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M-76 (rev. 09/14)

In 1876, to commemorate 100 years of independence from GreatBritain, Archibald M. Willard presented his painting, Spirit of ‘76,at the U.S. Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, PA. The paintingdepicts three generations of Americans fighting for their new nation’sfreedom, one of whom is marching along though slightly wounded inbattle. Willard’s powerful portrayal of the strength and determination ofthe American people in the face of overwhelming odds inspired millions.The painting quickly became one of the most popular patriotic images inAmerican history. This depiction of courage and character still resonatestoday as the Spirit of ‘76 lives on in our newest Americans.“Spirit of ‘76” (1876) by Archibald M. Willard.Courtesy of the National Archives, NARA File # 148-GW-1209

The Citizen’s AlmanacFundamentalDocuments, Symbols, and Anthemsof the United States

U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL EDITION NOTICEUse of ISBNThis is the Official U.S. Government edition of this publication and is herein identifiedto certify its authenticity. Use of the ISBN 978-0-16-078003-5 is for U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office Official Editions only. The Superintendent of Documents of the U.S.Government Printing Office requests that any reprinted edition clearly be labeled as acopy of the authentic work with a new ISBN.The information presented in The Citizen’s Almanac is considered public information andmay be distributed or copied without alteration unless otherwise specified. The citationshould be:U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services,Office of Citizenship, The Citizen’s Almanac, Washington, DC, 2014.U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has purchased the right to use manyof the images in The Citizen’s Almanac. USCIS is licensed to use these images on a nonexclusive and non-transferable basis. All other rights to the images, including withoutlimitation and copyright, are retained by the owner of the images. These images arenot in the public domain and may not be used except as they appear as part of thispublication.For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfficeInternet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-000100I S B N 978-0-16-092263-3ii

Table of ContentsMessage From the Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vCitizenship in America: Rights and Responsibilities of U.S. Citizens. . . . 1Rights of a Citizen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Responsibilities of a Citizen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Patriotic Anthems and Symbols of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9The Star-Spangled Banner (1814). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10America the Beautiful (1893). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13The New Colossus (1883) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15I Hear America Singing (1860). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Concord Hymn (1837). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Pledge of Allegiance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Flag of the United States of America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Motto of the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Great Seal of the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Presidential and Historical Speeches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Farewell Address—George Washington (1796). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28First Inaugural Address—Abraham Lincoln (1861). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Gettysburg Address—Abraham Lincoln (1863) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33The Four Freedoms—Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Inaugural Address—John F. Kennedy (1961). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38I Have a Dream—Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Remarks at the Brandenburg Gate—Ronald Reagan (1987) . . . . . . . . 43iii

Fundamental Documents of American Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45The Mayflower Compact (1620). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46The Declaration of Independence (1776). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48The Federalist Papers (1787–1788). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55The Constitution of the United States (1787). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58The Bill of Rights (1791) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Emancipation Proclamation (1863) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Landmark Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Marbury v. Madison (1803)John Marshall—Delivering the Opinion of the Court . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)John Marshall Harlan—Delivering the DissentingOpinion of the Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)Robert Jackson—Delivering the Opinion of the Court. . . . . . . . . . . . 71Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Earl Warren—Delivering the Opinion of the Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Presidential Statements on Citizenship and Immigration . . . . . . . . . . 75Prominent Foreign-Born Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101iv

Message from the DirectorToday you are a citizen of the United States of America—becoming “a peer of kings” as President Calvin Coolidge once said. Thisoccasion is a defining moment that should not soon be forgotten, for itmarks the beginning of a new era in your lifetime as a U.S. citizen.Naturalized citizens are an important part of our great democracy,bringing a wealth of talent, ability, and character to this Nation. Yourfellow citizens recognize the sacrifices you have made to reach thismilestone and with open arms we welcome you. The United States offersan abundance of freedom and opportunity for all its citizens and wewish you all the best along the way.As you will read in this booklet, The Citizen’s Almanac, naturalized citizenshave played an important role in shaping this country. From AlexanderHamilton to Albert Einstein, foreign-born Americans have contributedto all aspects of society—literature, motion pictures, public service, andathletics, to name just a few. As a citizen of the United States, it is nowyour turn to add to this great legacy.For more than 200 years, we have been bound by the principles andideals expressed in our founding documents, but it is up to citizenslike you to carry on this legacy for future generations.Upon taking the Oath of Allegiance, you claimed for yourself theGod-given unalienable rights that the Declaration of Independence setsforth as a natural right to all people. You also made a commitment tothis country and were therefore awarded its highest privilege—U.S.citizenship; but great responsibilities accompany this privilege. You nowhave certain rights and responsibilities that you must exercise in order tov

maintain our system of government. By becoming an active and participatory citizen, you further strengthen the foundation of our Nation.The United States of America is now your country and The Citizen’sAlmanac contains information on the history, people, and events thathave brought us where we are today as a beacon of hope and freedom tothe world. We hope the contents of this booklet will serve as a constantreminder of the important rights and responsibilities you now have as aU.S. citizen. By continuing to learn about your new country, its foundingideals, achievements, and history, you will enjoy the fruits of responsiblecitizenship for years to come. Through your efforts, the freedom andliberty of future generations will be preserved and ensured.May you find fulfillment and success in all your endeavors as a citizen ofthis great Nation. Congratulations and welcome. May the United Statesof America provide you peace, opportunity, and security.vi

All people inthe UnitedStates havethe basic freedomsand protectionsoutlined in ourfounding documents,the Declaration ofIndependence andthe Constitution.For more than 200years, we have beenbound by the idealsexpressed in thesedocuments. Becauseof these ideals, oursociety has prospered.The U.S. government,as established in theConstitution, protectsthe rights of eachindividual, without— Declaration of Independence1

regard to background, culture, or religion. Tokeep our system of representative democracyand individual freedom, you should strive tobecome an active participant in Americancivic life.An adopted girl at hernaturalization ceremonyin Rockville, MD.Courtesy of the USCIS Historical LibraryEarly 20th centuryimmigrants.Courtesy of the USCIS Historical Library2Upon taking the Oath of Allegiance, you promise your loyalty and allegiance to the UnitedStates of America. U.S. citizens have importantrights and responsibilities. These include theright to vote in federal elections and the abilityto serve on a jury. Citizenship is a privilege thatoffers the extraordinary opportunity to be apart of the governing process.Former Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeisonce said, “The only title in our democracysuperior to that of President [is] the title ofcitizen.” In the United States, the power ofgovernment comes directly from the people.To protect freedom and liberty, U.S. citizensmust participate in the democratic processand in their communities. The following is alist of some of the most important rights andresponsibilities that all citizens should exercise

and respect. We encourage you to read theConstitution to learn more about all of therights and responsibilities of United Statescitizenship.Rights of a Citizen Freedom toexpress yourself.“Freedom of expression” includes severalindividual rights. Itincludes freedom ofspeech, freedom topeaceably assemble,and the freedom topetition the government for a redressof grievances. In arepresentative democracy, individualbeliefs and opinionsare important to ournational dialogue andnecessary to maintaina responsible citizenry. Americans canspeak and act as they wish as long as it does notendanger others or obstruct another’s freedomof expression in the process. Freedom to worship as you wish.In the United States, the freedom to hold anyreligious belief, or none at all, is considereda basic, or unalienable right. The governmentcannot violate this right. Religious intoleranceis unacceptable in a society where everyone hasindividual freedom. In cases where religiouspractices hurt the common good or endangerIn 1963, nearly 250,000people gathered inWashington, DC, to speakout against segregation andpetition for equal rights for allAmericans.Courtesy of the Library of Congress,LC-U9-10363-53

the health of others, the Supreme Court has imposed minor limitationson the way some religious practices are performed. Right to a prompt, fair trial by jury.People accused of a crime have the right to a speedy and fair trial by ajury of peers. In a free society, those accused of a crime are assumedinnocent until proven guilty in a court of law. The American system ofjustice treats all people fairly, ensuring the rights of the individual aremaintained. Right to keep and bear arms.The Constitution protects the rights of individuals to have firearms forpersonal defense. This privilege is subject to reasonable restrictionsdesigned to prevent unfit persons, or those with the intent to criminallymisuse guns or other firearms, from obtaining such items. Right to vote in elections for public officials.By voting in federal, state, and local elections, citizens choose their government leaders. The right to vote is one of the most important libertiesgranted to American citizens. It is the foundation of a free society. Right to apply for federal employment.Public service is a worthy endeavor and can lead to an extremelyrewarding career working for the American people. Many federalgovernment jobs require applicants to have U.S. citizenship. U.S. citizens can apply for federal employment within a government agency ordepartment. Right to run for elected office.U.S. citizenship is required for many elected offices in this country.Naturalized U.S. citizens can run for any elected office they choose withthe exception of President and Vice President of the United States, whichrequire candidates to be native-born citizens. Freedom to pursue “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”As a society based on individual freedom, it is the inherent right of allAmericans to pursue “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” TheUnited States is a land of opportunity. People are able to choose theirown path in life based on personal goals and objectives. Americans can4

make their own decisions and pursue theirown interests as long as it does not interferewith the rights of others.Responsibilities of a Citizen Support and defend the Constitutionagainst all enemies, foreign and domestic.The Constitution establishes the U.S.system of representative democracy andoutlines the inherent principles of freedom,liberty, and opportunity to which all citizensare entitled. The continuity of this Nation’sunique freedoms depends on the support of itscitizens. When the Constitution and its idealsare challenged, citizens must defend theseprinciples against all adversaries.Until 1920, women were notallowed to vote in politicalelections. This image showstwo women, known as suffragettes, petitioning for theright to vote (ca. 1917) inNew York State.Courtesy of the Library of Congress,LC-USZ62-532025

Stay informed of the issues affecting yourcommunity.U.S. citizens should learn about the issues andcandidates running for office before casting avote in an election. Staying informed allowscitizens the opportunity to keep the candidatesand laws responsive to the needs of the localcommunity. Participate in the democratic process.A citizen casts his vote inBarnesville, MD, 1944.Courtesy of the Library of Congress,LC-USW3-055965-DVoting in federal, state, and local elections isthe most important responsibility of any citizen. Voting ensures that our system of government is maintained and individual voices areclearly heard by elected officials. Respect and obey federal, state, and locallaws.Laws are rules of conduct that are establishedby an authority and followed by the community to maintain order in a free society. Everyperson living in the United States must followlaws established through federal, state, andlocal authorities. Respect the rights, beliefs, and opinions ofothers.Though the United States is a nation of diversebackgrounds and cultures, our commoncivic values unite us as one nation. Tolerance,through courtesy and respect for the beliefsand opinions of others, is the hallmark of acivilized society and ensures the continuity ofliberty and freedom for future generations.Red Cross volunteer poster,1917.Courtesy of the Library of Congress,LC-USZC4-101386

Participate in your local community.Being a responsible member of one’s localcommunity is important to the success ofrepresentative democracy. Community engagement through volunteerism, participationin town hall meetings and public hearings,joining a local parent-teacher association, andrunning for public office are ways individualscan actively contribute to the well-being of thecommunity.An AmeriCorps membertutoring a child.Courtesy of the Corporation for National andCommunity Service Pay income and other taxes honestly, and ontime, to federal, state, and local authorities.Taxes pay for government services for thepeople of the UnitedStates. Some of theseservices include:educating childrenand adults, keepingour country safe andsecure, and providingmedical services tothe elderly and lessfortunate. Payingtaxes on time and infull ensures that theseservices continue forall Americans. Serve on a jury when called upon.For U.S. citizens, serving on a jury is a veryimportant service to the community. TheConstitution guarantees that all persons accused of a crime have the right to a “speedyand public trial by an impartial jury.” Juryservice gives U.S. citizens the opportunity toparticipate in the vital task of achieving just,fair results in matters that come before thecourt.During World War I, 300soldiers from Camp Uptonin New York take the Oathof Allegiance as a result of alaw granting U.S. citizenshipto immigrants in the ArmedForces.Courtesy of the USCIS Historical Library7

Defend the country if the need should arise.The Armed Forces of the United States, the military, is currently anall-volunteer force. However, should the need arise in time of war, itis important that all citizens join together and assist the Nation wherethey are able. This support could include defending the Nation throughmilitary, noncombatant, or civilian service.Navy pilots across the tail of an F6F Hellcat on board the USS Lexington, November 1943.Courtesy of the National Archives, 80-G-4709858

Beginning early in ourNation’s history, citizenshave used songs, poems,and symbols to express the idealsand values of the United States.From solemn oaths, such as thePledge of Allegiance and the Oathof Allegiance, which one musttake to become a citizen, to themore informal tradition of singing“The Star-Spangled Banner” beforesporting events, spoken expressions have always been an important part of American civic life. Asyou will learn in this section, thesesongs and poems often came froma writer’s personal interpretationof America’s ideals, as with thestory of Emma Lazarus and “TheNew Colossus.”The values and history of theUnited States are also expressedthrough visual symbols, such asthe Great Seal of the United Statesand the Flag of the United Statesof America. Around the world,these two emblems are used tosymbolize our solidarity as anation. The following section willintroduce you to the history andmeaning behind some of our mostimportant patriotic anthems andsymbols.

T“he Star-Spangled Banner”is the national anthem ofthe United States. It waswritten by Francis Scott Key aftera critical battle in the War of1812. Key, a lawyer and amateurpoet, had been sent to Baltimore,Maryland, to secure the release ofDr. William Beanes, an Americantaken prisoner by the British.Boarding a British ship for thenegotiations, Key was treatedwith respect by the British officers who agreed to release Dr.Beanes. Although the missionwas completed, the British wereabout to attack Fort McHenry, theAmerican fort guarding Baltimore,and so they did not allow theAmericans to return to shore. Fortwenty-five hours, Britishgunboats shelledFort McHenry. TheAmericans withstoodthe attack, and onthe morning ofSeptember 14, 1814,Key peered throughclearing smoke tosee an enormousAmerican flag wavingproudly above thefort. Key was soinspired by this sightof the American flag“The Star-Spangled Banner,” the flag that inspired the national anthem.Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution10

In “The Star Spangled Banner,” a painting by Percy Moran, Francis Scott Key reaches out towards theflag flying over Fort McHenry. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-1764that he began a poem to commemorate the occasion. He wrotethe poem to be sung to the popular British song, “To Anacreon inHeaven.”The significance and popularity of the song spread across theUnited States. In 1916, PresidentWoodrow Wilson ordered thatthe song be played at militaryand naval occasions. In 1931,“The Star-Spangled Banner”became the official nationalanthem of the United States.11

The Star-Spangled BannerOh, say, can you see, by the dawn’s early light,What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro’ the perilous fight;O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming.And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet waveO’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?12

A“merica the Beautiful”was written in 1893by Katharine LeeBates, a professor of Englishliterature at Wellesley College inMassachusetts. Bates wrote thelyrics while on a trip to ColoradoSprings, Colorado. Describing theextraordinary view at the top ofPike’s Peak she said, “It was thenand there, as I was looking outover the sea-like expanse of fertilecountry spreading away so farunder those ample skies, that theopening lines of the hymn floatedinto my mind.”revised the lyrics in 1904 afterreceiving many requests to use thesong in publications and specialservices. In 1913, Bates made anadditional change to the wordingof the third verse, creating theversion we know today.For several years, “America theBeautiful” was sung to just aboutany popular or folk tune thatwould fit with the lyrics. In 1926,the National Federation of MusicClubs held a contest to put theOn July 4, 1895,“America theBeautiful” first appeared in print inthe Congregationalist, aweekly journal. A fewmonths later, the lyricswere set to music bySilas G. Pratt. BatesThe view from Pike’s Peak,which inspired the writing of“America the Beautiful.”Courtesy of the Library of Congress,LC-DIG-stereo-1s0126213

poem to music, but failed to selecta winner. Today, “America theBeautiful” is sung to Samuel A.Ward’s 1882 melody “Materna.”America the BeautifulO beautiful for spacious skies,For amber waves of grain,For purple mountain majestiesAbove the fruited plain.America! America! God shed His grace on thee,And crown thy good with brotherhoodFrom sea to shining sea.O beautiful for pilgrim feet,Whose stern impassion’d stressA thoroughfare for freedom beatAcross the wilderness.America! America! God mend thine ev’ry flaw,Confirm thy soul in self-control,Thy liberty in law.O beautiful for heroes prov’dIn liberating strife,Who more than self their country loved,And mercy more than life.America! America! May God thy gold refineTill all success be nobleness,And ev’ry gain divine.O beautiful for patriot dreamThat sees beyond the years.Thine alabaster cities gleam,Undimmed by human tears.America! America! God shed his grace on thee,And crown thy good with brotherhoodFrom sea to shining sea.14

As part of an auction heldin 1883 to raise funds fora pedestal to be placedbeneath the Statue of Liberty,which was a gift to America fromFrance as part of the centennialcelebration of 1876, Emma Lazaruswrote “The New Colossus.” Herpoem spoke to the millions ofimmigrants who came to Americain search of freedom and opportunity. She saw the new statue as asymbol of hope and an inspirationto the world. In 1902, the poemwas engraved on a bronze plaqueat the base of the Statue of Liberty.Inauguration of the Statue of Liberty in 1886,partly clouded by smoke from a militaryand naval salute marking President GroverCleveland’s arrival at the ceremony.Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-19869AThe New ColossusNot like the brazen giant of Greek fame,With conquering limbs astride from land to land;Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall standA mighty woman with a torch, whose flameIs the imprisoned lightning, and her nameMother of Exiles. From her beacon-handGlows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes commandThe air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries sheWith silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”15

Walt Whitman, wholived from 1819 to1892, is one of themost influential and beloved ofAmerican poets. As a young man,Whitman worked as a teacherin one-room schools on LongWalt Whitman.Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-0754916Island, New York. He taught until1841 when he decided to begina full-time career in journalism.Whitman established the LongIslander, a weekly newspaper inNew York, and often edited othernewspapers in the surroundingarea. He also spenttime in New Orleans,Louisiana, andWashington, DC. Bytraveling to differentcities in the UnitedStates, Whitmanwas exposed to howAmericans lived ina variety of places.These experiencesprovided inspiration for some ofWhitman’s famouspoems about hisfellow countrymen,including “I HearAmerica Singing.”This poem was included in Whitman’s

most cherished work, thepoetry collection, Leaves of Grass.Throughout his life, Whitmanproduced several editions of Leavesof Grass, a varied collection thatbegan with only twelve poems inthe 1855 first edition and con-tained nearly four hundred poemsby the time the final edition waspublished in 1891. “I HearAmerica Singing,” a celebrationof the American people, wasadded to the collection in 1860.I Hear America SingingI hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong,The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam,The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work,The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhandsinging on the steamboat deck,The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands,The wood-cutter’s song, the ploughboy’s on his way in the morning, orat noon intermission or at sundown,The delicious singing of the mother, or of the young wife at work, or of the girl sewingor washing,Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else,The day what belongs to the day—at night the party of young fellows,robust, friendly,Singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs.17

Ralph Waldo Emerson was acelebrated Americanauthor, poet, philosopher,and public speaker. He becamethe leader of a famous intellectualmovement known as transcendentalism. Emerson had strong ties tothe beginning of America’s fightfor independence. His grandfatherwas present at the opening battleof the American Revolution, theBattle of Lexington and Concord,in Massachusetts on April 19,1775. His family home was alsolocated next to the battlefield site.The Obelisk at the battlefield in Concord, MA(ca.1900).Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-D4-11872“Concord Hymn” was writtenoriginally as a song for the dedication of the Obelisk, a monumentcommemorating the valiant effortof those who fought in the Battleof Lexington and Concord. Thegunshot which began this battleis considered the beginning ofAmerica’s fight for independence,and is referred to by Emerson as“the shot heard round the world.”This phrase has since becomefamous and is often used indiscussions of the AmericanRevolution.Ralph Waldo Emerson.Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ61-27918

Concord HymnBy the rude bridge that arched the flood,Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled,Here once the embattled farmers stood,And fired the shot heard round the world.The foe long since in silence slept;Alike the conqueror silent sleeps;And Time the ruined bridge has sweptDown the dark stream which seaward creeps.On this green bank, by this soft stream,We set to-day a votive stone;That memory may their deed redeem,When, like our sires, our sons are gone.Spirit, that made those heroes dareTo die, and leave their children free,Bid Time and Nature gently spareThe shaft we raise to them and thee.19

The Pledge of Allegiancewas first published onSeptember 8, 1892, in theYouth’s Companion magazine. Theoriginal pledge read as follows,“I pledge allegiance to my Flagand the Republic for which itstands: one Nation indivisible,with Liberty and Justice for all.”Children in public schools acrossthe country recited the pledgefor the first time on October 12,1892, as part of official ColumbusStudents recite the Pledge of Allegiance in aWashington, DC, classroom (ca. 1899).Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-14693Citizens of Vale, OR, take off their hats during the Pledge of Allegiance, July 4, 1941.Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USF33-013070-M220

Day observances to celebrate the400th anniversary of his discoveryof America.In 1942, by an official act,Congress recognized the pledge.The phrase “under God” wasadded to the pledge by anotheract of Congress on June 14, 1954.Upon signing the legislation toauthorize the addition, PresidentDwight D. Eisenhower said, “Inthis way we are reaffirming thetranscendence of religious faithin America’s heritage and future;in this way we shall constantlystrengthen those spiritual weaponswhich forever will be our country’s most powerful resource inpeace and war.”When delivering the Pledge ofAllegiance, all must be standingat attention, facing the flag withthe right hand over the heart. Mennot in uniform should remove anynonreligious headdress with theirright hand and hold it at the leftshoulder, the hand being over theheart. Those in uniform shouldremain silent, face the flag, andrender the military salute.Pledge of AllegianceI pledge allegianceto the Flagof the United States of America,and to the Republicfor which it stands,one Nationunder God,indivisible,with libertyand justice for all.21

As America fought forits independence fromGreat Britain, it soonbecame evident that the newnation needed a flag of its own toidentify American forts and ships.decided that the flag shouldbecome a visible symbol of changeand established that the Americanflag would have one star for e

This is the Official U.S. Government edition of this publication and is herein identified to certify its authenticity.