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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Sheep,Swine, and Poultry, by Robert JenningsThis eBook is for the use of anyoneanywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. Youmay copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the ProjectGutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online atwww.gutenberg.org/licenseTitle: Sheep, Swine, and PoultryEmbracing the History andVarieties of Each; The Best Modesof Breeding; Their Feedingand Management; Together withetc.Author: Robert JenningsRelease Date: March 19, 2012 [EBook#39205]Language: English

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERGEBOOK SHEEP, SWINE, AND POULTRY ***Produced by Steven Giacomelli, HarryLamé and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team athttp://www.pgdp.net (Thisfile was produced from images producedby Core HistoricalLiterature in Agriculture (CHLA),Cornell University)SHEEP, SWINE,

AND POULTRY;EMBRACINGTHE HISTORY AND VARIETIES OFEACH; THE BEST MODES OFBREEDING; THEIR FEEDING ANDMANAGEMENT; TOGETHER WITH THE DISEASES TOWHICH THEYARE RESPECTIVELY SUBJECT,AND THEAPPROPRIATE REMEDIESFOR EACH.BY ROBERT JENNINGS, V.

S.,PROFESSOR OF PATHOLOGY AND OPERATIVESURGERY IN THE VETERINARY COLLEGE OF PHILADELPHIA; LATE PROFESSOR OF VETERINARYMEDICINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGEOF OHIO; SECRETARY OF THE AMERICANVETERINARY ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA; AUTHOR OF “THE HORSE AND HISDISEASES,”“CATTLE AND THEIR DISEASES,” ETC., ETC.With Numerous Illustrations.PHILADELPHIA:

JOHN E. POTTER AND COMPANY.617SANSOM STREETEntered according to Act of Congress, in theyear 1864, byJ OHN E. POTTER,In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court ofthe United States, in and for the EasternDistrict of Pennsylvania.

PREFACE.Encouraged by the favorable receptionof his former works, the authorpresents in the following pages what isintended by him as a popularcompendium relative to Sheep, Swine,and Poultry.It would not have been a difficultmatter to collect material bearing uponeach distinct class sufficient for anentire volume of the present size.Indeed, the main trouble experiencedhas been the selecting of such facts and

suggestions only as seemed to him ofparamount practical importance. Hehas not deemed it advisable to cumberhis work with items of informationwhich could be of service to particularsections and localities only; but hasrather endeavored to present, in aconcise, yet comprehensible shape,whatever is essential to be understoodconcerning the animals in question.The amateur stock-raiser and thewealthy farmer will, of course, call totheir aid all the works, no matter howexpensive or voluminous, which are tobe found bearing upon the subject inwhich they are for the time interested.The present volume can scarcely beexpected to fill the niche which such

might desire to see occupied.The author’s experience as a veterinarysurgeon among the great body of ourfarmers convinces him that what isneeded by them in the premises is atreatise, of convenient size, containingthe essential features of the treatmentand management of each, couched inlanguage free from technicality orrarely scientific expressions, andfortified by the results of actualexperience upon the farm.Such a place the author trusts this workmay occupy. He hopes that, while itshall not be entirely destitute ofinterest for any, it will proveacceptable, in a peculiar degree, to that

numerous and thrifty class of citizensto which allusion has already beenmade.The importance of such a work cannotbe overrated. Take the subject of sheepfor example: the steadily growingdemand for woollen goods of everydescription is producing a great andlucrative development of the wooltrade. Even light fabrics of wool arenow extensively preferred throughoutthe country to those of cotton. Ourimports of wool from England duringthe past six years have increased at analmost incredible rate, while ourproductions of the article during thepast few years greatly exceed that ofthe same period in any portion of our

history.Relative to swine, moreover, it may besaid that they form so considerable anitem of our commerce that a thoroughinformation as to the best mode ofraising and caring for them is highlydesirable; while our domestic poultrycontribute so much, directly andindirectly, to the comfort and partialsubsistence of hundreds of thousands,that sensible views touching thatdivision will be of service in almostevery household.To those who are familiar with theauthor’s previous works upon theHorse and Cattle, it is needless to sayany thing as to the method adopted by

him in discussing the subject ofDiseases. To others he would say, thatonly such diseases are described as arelikely to be actually encountered, andsuch curatives recommended as hisown personal experience, or that ofothers upon whose judgment he relies,has satisfied him are rational andvaluable.The following works, among others,have been consulted: Randall’s SheepHusbandry;YouattonSheep;Goodale’s Breeding of DomesticAnimals; Allen’s Domestic Animals;Stephens’s Book of the Farm; Youatton the Hog; Richardson on the Hog;Dixon and Kerr’s Ornamental andDomestic Poultry; Bennett’s Poultry

Book; and Browne’s American PoultryYard.To those professional brethren whohave so courteously furnished him withvaluable information, growing out oftheir own observation and practice, heacknowledgeshimselfespeciallyindebted; and were he certain that theywould not take offence, he would bepleased to mention them here by name.Should the work prove of service to ourintelligent American farmers andstock-breeders as a body, the author’send will have been attained.

CONTENTS.

SHEEP AND THEIRDISEASES.PAGEHISTORY ANDVARIETIESAMERICAN SHEEPNative SheepThe Spanish MerinoThe Saxon MerinoThe New LeicesterThe South-DownThe CotswoldThe CheviotThe Lincoln15212225364147525456

NATURAL HISTORY OF THESHEEPFormation of the TeethStructure of the SkinAnatomy of the WoolLong WoolMiddle WoolShort WoolCROSSING ANDBREEDINGBREEDINGPoints of the MerinoBreeding MerinosGeneral Principles ofBreedingUse of Rams5759636476788081819397106112

LambingManagement of LambsCastration and Docking117121127FEEDING ANDMANAGEMENTFEEDINGShadeFencesHopplingDangerous RamsPrairie FeedingFall FeedingWinter FeedingFeeding with other StockDivision of FlocksRegularity in Feeding129129133133133134135137137142142143

Effect of FoodYardsFeeding-RacksTroughsBarns and ShedsShedsHay-HolderTaggingWashingCutting the HoofsShearingCold StormsSun-ScaldTicksMarking or 1171171172173

Shortening the HornsSelection and DivisionThe CrookDriving and SlaughteringDrivingPoints of Fat SheepSlaughteringCutting UpRelative qualitiesContributions toManufacturesDISEASES AND THEIRREMEDIESADMINISTERING MEDICINEBLEEDINGFEELING THE PULSE174174176177177181184186187191195197197199

ApoplexyBraxyBronchitisCatarrhMalignant EpizoöticCatarrhColicCostivenessDiarrhœaDisease of the e200201201202203205206206207208209209210211211

Grub in the Head212Hoof-AilHooveHydatid on the BrainObstruction of the bSmall-PoxSore FaceSore 43243

ILLUSTRATIONS.A LEICESTER RAMROCKY MOUNTAIN SHEEPA MERINO RAMA SPANISH SHEEP-DOGOUT AT PASTUREA COUNTRY SCENEA SOUTH-DOWN RAMTHE COTSWOLDA CHEVIOT EWESKELETON OF THE SHEEP ASCOVERED BY THE MUSCLES15192528354147525457

THE WALLACHIAN SHEEPTHE HAPPY TRIOTHE SCOTCH SHEEP-DOG ORCOLLEYEWE AND LAMBSFEEDING AND MANAGEMENTA COVERED SALTING-BOXA CONVENIENT BOX-RACKA HOLE-RACKTHE HOPPER-RACKAN ECONOMICALSHEEP-TROUGHSHEEP-BARN WITH SHEDSA SHED OF RAILSWASHING 2155162166

FLEECESHEPHERD’S CROOKTHE SHEPHERD AND HISFLOCKDROVER’S OR BUTCHER’SDOGQUIET ENJOYMENTAN ENGLISH RACK FORFEEDING SHEEPA BARRACK FOR STORINGSHEEP FODDERTHE BROAD-TAILED SHEEP167176179185195203228236CONTENTS.SWINE AND THEIR

DISEASES.HISTORY AND BREEDS245(7)AMERICAN SWINEThe ByefieldThe Bedford254256256(16)(18)(18)The LeicesterThe YorkshireThe ChineseThe SuffolkThe BerkshireNATURAL HISTORY OF THEHOGFormation of the (27)

BREEDING ANDMANAGEMENTBREEDINGPoints of a Good HogTreatment duringPregnancyAbortionParturitionTreatment whileSucklingTreatment of Young 9(38)(39)(41)282283284286(44)(45)(46)(48)

WeaningRingingFeeding and ghteringPickling and CuringValue of the Carcass298300304(60)(62)(66)DISEASES AND THEIRREMEDIESCatching the chingCatarrh

rFoul Skin315317(77)(79)Inflammation of 81)(81)(82)(84)(85)(85)(85)

Swelling of the ONS.THE WILD BOARTHE WILD BOAR AT BAYTHE CHINESE HOGTHE SUFFOLKA BERKSHIRE BOAR245252259260261(7)(14)(21)(22)(23)

SKELETON OF THE HOG ASCOVERED BY THE MUSCLESTHE OLD COUNTRY WELLWILD HOGSTHE OLD ENGLISH HOGA WICKED-LOOKINGSPECIMENHUNTING THE WILD ENTS.POULTRY ANDTHEIR DISEASES.

HISTORY ANDVARIETIESTHE DOMESTIC FOWLThe BantamThe African BantamThe Bolton GrayThe Blue Dun327327330331333334(7)(7)(10)(11)(13)(14)The ChittagongThe Cochin ChinaThe Cuckoo335336339(15)(16)(19)The DominiqueThe DorkingThe Fawn-coloredDorking340340(20)(20)343(23)

The Black DorkingThe Dunghill FowlThe Frizzled FowlThe Game FowlThe Mexican Hen-Cock343344344345347(23)(24)(24)(25)(27)The Wild Indian GameThe Spanish GameThe GuelderlandThe Spangled Hamburgh348348349350(28)(28)(29)(30)The Golden SpangledThe Silver SpangledThe Java350351352(30)(31)(32)The Jersey-BlueThe Lark-Crested FowlThe Malay352352354(32)(32)(34)

The Pheasant-MalayThe Plymouth Rock356357(36)(37)The PolandThe Black PolishThe Golden Polands358360361(38)(40)(41)The Silver PolandsThe Black-topped WhiteThe ShanghaeThe White ShanghaeThe Silver PheasantThe SpanishNATURAL HISTORY OFDOMESTIC (52)The Guinea FowlThe Pea Fowl378381(58)(61)

The TurkeyThe Wild TurkeyThe Domestic TurkeyThe DuckThe Wild DuckThe Domestic DuckThe (82)The Wild GooseThe Domestic GooseThe Bernacle GooseThe Bremen GooseThe Brent GooseThe China Goose402404407409410411(82)(84)(87)(89)(90)(91)The White China413(93)The Egyptian GooseThe Java Goose414415(94)(95)

The Toulouse Goose415The White-fronted Goose 416The Anatomy of the Egg 417BREEDING ANDMANAGEMENTBREEDINGHigh BreedingSelection of es436 (116)436 (116)Green FoodEarth-Worms437 (117)437 (117)

Animal FoodInsectsLayingPreservation of EggsChoice of Eggs forSettingIncubationIncubation of Turkeys438439439443(118)(119)(119)(123)Incubation of GeeseRearing of the YoungRearing of Guinea FowlsRearing of TurkeysRearing of DucklingsRearing of Goslings454455458459461463CaponizingFattening and464 (144)446 (126)449 (129)453 (133)(134)(135)(138)(139)(141)(143)

Slaughtering468 (148)Slaughtering andDressing472 (152)Poultry-Houses474 (154)DISEASES AND THEIRREMEDIESAsthmaCostiveness478 (158)479 (159)480 (160)DiarrhœaFeverIndigestionLiceLoss of Feathers481482482483485Pip485 (165)(161)(162)(162)(163)(165)

RoupWounds and Sores488 (168)490 (170)ILLUSTRATIONS.VARIETIES OF FOWLTHE BANTAM327331(7)(11)BANTAMBOLTON GRAYS OR CREOLEFOWL332(12)333(13)COCHIN CHINASWHITE DORKINGS337341(17)(21)

GRAY GAME FOWLSGUELDERLANDSHAMBURGH FOWLS346349350(26)(29)(30)MALAYSPOLAND FOWLS354359(34)(39)SHANGHAESWHITE SHANGHAESSPANISH FOWLSTHE GUINEA FOWLTHE PEA FOWL365367369379382(45)(47)(49)(59)(62)THE WILD TURKEYTHE DOMESTIC TURKEYTHE EIDER DUCK386392395(66)(72)(75)WILD DUCKROUEN DUCK397399(77)(79)

WILD OR CANADA GOOSEA BREMEN GOOSECHINA OR HONG KONGGOOSE403409(83)(89)411(91)BARNYARD SCENE421 (101)FIGHTING COCKSON THE WATCHMARQUEE OR TENT-SHAPEDCOOPSDUCK-POND AND HOUSESA BAD STYLE OFSLAUGHTERINGRUSTIC POULTRY-HOUSEA FANCY COOP IN CHINESEOR GOTHIC STYLE429 (109)439 (119)456 (136)461 (141)468 (148)475 (155)476 (156)

AMONG THE STRAWPRAIRIE HENSSWANS478 (158)483 (163)488 (168)

With a single exception—that of thedog—there is no member of the beastfamily which presents so great adiversity of size, color, form, covering,andgeneralappearance,ascharacterizes the sheep; and none

occupy a wider range of climate, orsubsist on a greater variety of food.This animal is found in every latitudebetween the Equator and the Arcticcircle, ranging over barren mountainsand through fertile valleys, feedingupon almost every species of edibleforage—the cultivated grasses, clovers,cereals, and roots—browsing onaromatic and bitter herbs alike,cropping the leaves and barks fromstunted forest shrubs and the pungent,resinous evergreens. In some parts ofNorway and Sweden, when otherresources fail, he subsists on fish orflesh during the long, rigorous winter,and, if reduced to necessity, evendevours his own wool.

In size, he is diminutive or massive; hehas many horns, or but two large orsmall spiral horns, or is polled orhornless. His tail may be broad, orlong, or a mere button, discoverableonly by the touch. His covering is longand coarse, or short and hairy, or softand furry, or fine and spiral. His colorvaries from white or black to everyshade of brown, dun, buff, blue, andgray. This wide diversity results fromlong domestication under almost everyconceivable variety of condition.Among the antediluvians, sheep wereused for sacrificial offerings, and theirfleeces, in all probability, furnishedthem with clothing. Since the delugetheir flesh has been a favorite food

among many nations. Many of therude, wandering tribes of the Eastemploy them as beasts of burden. Theuncivilized—and, to some extent, therefined—inhabitants of Europe usetheir milk, not only as a beverage, butfor making into cheese, butter, andcurds—an appropriation of it which isalso noticed by Job, Isaiah, and otherOld Testament writers, as well as mostof the Greek and Roman authors. Theewe’s milk scarcely differs inappearance from that of the cow,though it is generally thicker, andyields a pale, yellowish butter, which isalways soft and soon becomes rancid.In dairy regions the animal is likewisefrequently employed at the tread-mill

or horizontal wheel, to pump water,churn milk, or perform other lightdomestic work.The calling of the shepherd has, fromtime immemorial, been conspicuous,and not wanting in dignity andimportance. Abel was a keeper ofsheep; as were Abraham and hisdescendants, as well as most of theancient patriarchs. Job possessedfourteen thousand sheep. Rachel, thefavored mother of the Jewish race,“came with her father’s sheep, for shekept them.” The seven daughters of thepriest of Midian “came and drew waterfor their father’s flocks.” Moses, thestatesman and lawgiver, “learned in allthe wisdom of the Egyptians,” busied

himself in tending “the flocks ofJethro, his father-in-law.” David, too,that sweet singer of Israel and itsdestined monarch—the Jewish hero,poet, and divine—was a keeper ofsheep. To shepherds, “abiding in thefield, keeping watch over their flocksby night,” came the glad tidings of aSaviour’s birth. The Hebrew term forsheep signifies, in its ve of the blessings which theywere destined to confer upon thehuman family. In the Holy Scriptures,this animal is the chosen symbol ofpurity and the gentler virtues, thevictim of propitiatory sacrifices, andthe type of redemption to fallen man.

Among profane writers, Homer andHesiod,VirgilandTheocritus,introduce them in their pastoralthemes; while their heroes and demigods—Hercules and Ulysses, Eneasand Numa—carefully perpetuate themin their domains.In modern times, they have engagedthe attention of the most enlightenednations, whose prosperity has beenintimately linked with them, whereverwool and its manufactures have beenregarded as essential staples. Spain andPortugal, during the two centuries inwhich they figured as the mostenterprisingEuropeancountries,excelled in the production andmanufacture of wool. Flanders, for a

time, took precedence of England inthe perfection of the arts and theenjoyments of life; and the lattercountry then sent what little wool sheraised to the former to bemanufactured. This being soon foundhighly impolitic, large bounties wereoffered by England for the importationof artists and machinery; and by asystematic and thorough course oflegislation, which looked to the utmostprotection and increase of wool andwoollens, she gradually carried theirproduction beyond any thing the worldhad ever seen.Of the original breed of this invaluableanimal, nothing certain is known; fourvarieties having been deemed by

naturalists entitled to that distinction.These are, 1. The Musimon, inhabitingCorsica, Sardinia, and other islands ofthe Mediterranean, the mountainousparts of Spain and Greece, and someother regions bordering upon thatinland sea. These have been frequentlydomesticated and mixed with the longcultivated breeds.2. The Argali ranges over the steppes,or inland plains of Central Asia,northward and eastward to the ocean.They are larger and hardier than theMusimon and not so easily tamed.3.The Rocky Mountain Sheep—frequently called the Bighorn by our

western hunters—is found on theprairies west of the Mississippi, andthroughout the wild, mountainousregions extending through Californiaand Oregon to the Pacific. They arelarger than the Argali—which in otherrespects they resemble—and areprobably descended from them, sincethey could easily cross upon the ice atBehring’s Straits, from the northeastern coast of Asia. Like the Argali,when caught young they are readilytamed; but it is not known that theyhave ever been bred with the domesticsheep. Before the country was overrunby the white ram, they probablyinhabited the region bordering on theMississippi.FatherHennepin—a

French Jesuit, who wrote some twohundred years ago—often speaks ofmeeting with goats in his travelsthrough the territory which is nowembraced by Illinois, Wisconsin, and aportion of Minnesota. The wild,clambering propensities of theseanimals—occupying, as they do, thegiddy heights far beyond the reach ofthe traveller—and their outer coatingof hair—supplied underneath, however,with a thick coating of soft wool—givethem much the appearance of goats. Insummer they are generally foundsingle; but when they descend fromtheir isolated, rocky heights in winter,they are gregarious, marching in flocksunder the guidance of leaders.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SHEEP.4. The Bearded Sheep of Africa inhabitthe mountains of Barbary and Egypt.

They are covered with a soft, reddishhair, and have a mane hanging belowthe neck, and large, locks of hair at theankle.Many varieties of the domesticatedsheep—that is, all the subjugatedspecies—apparently differ less fromtheir wild namesakes than from eachother.T h e fat-rumped and the broad-tailedsheep are much more extensivelydiffused than any other, and occupynearly all the south-eastern part ofEurope, Western and Central Asia, andNorthern Africa. They are supposed,from various passages in thePentateuch in which “the fat and the

rump” are spoken of in connection withofferings, to be the varieties whichwere propagated by the patriarchs andtheir descendants, the Jewish race.They certainly give indisputableevidence of remote and continuedsubjugation. Their long, pendent,drowsy ears, and the highly artificialposteriordevelopments,arecharacteristic of no wild or recentlydomesticated race.This breed consists of numerous subvarieties, differing in all their

Embracing the History and Varieties of Each; The Best Modes of Breeding; Their Feeding . Horse and Cattle, it is needless to say any thing as to the method adopted by. . Structure of the Skin 63 Anatomy of the Wool 64 Long Wool 76 Middle Wool 78 Short Wool 80 CROSSING AND BREEDING 81

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