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DEVELOPING A CURRICULUM (DACUM) - Facilitation Center

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DEVELOPING A CURRICULUM (DACUM)OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS WORKSHOPFACILITATION CENTER AT EASTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DAY ONEBRAINSTORMING@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

WELCOME Introduce facilitator(s) and recorder(s) Housekeeping remarks Review key introductory material from panelistspacketo Agenda and Powerpoint Complete name tents and Panelist Information@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

AGENDAPurpose: To develop an occupational profile thataccurately describes the job in terms of specific duties,tasks, knowledge, skills and traits.Outcomes: Occupational profile that ranks duties and sequences andprioritizes related tasks Agreed-upon occupational definition Prioritized lists of knowledge and skills A list of worker traits@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

AGENDA – DAY ONEWelcome and Introductory ActivityOverview of DACUM Occupational AnalysisBrainstorming ActivityLunchComplete Draft Occupational ProfileMeeting Wrap-UpWorkshop Adjourns@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISWill likely finish by 4:00, but willcontinue until brainstorming iscompleted.

AGENDA – DAY TWOOvernight ThoughtsEdit and Sequence Occupational ProfileLunchFinalize Occupational ProfileRank and Prioritize Duties, Tasks, Knowledge and SkillsComplete EvaluationsWorkshop Adjourns@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DEFINITIONDeveloping A Curriculum (DACUM) is a systematicprocess that analyzes a job by capturing majoroccupational duties and tasks that competent workersmust perform, as defined by a focus group of highperforming, incumbent workers, through a facilitatedworkshop.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

OVERVIEW DACUM creates a common vocabulary to communicatewhat a high-performing worker does on the job. Canadian educators developed this systematic process inthe 1960’s. DACUM is a cost-effective, efficient method foraccurately analyzing any occupation.Check tirepressure@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

OVERVIEWOriginally used to develop a curriculum, results are alsoused to develop or update: Employment selection criteria and job postings Industry standards Performance evaluations Position descriptions Professional development plansCheck tire Standard Operating Procedurespressure@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

PROCESS@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DISTINGUISHABLE CHARACTERISTICSDistinguishable characteristics include: High performing workers, currently doing the work,analyze their own job Workers share what they really do, not what others thinkthey do Results are produced in a graphic formatCheck tirepressure@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

PANELISTSHPIWHigh Performing Incumbent Worker@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTIONS1. Introductory interviewo Capture total number of years2. Select a postcard that speaksto you about your jobo Ask for key or common pointsheard when sharing postcards@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISCheck tirepressure

INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITYComplete first evaluation question regarding ‘Expectations’o Participants share responses using Round Robin technique and theseare captured on the flip chartCheck tirepressure@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENTS1. Panel of expert workers2. Identification of duties, tasks, knowledge, skills, and traitsnecessary to perform a job3. Neutral facilitator and recorder4. A modified brainstorming process, that incorporatesstoryboarding@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENT: EXPERT WORKERSRole of Panel MembersJust tell us what you do, by: Sharing ideas Contributing as equally as possible Listening to other panel members Contributing to the ideas of others Limiting value judgmentRole of Panel Members is listed on the back of the name tents.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KILLER PHRASES TO AVOID We It’sdon’t do that at not in our job description that way That’sa policy violation Nobody That’s Theelse does it that waynot budgetedstaff won’t like it Whatwill say if they found out?@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENT: NEUTRAL FACILITATORRole of Facilitator Neutralfacilitation Encouraging Managingfull participation from paneliststime, allowing enough time for participants toexplain Adheringto the DACUM process@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENT: NEUTRAL RECORDERRole of Recorder Listencarefully to the panel’s interaction Record Offeroideas quickly, neatly, legibly and as statedexamples or alternates, but panel has final sayPanelists have the authority to tell the recorder/facilitator, “Thatis not what I said or intended.”@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

ROLE OF OBSERVER(S) – IF APPLICABLEObservers are NOT here to evaluate or judge. They are here to: Listencarefully to the panel’s interaction Remainuninvolved and attentive Contributeonly when and if the facilitator requests@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENT: STORYBOARDING Walt Disney began animatingand sequencing Mickey Mouseon storyboards Storyboarding worked so well,he began using it as acorporate planning tool@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENT: STORYBOARDING Effective way to streamline,organize and simplify People are more effective ingroups when they can see theideas they generate@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

KEY COMPONENT: IDENTIFICATION OF DUTIESDUTY DEFINITIONGeneral area of competence that successful workers in theoccupation demonstrate or perform on an ongoing basis.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

WORKSHEETPanelistsindependentlycomplete theOccupationalDutiesWorksheet, thenbreak before thenext activity@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

GROUND RULES Cell phones on silent/vibrateo Step outside for calls or messaging We listen to each other We limit our air time We let an idea live for now (All accepted Day 1) Spelling doesn’t count@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

OCCUPATIONAL DEFINITIONA succinct statement that broadly describes a job. Capture answers to key components: Who, What,How, Why A draft, generally agreed upon statement should becompleted by Day 1 The statement will be refined and finalized Day 2@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

OCCUPATIONAL DEFINITION: EXAMPLEDACUM FacilitatorWho: A competent DACUM FacilitatorWhat: promotes individual and organizational performanceHow: through planning, designing, and managing professionaldevelopment and training programs/servicesWhy: to enhance staff competencies.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

OCCUPATIONAL DEFINITIONInclude job titleThrough, by In order to @2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISThink broadly, specifics comewith duties and tasksPositive outcome

OCCUPATIONAL DIFFERENCESWho Reports to Who? Who completes yourperformance evaluation? Who do you evaluate? Who else do you workwith?@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

OCCUPATIONAL DIFFERENCESPossible Points of Distinction Availability of services Number of clients Number of plants/sites Regions Size of office Size of workforce Specialization@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

CAPTURING WORKSHEET ANSWERSUsing RoundRobin technique,capture ideas onflip charts.May require bothfacilitator andrecorder tocapture quickly@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

TASK DEFINITIONA work activity that has a definite beginning andending, is observable, consists of two or moredefinite steps, and leads to a product, service ordecision.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DUTY/TASK CARD EXAMPLEVerb(Action Word)Modifier(Adjective/Adverb, Qualifier)Noun(Person, Place or Thing)@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DUTY/TASK CARD EXAMPLEManage (verb)Program (modifier)Budget (noun)@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISImplement (verb)Training (modifier)Program (noun)

DUTY/TASK CARD EXAMPLEMaintain Personal Automobile (Duty)Wash car exteriorVacuum floor matsWax car exteriorCheck fluid levelsCheck tire air pressure@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISTasks

KNOWLEDGE DEFINITIONAn understanding and familiarity with facts andinformation.Knowing is not the same as doing@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

SKILL DEFINITIONThe ability to perform occupational tasks with ahigh degree of proficiency.Skill is acting on knowledge@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

TRAIT DEFINITIONInnate or habitual patterns of attitudes, thoughts andemotions that help define a person’s work behaviorand actions.Knowledge and skills are prioritized, so if a group is unsure if acharacteristic is a skill or trait, consider whether or not it shouldbe prioritized.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

GENERATING TASKS Ask the group to select one of the duties from their flipchart list that every panelists does Tell me the tasks involved in this duty/What tasks oractivities do you perform around this duty?o Brainstorm ideas independently on a half sheet of papero Share ideas using the round robin technique until all ideasare capturedo Recorder captures ideas, using the same color half sheet foreach idea@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

GENERATING TASKS Repeat this process, marking offitems from the flip chart list ofduties, until all ideas areaddressed Use different color half sheets foreach new duty band After each duty band is complete, the groupidentifies knowledge, skills, and/or traits required toperform those tasks@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS Recorder captures these on a flip charts

DAY 1 WRAP UP Review/Draft Occupational Definition Review Day 2 Agenda Debriefo What worked? What would have made the day better?What questions do you have? Thank and adjourn panel@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DAY TWOCRITICAL THINKING@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

WELCOME Overnight thoughts? Housekeeping remarks Review work from Day 1 and congratulate group on theirwork Review/Edit occupational definition Review Agendao Day 2 will look and feel different@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

AGENDA – DAY TWOOvernight ThoughtsEdit and Sequence Occupational ProfileLunchFinalize Occupational ProfileRank and Prioritize Duties, Tasks, Knowledge and SkillsComplete EvaluationsWorkshop Adjourns@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISWill likely finish by 4:00, but willcontinue until ranking andprioritization is completed.

DAY 2 GUIDELINES Reduce ideas to a manageable number Ideas will likely move around, be divided or merged forstrengtho Tasks can become duties and duties can become tasks Challenge ideas, not people Number of cards is not tied to the value of your work orhow hard you work@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DAY 2 EDITING GUIDELINES Review definition of duty and tasko Assignable, observable areas of worko Each task must have at least two stepso A task cannot be in multiple duty bandso A task cannot also be a dutyo These are not the one-time activities or special projects you getpulled into@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

DAY 2 EDITING GUIDELINES Push for verb, modifier, noun format Eliminate jargon, acronyms or confusing languageReview guidelines, but assure panelists the facilitator’s job is still toadhere to the DACUM rules and their job is still to just tell thefacilitator what they do.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

CLARIFY DUTY CARDS Group selects the starting duty band Read the duty card and ensure it captures the ongoingactivity defined by those taskso Is this what you do?o Is it clear?o Is it in verb, modifier, noun format?@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISIf yes, then go on to edittasks within that specificdutyIf no, edit duty card, or ifthe group is stuck, edittasks cards and comeback to duty card

EDITING TASK AND DUTY CARDS Start with the first task card in the duty band Edit task cards as neededo Is it what you do?o Is it clear?o Is it in verb, modifier, noun format?o Does it consist of two or more steps?o Is it in the correct duty band?o Are there any two cards that are saying the same thing?o Are there any acronyms or jargon that needs to be clarified?@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

EDITING TASK AND DUTY CARDS Once all task cards are edited, read through them onelast time Check for additional knowledge, skills, traits@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

SEQUENCING TASKS Once task cards are finalized, they need to besequencedo Chronologicalo Frequencyo Importanceo Simple to Complex@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

FINALIZE ANALYSIS Once all the duty bands are sequenced and final, revisitthe following items to ensure completeness:o Knowledgeo Skillso Traitso Additional occupational requirements@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

CRITICALITY DEFINITIONA measure of job tasks that panelistsbelieve to be essential and/or mostimportant components of a job.@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

PRIORITIZING DUTIES Each duty band is assigned a letter on the storyboard Panelists use their Duty Ranking hand out to:o prioritize criticality of their dutieso assign a percentage of time spent performing each duty (equal100%) Once this is complete, individual rankings are totaled bythe facilitator@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

PRIORITIZINGTask Cards Only Criticality Most Time ConsumingTasks, Knowledge, and Skills New Worker Training Needs Veteran Worker Training Needs@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSISHow many dots doyou give panelists?Use 1 dot per 10ideas

DOTTING RULES Can’t sell or give your dots away Can’t tear your dots in half Can’t dot between two cards Can’t load all your dots onto one card Dots collect dots: Make your decisions before going tothe board@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

WRAP-UP Finalize occupational definition Review prioritization outcomeso Nominal Ranking Grid (Duties); Dots (Tasks, Knowledge, Skills) Workshop evaluation Debriefo Identify lessons learned or key insights the panelists gainedduring their time together Disseminate certificates Thank and adjourn panel@2017 FACILITATION CENTER AT EKU WORKSHOP: DACUM OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS

to you about your job oAsk for key or common points heard when sharing postcards Check tire . and sequencing Mickey Mouse on storyboards Storyboarding worked so well, he began using it as a . Number of