RADR 1313 PRINCIPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING I - Free Download PDF

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Principles of Radiographic Imaging I (RADR 1313)Credit: 3 semester credit hours (3 hours lecture)Prerequisite: RADR 1309 Introduction to Radiography and Patient CareCourse Description: Radiographic image quality and the effects of exposurevariables.Purpose: This course is designed to acquaint the student technologist with the basicprinciples of radiographic exposure and image formation.Teaching Methodology:This course will be taught in a multimedia format. Lectures, demonstrations anddiscussion will be utilized to enhance the cognitive learning process. Students will haveoutside reading and out of class homework assignments periodically in the semester. Thestudent will be required to utilize both reading and listening skills.Instructor: Brenda A. Barrow, M.Ed., R.T., Office 232 Multipurpose Center, officehours posted outside door, phone 880-8848, [email protected]: Carlton, Richard. Principles of Radiographic Imaging, An Art and Science, 5thedition, Delmar Publishing, ISBN# 10: 1-4390-5872-5#882 Scan-trons and pencilsBasic calculatorReference Material: Use your notes and text book from the previous course RADR 1309 Introductionto Radiology and Patient CareCourse Evaluation: There will be four (4) major tests and a comprehensive final exam Quizzes will be utilized in this course. If a student misses a quiz it may not bemade up. Quiz grades will be averaged for one (1) test grade. Students will beallowed to drop their lowest quiz grade at the end of the semester. If more thanone quiz is missed a zero (0) will be given. Late homework will be accepted but will have a ten (10) point per classdeduction.Page 1 of 8

RADR 1313Course Syllabus - 2015Grading Policy:Grades will be determined in the following manner:Major Exams (4) and Quiz averageComprehensive Final75% (15% each)25%Grade Scale:ABCDF 93-10084-9277-8365-760-64* STUDENTS MUST HAVE A 77 OR ABOVE AVERAGE TO PASS THISCOURSE!Course Policies:1. No food, drinks, or use of tobacco products in class.2. Phones, headphones, and any other electronic devices must be turned off while inclass.3. Do not bring children to class.4. Recording devices may be used except during test reviews and when otherwisestated by the instructor.5. Lap top computers, I-pad may be used to take notes during class but may not beused to “surf” the internet, look-up answers, nor anything not directly related tonote taking.6. ATTENDANCE POLICY:Each student is responsible for attending every class session. When it becomesnecessary to miss a session, it is the responsibility of the STUDENT to contactthe instructor and to inquire about assignments.When the student has missed sufficient hours to cause a drop in grade points bymissing class discussions, participation, quizzes, major test and or assignments,he/she will be notified in writing by the instructor concerning the possibility offailure in the course. The student should respond and meet the instructor forcounseling.If a major test is missed, the student must request a make-up examination fromthe instructor. This test will be administered at the first day the student returns toclass or at a time designated by the instructor. There will be an automatic 10 pointreduction on the make-up exam.Page 2 of 8

RADR 1313Course Syllabus - 2015Course Objectives:By the end of the semester of instruction the student will:1. Apply the basic principles of radiographic image acquisition to image quality.2. Analyze the effects of exposure variables upon image quality. Demonstrateknowledge of the components necessary to produce an x-ray beamCourse Outline:At the completion of each chapter the student should be able to Ch. 1 Basic Math1. Brief review of basic matha. Fractionsb. Decimalsc. Rounding2. Introduction to Radiology matha. mA X sec mAsb. Inverse Square Lawc. Square Lawd. 15% RuleCh. 5 X-Ray Equipment1.list and discuss the different types of x-ray equipmenta. diagnosticb. fluoroscopicc. therapeuticd. dedicated unitsa. chestb. tomography2.discuss the types of x-ray timersa. synchronous motor drivenb. mAsc. AECCh 6 X-Ray Tube1.describe the parts and function of the cathodea. filamentb. focusing cup2.describe the parts and function of the anodea. targetb. focal spot3.discuss the function of the glass envelop4.discuss the function of the tube housing5.define parts of beama. primaryb. remnantc. off focusd. leakagePage 3 of 8

RADR 1313Course Syllabus6.list recommendations for extending tube lifeCh 7 X-Ray Production1.explain the process of a Bremsstrahlung interaction2.explain the process of a Characteristic interactionCh 10 Filtration1.list and discuss the types of filtrationa. inherentb. addedc. total2.describe how changes in filtration will affect the tube outputa. quantityb. qualityCh 11 Prime Factors1.discuss how each prime factor will affect the radiographic imagea.mAb.timec.kVpd.SIDCh 12 X-Ray Interactions1.explain and diagram a Coherent interaction2.explain and diagram a Compton interaction3.explain and diagram a Photoelectric interaction4.define Pair Production & Photodisintegration5.discuss how patient interactions with x-ray photons affect image qualityand technique selectionCh 15 Beam Restriction1.describe steps the radiographer can take to reduce the production of scattera. restrict beamb. reduce kVp2.describe the various types of beam restrictorsa. aperture diaphragmb. cone/cylinderc. collimator3.discuss the effect beam restriction will have on the radiographic imagea. densityb. contrastc. visibilityCh 16 Patient as a Beam Emitter1.define attenuation2.discuss the basic composition of the human body and how it effectsattenuation of the x-ray beama. airb. fatc. muscled. bonee. metalPage 4 of 88/2015

RADR 1313Course SyllabusCh 17 The Pathology Problem1.describe how various pathologies affect the attenuation of the x-ray beam2.classify pathology as being additive or destructiveCh 18 Grids1.explain the purpose of a grid2.describe the construction of gridsa. radiopaque linesb. radiolucent interspaces3.compare and contrast various grid pattern typesa. lineari. parallelii. focusedb. crosshatched4.discuss proper use of grids and errors that may result from incorrect usea. off focusb. off levelc. off centerd. inverted5.calculate new technical factors when changes in grid ratios occur6.discuss air gap techniqueCh 19 Radiographic Film1.describe film constructiona. baseb. adhesivec. emulsiond. protective coat2.discuss the process of latent image formation3.compare and contrast various film types4.explain the proper storage and handling fundamentalsa. temperatureb. humidityc. scatter5.discuss proper radiograph identificationCh 22 Intensifying Screens1.explain the use of screens2.describe the construction of screensa. baseb. phosphorc. reflective (optional)d. protective3.discuss phosphor characteristics4.classify screens according to their speeda. slow/extremityb. medium/parc. highd. rare earthPage 5 of 88/2015

RADR 1313Course Syllabus5.6.7.8.9.calculate new technical factors when changes in screen speeds occurdescribe the construction of an x-ray cassettedescribe the proper cleaning procedures for screens and cassettesdefine and discuss spectral matchingdescribe methods of measuring resolutiona. line pair phantom10.discuss how film/screen combinations affect the radiographic image andpatient exposure levelCh 25 The Imaging ProcessCh 26 Density1.define density2.describe the effects of density changes on the radiographic image3.discuss the controlling factor of density (mAs)4.discuss the factors that influence densitya. mAb. timec. kVpd. SIDe. screen/film speedf. grid ratiog. beam restrictor5.assess radiographs for proper levels of density6.calculate new exposure factors and patient doses using: mA X time mAsCh 27 Contrast1.define contrast2.describe the effects of contrast changes on the radiographic image3.discuss the controlling factor of contrast (kVp)4.discuss the factors that influence contrasta. kVpb. grid ratioc. adding/removing screend. beam restrictor5.assess radiographs for proper levels of contrast6.distinguish between image contrast and subject contrast7.calculate new exposure factors using the 15% rule8.determine changes in contrast using 15% ruleCh 28 Recorded Detail1.define recorded detail2.discuss the factors that affect recorded detaila. SIDb. OIDc. Screen/film speedd. focal spot sizee. anode heel effect3.describe the appropriate techniques used to reduce patient motiona. voluntaryPage 6 of 88/2015

RADR 1313Course Syllabusb. involuntaryCh 29 Distortion1.define distortiona. size distortionb. shape distortioni. elongationii. foreshortening2.discuss the factors that affect size distortiona. SIDb. OIDc. angle tubeDisabilities Statement:The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1992 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of1973 are federal anti-discrimination statutes that provide comprehensive civil rights forpersons with disabilities. Among other things, these statutes require that all students withdocumented disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides forreasonable accommodations for their disabilities. If you believe you have a disabilityrequiring an accommodation, please contact the Special Populations Coordinator at (409)880-1737 or visit the office in Student Services, Cecil Beeson Building.Page 7 of 88/2015

RADR 1313Course SyllabusRADR 131310:15 – 11:30 Tues/ThursCourse Schedule: all dates are tentative and subject to changeDateAUG 20AUG 25AUG 27SEP 1SEP 3SEP 8SEP 10SEP 15SEP 17SEP 22SEP 24SEP 29OCT 1OCT 6OCT 8OCT 13OCT 15OCT 20OCT 22OCT 27OCT 29NOV 3NOV 5NOV 10NOV 12NOV 17NOV 19NOV 24NOV 26DEC 1DEC 3DEC 10TopicIntroduction to course & CH 1 Basic MathCH 5 X-Ray EquipmentCH 6 X-Ray TubeCH 7 X-Ray ProductionCH 12 X-Ray InteractionsREVIEWTEST I CREATING THE BEAMgo over test & CH 25 The Imaging ProcessCH 34 Exposure Problems & CH 11 Prime FactorsCH 26 DensityDensity cont.CH 27 ContrastContrast cont.CH 16 The Patient as a Beam Emitter & CH 17 Pathology ProblemSLIDES to reviewREVIEWTEST II PRIME FACTORSgo over test & CH 10 FiltrationCH 15 Beam RestrictorsCH 18 GridsCH 19 Radiographic FilmCH 22 Intensifying ScreensFilm/Screen CombinationsTEST III CREATING THE IMAGEgo over test & CH 28 Recorded DetailCH 29 Distortion & SIDFuch’s handoutTEST IV GEOMETRIC FACTORSTHANKSGIVINGgo over testreview for finalFINAL EXAM10:00–11:30Page 8 of 88/2015

Principles of Radiographic Imaging, An Art and Science, 5 edition, Delmar Publishing, ISBN# 10: 1-4390-5872-5 #882 Scan-trons and pencils Basic calculator Reference Material: Use your notes and text book from the previous course RADR 1309 Introduction to Radiology and Patient Care Course Evaluation: