p.11-8,NARCO; pp.D-1 and D-2, courtesy Garmin and Avidyne;p.D-2 courtesy Chelton Flight Systems; p.D-3, courtesyGarmin.The Complete Private Pilot, Twelfth Editionby Bob GardnerAviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.7005 132nd Place SENewcastle, Washington 98059-3153Visit the ASA website often, as any updates due to FAAregulatory and procedural changes will be posted there:www.asa2fly.comAlso see the “Reader Resources Page” for this book on theASA website at 1985–2016Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.All rights reserved. Twelfth edition published 2016.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise,without the prior written permission of the copyright holder.While every precaution has been taken in the preparationof this book, the publisher and Bob Gardner assume noresponsibility for damages resulting from the use of theinformation contained herein.None of the material in this manual supersedes anyoperational documents or procedures issued by the FederalAviation Administration, aircraft and avionics manufacturers,flight schools, or the operators of aircraft. The chart excerptscontained in this manual are reproductions for example only,and are not to be used for navigation.Printed in the United States of America2019201820172016987654321ASA-PPT-12ISBN 978-1-61954-322-5Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data:Gardner, Robert E.The complete private pilot / Robert E. Gardner.p. cm.Includes index.1. Private flying. I. TitleTL 721.4.G34 1994629.132'5217 — dc2003iiThe Complete Private Pilot94-5805CIP

ContentsForeword by Richard Taylor.vGetting Started. viiLesson 1Basic Aerodynamics .1 – 1Review Questions.1– 25Lesson 2Aircraft Systems . 2 –1Review Questions. 2 –18Lesson 3Flight Instruments . 3 –1Review Questions. 3 –15Lesson 4Regulations . 4 –1Review Questions. 4 – 28Lesson 5Procedures and Airport Operations . 5 –1Review Questions. 5 – 34Lesson 6Weather . 6 –1Review Questions. 6 –15Lesson 7Weather Services . 7 –1Review Questions. 7 – 38Lesson 8Aircraft Performance . 8 – 1Review Questions. 8 – 22Lesson 9En Route Flight . 9 –1Review Questions. 9 – 26ContinuedThe Complete Private Pilotiii

Lesson 10Navigation . 10 – 1Review Questions. 10 – 14Lesson 11Communication Procedures .11 – 1Review Questions.11 – 14Lesson 12Flight Planning . 12 – 1Appendix A Glossary. A –1Appendix B Airport / Facility Directory Legend. B –1Appendix C A / FD Excerpts. C –1Appendix D Additional Full-Color Illustrations. D –1Seattle Sectional Chart Excerpt.D – 4Index. I –1ivThe Complete Private Pilot

ForewordA new aviation book — one that plows new ground,one that develops material never before considered — is pretty hard to come by. And until thereare some radical changes in the types of aircraft wefly and the techniques necessary to fly them, thesituation is quite likely to stay that way.But there are always better, if not “new,” ways tocommunicate aviation information that’s whatBob Gardner has accomplished with The CompletePrivate Pilot.A writer embarking on the task of creating a fundamental aviation text is faced with a formidable challenge; if prospective pilots are to reap the benefits ofhis work, the writing must be at once very readableand very comprehensive.The Complete Private Pilot does both of those inspades, as Bob Gardner reaches into his own aeronautical experience and brings to the reader a clearexposition of the knowledge required by the buddingprivate pilot.It’s not all here — you’ll continue learning (wehope!) long after your initial study of regulations,weather, navigation, and so on — but this book is agreat way to get started.Your author has met the challenge well. The Complete Private Pilot is indeed readable, comprehensive, and perhaps more important than those, it’s abook which will lead you to a greater understandingof flying’s fundamentals.I’ve always contended that a smart pilot is a safepilot you are to be commended for your choiceof The Complete Private Pilot as a bedrock book inyour aviation library.Richard TaylorThe Complete Private Pilotv

About the AuthorRobert Gardner has long been an admired member ofthe aviation community. He began his flying careerin Alaska in 1960 while in the U.S. Coast Guard. By1966, Bob accomplished his Private land and sea,Commercial, instrument, Instructor, CFII and MEL.Over the next 16 years he was an instructor, charterpilot, designated examiner, freight dog and Directorof ASA Ground Schools.Currently, Bob holds an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate with single- and multi-engine land ratings;a CFI certificate with instrument and multi-engineratings, and a Ground Instructor’s Certificate withadvanced and instrument ratings. In addition, Bob isa Gold Seal Flight Instructor and has been instructing since 1968; he has been recognized as a FlightInstructor of the Year in Washington State. To top offthis impressive list of accomplishments, Bob is alsoa well-known author, journalist and airshow lecturer.viThe Complete Private PilotBooks by Bob GardnerThe Complete Private PilotThe Complete Advanced PilotThe Complete Multi-Engine PilotSay Again, Please —Guide to Radio Communications

LESSON 1Basic AerodynamicsIn this book we are going to assume that your training airplane is all-metal (although airplanes thatare partially or completely made of composites areincreasingly available), has one engine, a fixed-pitchpropeller, and a non-retractable landing gear. A strollalong the ramp of your hometown airport will showyou there are many variables, however, and you maywant to compare features on other airplanes with theone you fly. Here are some things to look for:Fuselage ConstructionThe fuselage (or cabin, in most modern airplanes) isthe basic structure to which the wings and empennage (see Figure 1-1 on the next page) are attached.Most of the small airplanes you will see during yourflight training are unpressurized (Lesson 2) — youcan tell by the square windows and non-airtightdoors. Airplanes that are pressurized for passengercomfort at high altitudes have round or oval windowsand tight-fitting doors.The fuselage of almost every airplane you see will beof aluminum construction with internal strengthening members. A close look will show that on somemodels more attention has been paid to reducing dragcaused by rivet heads and other protrusions. Looking at non-metal airplanes will take you to both thepast and the future. Fabric-covered airplanes withtubing structures (wood-framed airplanes are reallyclassics!) are lovingly restored and flown by proudowners. No less proud are the pilots of modern composite aircraft, formed of plastic reinforced with glassfibers, carbon fibers, or similar materials which offergreat strength and minimal drag. Most light sport aircraft (LSA) and technically advanced aircraft (TAA)are made of composites. Technically advanced aircraft, by definition, have an IFR-approved GlobalPositioning System navigator with a moving-mapdisplay, and an integrated autopilot. Most go beyondthis to replace the traditional “six-pack” of analoginstruments (see Lesson 3) with digital instruments,leading to the term “glass cockpit.”It is altogether possible that you might take yourinitial training in a composite airplane, but right nowthey are outnumbered by aluminum planes and thatis what I will emphasize.WingsThe “main spar” within the wing is the structuralmember that supports the load. Airfoil-shaped ribsare attached to the main spar and the metal or fabric skin is attached to the ribs to give the wing itsshape, and it is that airfoil shape that makes the wingcapable of developing enough lift to support the airplane in flight. The wings of composite aircraft areLesson 1Basic Aerodynamics1–1

Figure 1-1formed with molds and have no internal ribs. Theydo have a main spar, of course.Almost all modern airplanes have a single wing,mounted either above or below the fuselage. Most,but not all, high wing airplanes have supportingstruts. Low wing and strutless high wing airplanesare cantilevered: the internal structure is designed tosupport the load so there are no struts.Wing fuel tanks are either “wet wings” with the wingstructure serving as the fuel container, or there arerubber bladders contained within the wing.EmpennageThe horizontal stabilizer, the rudder, the vertical fin,the elevator, or any combination thereof is called theairplane’s empennage or “tail feathers.” These surfaces allow the pilot to change the airplane’s attitudein relation to the horizon by moving the nose up anddown (using the yoke or control stick) or left andright (using the rudder pedals) as seen by the pilot.There may be a fixed horizontal stabilizer with amovable elevator, or the whole horizontal assemblymay be movable (called a stabilator).Flight ControlsSee Figure 1-2: Fore-and-aft movement of the control wheel or stick is transmitted by pushrods orcables and pulleys to these control surfaces, and left-1–2The Complete Private Pilotright movement is controlled by the rudder, whichis mounted at the rear of the vertical fin. The pilotdepresses the rudder pedal in the desired directionof nose movement and a cable system moves thecontrol surface. You will see V-tails, T-tails, andstraight tails, and maybe a home-built airplane withno horizontal surfaces mounted on the tail.AileronsYou won’t find many airplanes that do not have ailerons, which are movable control surfaces at the outertrailing edge of the wings. Ailerons are used to bankthe airplane. A control wheel or stick at the pilot station is moved in the direction of bank desired (left orright). The ailerons are deflected through a system ofcables, pulleys, and bellcranks or pushrods. When nocontrol force is exerted, the ailerons are held flushwith the wing surface by the airstream.FlapsThe hinged portions of the trailing edges of the wingsnear the fuselage are called flaps, and are normallyused to steepen the glide angle without increasingairspeed. As you walk along the ramp you will seemany different types of flaps, some that simply hingedown and others that extend down and backward.Older airplanes may not have any flaps at all.

Figure 1-2. Flight controlsLanding GearThe two main landing wheels and their supportingstructure are designed to withstand landing loadsand support the airplane on the ground. A third,smaller wheel mounted either forward (tricycle)or aft (conventional) is for ground steering controlonly. Nosewheels are usually close to or a part ofthe engine mount and are definitely not designed toabsorb landing loads. (Your instructor will devote alot of training time to making sure that you do notland on the nose wheel!)The shiny cylinders on nose wheels and some mainlanding gear

Bob Gardner has accomplished with The Complete Private Pilot. A writer embarking on the task of creating a funda - mental aviation text is faced with a formidable chal - lenge; if prospective pilots are to reap the benefits of his work, the writing must be at once very readable and very comprehensive. vi The Complete Private Pilot About the Author Robert Gardner has long been an admired member .

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The Complete Private Pilot The Complete Private Pilot Syllabus The Complete Multi-Engine Pilot The Complete Remote Pilot Say Again, Please: Guide to Radio Communications . page xi—Dave Gwinn; p. xii—Jim Fagiolo; p. xiii—Bob Gardner; p. 1-14—King; p. 3-15—Cessna Co rporation; pp. 4-5, 4-6, 4-7—King; p. 4-10—Narco; p. 5-1—Boeing .

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