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INSTRUCTOR’S RESOURCE MANUALThe American PromiseA History of the United StatesFourth EditionSARAH E. GARDNERMercer UniversityCATHERINE A. JONESJohns Hopkins UniversityBedford/St. Martin’sBoston New York

Copyright 2009 by Bedford/St. Martin’sAll rights reserved.Manufactured in the United States of America.0 9 8 7 6 5f e d c b aFor information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000)ISBN–10: 0–312–47006–1ISBN–13: 978–0–312–47006–7Instructors who have adopted The American Promise, Fourth Edition, as a textbook for a course are authorized toduplicate portions of this manual for their students.

PrefaceThis manual draws upon instructor experiencesteaching with The American Promise. Intended to helpmake your American survey course as successful aspossible, it offers chapter-by-chapter suggestions andresources for teaching with fourth edition. The following features are designed to help you make the mostof your course.FeaturesChapter Learning Objectives offer an overview of thechapter’s content for easy reference and act as a starting point for class discussions.Annotated Chapter Outline gives an in-depth reviewof each chapter, covering major topics and sub-themes,and serves as a guidepost for those new to the book.NEW Chapter Questions includes model answerguidelines for the new Review Questions and MakingConnections questions, along with the Map and VisualActivities and the questions that accompany the Documenting the American Promise feature. The guidelinesinclude page references to help you efficiently guideyour students back to the narrative for reinforcementof major points. The model answers can also be usedas a guide for class discussions and to help establishgrading guidelines when the questions are used forassignments, quizzes, or tests.Lecture Strategies in each chapter provide flexibleapproaches to teaching the chapter’s major themesand events. Each suggests ways to use the textbook’simages, boxed features, and maps to illustrate or reinforce points in the narrative and to provoke discussion.Anticipating Student Reactions discusses commonmisunderstandings that new students of U.S. historytypically bring to class and addresses topics that students frequently find difficult to grasp. This points toways in which instructors can debunk misconceptions, complicate generalizations, clarify topics, andincite students into active thinking about history.In-Class Activities offer suggestions for engagingstudents, such as debates and simulations based onimportant topics in the text, and is divided into foursubsections. Class Discussion Starters help stretchstudents’ historical imagination and impress uponthem the conditional nature of history, unseating thenotion that history moves forward as a predeterminedsequence of events. Historical Debates point to majorpoints of contention among scholars and offer suggestions for setting up classroom debates on thoughtprovoking topics. Reading Primary Sources suggestsways to introduce students to primary sources, todevelop their analytical thinking skills, and to encourage them to think about the past like historians.Finally, Using Film and Television in the Classroomoffers numerous titles of documentaries and relevantHollywood films for students to view.Additional Resources appear at the conclusion ofeach chapter. These detailed guides list chapterspecific elements from the many supplements available with the book, including transparencies anddigital images for classroom use, supplementaryreadings for students, and customized online activities that are fully integrated with the text and allowstudents to practice the skills historians use whilereinforcing chapter content. A full list of the resourcesavailable with The American Promise, Fourth Edition,follows.iii

ivPREFACENEW Research Paper Topics are designed to encourage students to integrate material and think analytically. The sample research paper questions covermaterial from multiple chapters and ask students tointerpret political, social, religious, and economic patterns and changes over time.Discussing The American Promise: A Survival Guidefor First-Time Teaching Assistants appears inAppendix I of this manual. This unique resource supplements the chapter-specific teaching suggestionswith concrete advice for T.A.’s on teaching the U.S.history survey course—working with professors,overcoming problems with students, running discussion sections, designing assignments, grading testsand papers, relating thesis and dissertation work toclassroom teaching, and more.Sample Syllabi, which appear in Appendix II, offersuggestions for structuring survey courses using thistextbook as well as other supplemental Bedford/St.Martin’s materials. Syllabi are included for quarterschools, semester schools, and the one-semester survey.Supplements Availablewith The American Promise,Fourth EditionThis manual serves as the keystone to the comprehensive collection of supplements available with TheAmerican Promise, Fourth Edition, that provide anintegrated support system for veteran teachers, firsttime teacher assistants, and instructors who lecture tolarge classes. As noted above, chapter-specific suggestions for incorporating many of the supplements canbe found throughout this manual.SupplementsFor InstructorsTransparencies. This set of over 160 full-color acetatetransparencies of full-size maps and images from boththe full and compact editions of The American Promisehelps instructors present lectures and teach studentsimportant map and image-reading skills.Book Companion Site at bedfordstmartins.com/roark. The companion Web site gathers all the electronic resources for the fourth edition, including theOnline Study Guide and related Quiz Gradebook, at asingle Web address, providing convenient links tolecture, assignment, and research materials such asPowerPoint chapter outlines and the digital librariesat Make History. The Web site also contains additionalinstructor materials including an online version ofthis manual, a guide to changing editions, a guide tousing the Bedford Series in History and Culture withthe fourth edition, and chapter questions for i clicker,a classroom response system.Computerized Test Bank. This test bank, by BradfordWood (Eastern Kentucky University), Peter Lau(University of Rhode Island), and Sondra Cosgrove(Community College of Southern Nevada) containseasy-to-use software to create tests. Over 80 exercisesare provided per chapter, including multiple-choice,fill-in-the-blank, map analysis, short essay, and fulllength essay questions, including the questions fromthe textbook. Instructors can customize quizzes, addor edit both questions and answers, and export questions and answers to a variety of formats, includingWebCT and Blackboard. The disc includes correctanswers and essay outlines as well as separate testbanks for the associated telecourses Shaping Americaand Transforming America.Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM. This disc providesinstructors with ready-made and customizable PowerPoint multimedia presentations built around chapteroutlines, maps, figures, and selected images from thetextbook. The disc also includes selected images fromthe textbook in jpeg and PowerPoint format, and outline maps in PDF format for quizzing or handouts.Make History at bedfordstmartins.com/roark. Comprising the content of our five acclaimed onlinelibraries—Map Central, the U.S. History Image Library,DocLinks, HistoryLinks, and PlaceLinks, Make Historyprovides one-stop access to relevant digital contentincluding maps, images, documents, and Web links.Students and instructors alike can search this free, easyto-use database by keyword, topic, date, or specificchapter of The American Promise and can download anycontent they find. Instructors using The AmericanPromise can also create collections of content and postthem to the Web to share with students.Using the Bedford Series in History and Culture inthe U.S. History Survey at bedfordstmartins.com/usingseries. This online guide helps instructors integrate volumes from the popular Bedford Series in History and Culture into their U.S. history survey course.The guide not only correlates themes from each seriesbook to the survey course but also provides ideas forclassroom discussions.

PREFACECourse Management Content. E-content is available for this book in Blackboard, WebCT, Angel,and Desire2Learn course management systems. Thise-content includes nearly all of the offerings from thebook’s Online Study Guide as well as the book’s testbank and the test banks from the associated telecourses Shaping America and Transforming America.Videos and Multimedia. A wide assortment of videosand multimedia CD-ROMs on various topics in American history is available to qualified adopters. Alsoavailable, Reel Teaching, featuring 59 short clips fromthe telecourses Shaping America and TransformingAmerica in DVD and VHS formats for presentationduring lectures.The American Promise for Distance Learning viaTelecourse. We are pleased to announce that TheAmerican Promise has been selected as the textbook forthe award-winning U.S. history telecourses ShapingAmerica: U.S. History to 1877 and Transforming America:U.S. History since 1877 by Dallas TeleLearning at theLeCroy Center for Educational Telecommunications,Dallas County Community College District. Guidesfor students and instructors fully integrate thenarrative of The American Promise into each telecourse.For more information on these distance-learningopportunities, visit the Dallas TeleLearning Web site athttp://telelearning.dcccd.edu, e-mail tlearn@dcccd.edu,or call 972-669-6650.For StudentsReading the American Past. Selected Historical Documents, Fourth Edition. Edited by Michael P. Johnson(Johns Hopkins University), one of the authors of TheAmerican Promise, and designed to complement thetextbook, Reading the American Past provides a broadselection of over 150 primary source documents aswell as editorial apparatus to help students understand the sources. Emphasizing the important social,political, and economic themes of U.S. history courses,thirty-one new documents (one per chapter) wereadded to provide a multiplicity of perspectives onenvironmental, Western, ethnic, and gender historyand to bring a global dimension to the anthology.Available free when packaged with the text.NEW The American Promise and Reading theAmerican Past e-Book. Not your usual e-book, thisone-of-a-kind online resource integrates the text ofThe American Promise with the 150 additional writtensources of the companion sourcebook, Reading theAmerican Past, along with the self-testing activities ofthe Online Study Guide, into one easy-to-use e-book.vWith search functions stronger than in any competingtext, this e-book is an ideal study and reference toolfor students. Instructors can easily add documents,images, and other material to customize the text, making this e-book especially suited to instructors whowish to build dynamic online courses or use electronictexts and documents. Available free with the print textor stand-alone for about half the price of the textbook.NEW Audio Reviews for The American Promise,Fourth Edition at www.bedfordstmartins.com/roark.Audio Reviews are a new tool that fits easily into students’ lifestyles and provides a practical new way forthem to study. These 25- to 30-minute summaries ofeach chapter in The American Promise highlight themajor themes of the text and help reinforce studentlearning.Online Study Guide at bedfordstmartins.com/roark.The popular Online Study Guide is a free and uniquelearning tool to help students master themes and information presented in the textbook and improve their historical skills. Assessment quizzes, short answer andessay questions, and interactive activities allow studentsto evaluate their comprehension and provide them withfeedback and text references for further study. Instructors can monitor students’ progress through the onlineQuiz Gradebook or receive e-mail updates.The Bedford Glossary for U.S. History. This handysupplement for the survey course gives students clear,concise definitions of the political, economic, social,and cultural terms used by historians and contemporary media alike. The terms are historically contextualized to aid comprehension. Available free whenpackaged with the text.History Matters: A Student Guide to U.S. HistoryOnline. This resource, written by Alan Gevinson,Kelly Schrum, and Roy Rosenzweig (all of GeorgeMason University), provides an illustrated and annotated guide to 250 of the most useful Web sites for student research in U.S. history as well as advice onevaluating and using Internet sources. This essentialguide is based on the acclaimed “History Matters”Web site developed by the American History SocialProject and the Center for History and New Media.Available free when packaged with the text.Maps in Context: A Workbook for American History.Written by historical cartography expert Gerald A.Danzer (University of Illinois, Chicago), this skillbuilding workbook helps students comprehendessential connections between geographic literacy andhistorical understanding. Organized to correspond to

viPREFACEthe typical U.S. history survey course, Maps inContext presents a wealth of map-centered projectsand convenient pop quizzes that give students handson experience working with maps. Available freewhen packaged with the text.Bedford Bibliographer at bedfordstmartins.com/roark. The Bedford Bibliographer, a simple but powerful Web-based tool, assists students with the processof collecting sources and generates bibliographies infour commonly documentation styles.Bedford Series in History and Culture. Over 100titles in this highly praised series combine first-ratescholarship, historical narrative, and important primary documents for undergraduate courses. Eachbook is brief, inexpensive, and focused on a specifictopic or period. Package discounts are available.Bedford Research Room at bedfordstmartins.com/roark. The Research Room, drawn from MikePalmquist’s The Bedford Researcher, offers a wealth ofresources—including interactive tutorials, researchactivities, student writing samples, and links to hundreds of other places online—to support students incourses across the disciplines. The site also offersinstructors a library of helpful instructional tools.Historians at Work Series. Brief enough for a singleassignment yet meaty enough to provoke thoughtfuldiscussion, each volume in this series examines asingle historical question by combining unabridgedselections by distinguished historians, each with a different perspective on the issue, with helpful learningaids. Package discounts are available.NEW Trade Books. Titles published by sister companies Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Henry Holt; Hill andWang; Picador; and St. Martin’s Press are available ata 50 percent discount when packaged with the text.Online Bibliography at bedfordstmartins.com/roark.Organized by book chapter and topic, the onlinebibliography provides an authoritative and comprehensive list of references to jump-start student research.Critical Thinking Modules at bedfordstmartins.com/historyroark. This Web site offers over two dozenonline modules for interpreting maps, audio, visual,and textual sources centered on events covered in theU.S. history survey. An online guide correlates modules to textbook chapters.A Student’s Online Guide to History ReferenceSources at bedfordstmartins.com/roark. This Web siteprovides links to history-related databases, indexes,and journals, plus contact information for state, provincial, local, and professional history organizations.Research and Documentation Online at bedfordstmartins.com/roark. This Web site provides clearadvice on how to integrate primary and secondarysources into research papers, how to cite sources correctly, and how to format in MLA, APA, Chicago, orCBE style.The St. Martin’s Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism atbedfordstmartins.com/roark. This online tutorialreviews the consequences of plagiarism and explainswhat sources to acknowledge, how to keep goodnotes, how to organize research, and how to integratesources appropriately. The tutorial includes exercisesto help students practice integrating sources and recognize acceptable summaries.Student Course Guides for Shaping America: U.S. History to 1877 and Transforming America: U.S. Historysince 1877. These guides by Kenneth G. Alfers (DallasCounty Community College District) are designed forstudents using The American Promise in conjunctionwith the Dallas TeleLearning telecourses ShapingAmerica and Transforming America. Lesson overviews,assignments, objectives, and focus points providestructure for distance learners, while enrichmentideas, suggested readings, and brief primary sourcesextend the unit lessons. Practice tests help studentsevaluate their mastery of the material.

ContentsPrefaceiiiLECTURE 2: The AuthoritarianNative American Civilizations20LECTURE 3: The Fruits of Empire20CHAPTER 1Ancient America: Before 14921Chapter Learning Objectives1Common Misconceptions andDifficult Topics21Annotated Chapter Outline1In-Class Activities21Chapter Questions4Lecture Strategies8Additional Resources forChapter 222CHAPTER 3The Southern Coloniesin the SeventeenthCentury, 1601–170023LECTURE 1: An Introduction tothe Discipline of HistoryLECTURE 2: The Peopling ofPrehistoric America and theDiversity of North AmericanCultureCommon Misconceptions andDifficult TopicsIn-Class ActivitiesAdditional Resources for Chapter 1CHAPTER 2Europeans Encounter theNew World, 1492–160088Chapter Learning Objectives239Annotated Chapter Outline239Chapter Questions2610Lecture Strategies3111Chapter Learning Objectives11Annotated Chapter Outline11Chapter Questions14Lecture Strategies20LECTURE 1: The Transition of Spainfrom the Periphery to the Center ofEuropean Politics20LECTURE 1: The Process of BritishColonization31LECTURE 2: From Servitude toSlavery in the Chesapeake31LECTURE 3: Chesapeake andCarolina Societies Compared32Common Misconceptions andDifficult Topics32In-Class Activities33Additional Resources forChapter 333vii

viiiCONTENTSCHAPTER 4The Northern Colonies in theSeventeenth Century, 1601–170035Chapter Learning Objectives35Annotated Chapter Outline35Chapter Questions39Lecture Strategies44LECTURE 1: The Religious Basis ofColonization44LECTURE 2: The Impact of EnglishPolitics on American Colonization45LECTURE 3: A Social History of theNorthern Colonies45Common Misconceptions andDifficult Topics46In-Class Activities46Additional Resources for Chapter 447Annotated Chapter Outline62Chapter Questions68Lecture Strategies73LECTURE 1: Political and SocialDeterminants of the Propensityfor Radical Action73LECTURE 2: The Ideology of theAmerican Revolution73LECTURE 3: An Overview of theEvents Leading towardRevolution, 1754 –177574Common Misconceptions andDifficult Topics75In-Class Activities75Additional Resources for Chapter 676CHAPTER 7The War for America, 1775 –178378Chapter Learning Objectives78Annotated Chapter Outline7849Chapter Questions83Chapter Learning Objectives49Lecture Strategies88Annotated Chapter Outline49Chapter Questions52Lecture Strategies58CHAPTER 5Colonial America in theEighteenth Century, 1701–1770LECTURE 1: Ethnic and ReligiousHeterogeneity in Colonial AmericaLECTURE 2: Solidly EstablishingSlaveryLECTURE 3: The Colonial Economyin the Eighteenth Century5858LECTURE 1: Indecision in theEarly War88LECTURE 2: The Home Front88LECTURE 3: The Military Campaigns89Common Misconceptions andDifficult Topics89In-Class Activities90Additional Resources for Chapter 790CHAPTER 8Building a Republic, 1775–17899258Common Misconceptions andDifficult Topics59In-Class Activities59Chapter Learning Objectives92Additional Resources for Chapter 560Annotated Chapter Outline92Chapter Questions97Lecture Strategies101CHAPTER 6The British Empire and theColonial Crisis, 1754 –1775Chapter Learning Objectives6262LECTURE 1: The Problems

environmental, Western, ethnic, and gender history and to bring a global dimension to the anthology. Available free when packaged with the text. NEW The American Promise and Reading the American Past e-Book. Not your usual e-book, this one-of-a-kind online resource integrates the text of The American Promisewith the 150 additional written