Food Security And Nutrition In The Age Of Climate Change

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Food Securityand Nutrition in the Ageof Climate ChangeProceedings of the International Symposiumorganized by the government of Québecin collaboration with FAOQuébec City, September 24-27, 2017IN COLLABORATION WITH

Food Securityand Nutrition in the Ageof Climate ChangePROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUMORGANIZED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF QUÉBEC IN COLLABORATION WITH FAOQuébec City, September 24-27, 2017Edited byAlexandre MeybeckElizabeth LavalRachel LévesqueGeneviève ParentFOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONSRome, 2018

Meybeck, A., Laval, E., Lévesque, R., Parent, G., 2018. Food Security and Nutrition in the Age of Climate Change.Proceedings of theInternational Symposium organized by the Government of Québec in collaboration with FAO. Québec City, September 24-27, 2017. Rome,FAO. pp. 132. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinionwhatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status ofany country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specificcompanies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed orrecommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO.ISBN 978-92-5-130931-5 FAO, 2018Some rights reserved. This work is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO licence (CCBY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO; igo).Under the terms of this licence, this work may be copied, redistributed and adapted for non-commercial purposes, provided that the workis appropriately cited. In any use of this work, there should be no suggestion that FAO endorses any specific organization, products orservices. The use of the FAO logo is not permitted. If the work is adapted, then it must be licensed under the same or equivalent CreativeCommons license. If a translation of this work is created, it must include the following disclaimer along with the required citation: “Thistranslation was not created by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAO is not responsible for the content oraccuracy of this translation. The original [Language] edition shall be the authoritative edition.Any mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the Arbitration Rules of the UnitedNations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) as at present in force.Third-party materials. Users wishing to reuse material from this work that is attributed to a third party, such as tables, figures or images,are responsible for determining whether permission is needed for that reuse and for obtaining permission from the copyright holder. Therisk of claims resulting from infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user.Sales, rights and licensing. FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/publications) and can be purchasedthrough publications-sales@fao.org. Requests for commercial use should be submitted via: www.fao.org/contact-us/licence-request.Queries regarding rights and licensing should be submitted to: copyright@fao.org.COVER PHOTOS(above from right to left): FAO/Olivier Asselin; FAO/Ubirajara Machado; FAO/Sebastián Villar; FAO/Rudolf Hahn.(below from right to left): CC0 1.07/ Seattle City Council; CC BY 2.0/Jitze Couperus; CC BY-SA 2.0/Sandra Cohen Rose and Colin Rose; CC BY-SA 2.0/Richard Kelland.

ContentsAcknowledgements xiiExecutive summary xiiiWelcome message from Philippe Couillard, Premier of Québec1Message from José Graziano Da Silva, FAO Director-General2Introduction 3Symposium’s committees 5Opening Conference under the auspices of the FAO6Global nutrition in the age of climate change: transforming challenges into opportunitiesCharlotte Dufour, Nutrition and Food Systems Officer, FAO6Climate change, agriculture and food security 7Alexandre Meybeck, Senior Policy Officer on agriculture, environment and climate change, FAO1. CLIMATE CHANGE, FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION: THE ISSUES91.1 Impacts of climate change on food security and nutrition9Agriculture in the IPCC’s work 9Youba Sokona, Vice-Chair, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeImpacts of climate change on food security and nutritionHugo Melgar-Quinonez, Director, Institute for Global Food Security, McGill University - session chair10Testimony from Small Island Developing States 10Maria Helena Semedo, Deputy Director-General, FAOTestimony on the impacts of climate change in the ArcticJean Lemire, Emissary for Climate Change, Northern and Arctic Affairs, Government of Québec11Climate change, food security and nutrition: linkages and implicationsSophia Murphy, Steering Committee of the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition12Producing more and better with less within an agro-ecological framework:efficiently harnessing our biological capital 12Godfrey Nzamujo, Director, Songhai Centeriii

Impacts of climate change on access to various types of food in NunavikAnnie Lamalice, Ph.D. candidate in food and cultural geography, Université de Montréaland Université de Montpellier (co-supervision program)13Climate change, traditional food & food security in NunavikJimmy Johannes, Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Association,in collaboration with the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services141.2 Climate change, nutrition and health 15Climate change, nutrition and health 15Pierre Gosselin, Coordinator of the Health Program, Ouranos Research Consortium - session chairAccessing and affording nutritious diets in the age of climate changeLauren Landis, Director of Nutrition, World Food Programme15Women can drive climate-smart and pro-nutrition agricultural transformationDominique Charron, director, Agriculture and environment program, International DevelopmentResearch Center (CRDI)16Putting people and land back at the center of our food system to combat malnutritionand climate change: What should be our response? What are the challenges?Charlotte Dufour, Nutrition and Food Systems Officer, FAO17Summary of the discussions 181.3 Climate change and food insecurity: risk of conflict20Climate change and food insecurity: risk of conflictAnne Mottet, Livestock Development Officer, FAO - session chair20Climate disruptions and conflicts: a link that remains to be demonstratedFrançois Audet, Director, Canadian Research Institute on Humanitarian Crisis and Aid (OCCAH)21Anticipating food insecurity 21Emmy Simmons, Senior Advisor, Global Food Security Project, Center for Strategic and International StudiesThe migration and food security nexus in the context of climate changeMyriam Traore Chazalnoel, Associate Expert, Migration, Environment and Climate Change Division,International Organization for Migration22Summary of the discussions 22iv

2. THE AGRICULTURE SECTORS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE242.1 Focus on the agriculture sectors: combining climate changemitigation and adaptation 24Focus on the agriculture sectors: combining climate change mitigation and adaptationGuy Debailleul, Professor in Rural Economy and Development, Université Laval – session chair24National Adaptation Plans as core vehicle to deliver on adaptation priorities and achievecountries’ Nationally Determined Contributions 25Julia Wolf, Natural Resources Officer, Climate and Environment Division, FAOSenegal in the face of climate change: adaptation mechanismsSaliou Seye, Training Manager, Réseau des organisations paysannes et pastorales du Sénégal26Québec’s young farmers in the face of climate changeMichèle Lalancette, President, Fédération de la relève agricole du Québec26The resilience of Québec’s farms 27Marcel Groleau, President, Union des producteurs agricoles2.2 Livestock farming: possible solutions 28Livestock farming: possible solutions 28Anne Mottet, Livestock Development Officer, FAO - session chairRecapitalization of 5,000 family farms through goat breeding and milk productionin regions devastated by Hurricane Matthew in HaitiMichel Chancy, Professor-Researcher, Faculty of agricultural and environmentalsciences, Quisqueya UniversityFocusing on social innovation to reduce GHGs while helping businesses perform betterJosée Chicoine, Strategic Advisor, Agri-Food Development, Coop CarboneAn innovative approach to adapting the classic individual household economy analysis(IHEA) to the pastoral realities of the Sahel’s fragile areasBlamah Jalloh, Breeding Engineer in Niamey, Regional Technical Coordinator of the Billital Maroobe Network282929Summary of the discussions 30v

2.3 Forests, climate change and food security: bridging the gapbetween agriculture and forestry 31Forests, climate change and food security: bridging the gap between agriculture and forestryAlain Olivier, Professor, Phytology Department, Chair in International Development,Université Laval - session chair31Forests and trees for food security and nutrition in a context of climate change:a way forward for integrated solutions 32Vincent Gitz, Director, Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry,Consultative Group on International Agricultural ResearchAgroforestry, food security and resilience in the SahelDiaminatou Sanogo, Researcher, Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research32Trees at the service of intensive agricultureAlain Cogliastro, Researcher, Montreal Botanical Garden, Associate Professor, Université de Montréal33Summary of the discussions 343. FOOD SYSTEMS IN THE FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE363.1 Food systems in the context of climate change36Food systems in the context of climate changeGeneviève Parent, Professor, Faculty of Law, Legal Research Chair in Food Diversityand Security, Université Laval - session chair36Diversity of food systems and resilience to climate changeJean-Louis Rastoin, Emeritus Professor, Montpellier SupAgro, Founder and ScientificAdvisor of the UNESCO Chair on World Food Systems37Impacts of alternative investment strategies under alternative climate change regimesAlex De Pinto, Researcher, Environment and Production Technology Division,International Food Policy Research Institute37Legal fiction resulting in real environmental protectionHugo A. Muñoz Ureña, Professor and Director, Institute of Legal Research, University of Costa RicaSenior researcher, Legal Research Chair in Food Diversity and Security, Université Laval38Potential of diversified agro-ecological farming for sustainable and resilient food systemsin the face of climate change 39Émile Frison, Independent Consultant on agriculture, biodiversity and sustainable foodsystems and member of the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systemsvi

3.2 The role of women in West Africa’s food systems40The role of women in West Africa’s food systemsNdèye Yacine Badiane NDour, Senior Research Fellow and National Laboratory for Researchon Plan Production Director, Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research - session chair40The role of indigenous pastoralist women in the fight against food insecurityand malnutrition in the Sahel 40Mariam Wallet Aboubakrine, Doctor, Tin-Hinan Association and United NationsPermanent Forum on Indigenous IssuesAnalyzing the role of women in the development of sustainable agricultureand resilient food systems in West AfricaMariama Sonko, General Treasurer, Association of the young farmers of Casamance;National Coordinator, “We Are the Solution” movement in SenegalReflecting on the empowerment of women to sustainably improve food security in West AfricaMeriem Houzir, Founder and Director of the AlliaDev Franco-Moroccan consulting firm4141Summary of the discussions 423.3 Feeding Cities 42Feeding cities 42Florence Egal, Expert in food security and nutrition - session chairWhat types of urban agriculture should be adopted to feed and transform citiesin the era of climate change? 43Éric Duchemin, Scientific and Training Director, Urban Agriculture Laboratory,Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Université du Québec à MontréalCities and municipalities: agents of change for sustainable food systemsVincent Galarneau, Advisor and Speaker for Vivre en VilleA unique Montréal model to share: the Montréal Network of Food Partnersand the Future Montréal Food Policy Council, CPA-MtlGhalia Chahine, Coordinator, Système alimentaire montréalais - Montréal Food Policy Council4444vii

4. NATURAL RESOURCES: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS464.1 The preservation of natural resources and genetic material:a key element in the fight against climate change46The future of agriculture depends on the variety of life on EarthCristiana Pasca-Palmer, Executive Secretary of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity46 The preservation of natural resources and genetic material:a key element in the fight against climate changeLinda Collette, Advisor, Legal Research Chair in Food Diversity and Security, Université Laval - session chairFood security at stake: adapting to change requires genetic diversity in cultivated plantsAxel Diederichsen, Curator, Research Scientist, Plant Gene Resources of Canada, Agriculture andAgri-Food Canada4748The importance of local agriculture systems as a strategy for preserving geneticresources, increasing revenues and obtaining food security in an era of climatechange - the example of Mexico 49José Fernando De La Torre Sanchez, R

1.1 Impacts of climate change on food security and nutrition 9 Agriculture in the IPCC’s work 9 Youba Sokona, Vice-Chair, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Impacts of climate change on food security and nutrition 10 Hugo Melgar-Quinonez, Director, Institute for Global Food Security, McGill University - session chair

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