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DON BOSCOHistory and SpiritExtrait de la publication

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2010 by LAS - Libreria Ateneo SalesianoPiazza dell’Ateneo Salesiano, 1 - 00139 ROMATel. 06 87290626 - Fax 06 87290629 - e-mail: las@unisal.it - http://las.unisal.itISBN Elaborazione elettronica: LAS Stampa: Tip. Abilgraph - Via P. Ottoboni 11 - RomaExtrait de la publication

CONTENTSBasic English-Language Reading List xviiChapter 1From the French Revolutionto the Fall of Napoleon 1French Revolution 2The First Coalition 3The Napoleonic Period: Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, Italian and Egyptian Campaigns 4The Second Coalition (1799-1802) and Napoleon’s Coup d’État (1799) 5Napoleon Crowned as Emperor of the French (1804), Napoleonic Wars (1804-1814) andThird Coalition (1804-1805) 6Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) 7Peninsular War (1808-1814) and Fifth Coalition (1809-1814) 7Napoleon’s Russian Campaign 8Sixth Coalition (1813) and Fall of Napoleon (1814) 9The Hundred Days 9Closing Comment: Italy under Napoleon and the Napoleonic Legacy 10Napoleon’s Ecclesiastical Policy 12Appendices 14Chapter 2The Congress of Vienna,the Restorationin the Kingdom of Sardinia 19The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814-June 9, 1815) 19The Restoration in Italy 20Metternich and Austrian Domination of Italy (1815-1848) 21The Kingdom of Sardinia and the House of Savoy 23Appendix 27Chapter 3The Land of Don Bosco’s Birth 31Piedmont and Turin, Its Capital 31Chieri and Castelnuovo 32The Cascina and Sharecropping in Nineteenth-Century Piedmont 34Land and Crops 35Chapter 4John Melchior Bosco’sBirth and Family 37The Boscos and Their Social Status 37Extrait de la publication

viContentsFrancis Louis Bosco and Family 39Date of John Melchior Bosco’s Birth and Baptism 39Death of Francis Louis Bosco 41Don Bosco’s Birthplace 42Recent Discussion on the Subject of Don Bosco’s Birthplace 43The Little House of Becchi 45Francis Louis Bosco’s Situation 46Margaret Bosco’s Situation after Her Husband’s Death 47Conclusion 50Appendix 52Chapter 5General Overview of Sources 53I. General Overview 54Archives 54Don Bosco as Source 54Early Salesians as Sources 55Depositions of Witnesses at the Processes of Don Bosco’s Beatification and Canonization 56Don Bosco’s Biographical Tradition 57II. Chroniclers and Chronicles in Particular 58First Period of Concerted Recording Activity: The Ruffino-Bonetti Period (1861-1864) 58Second Period of Concerted Recording Activity: The Barberis-Berto Period (18751879) 62Third Period of Recording Activity: The Lemoyne-Viglietti Period (1884-1888) 65Closing Comment 68Appendices 69Chapter 6Don Bosco’s Biographical Tradition 75I. Early Biographies to the “Biographical Memoirs” 76Early Biographical Sketches and Biographies of Don Bosco 76Dr. Charles d’Espiney’s Don Bosco 76Dr. d’Espiney’s Don Bosco Translated and Adapted 78Mr. Du Boÿs’ Dom Bosco 79Mr. Villefranche’s Vie de Dom Bosco and Lady Martin’s English Edition 81Don Bosco’s Ambivalent Attitude toward His Own Biography 83II. John Baptist Lemoyne as Don Bosco’s Biographer 84Project for a Biography and the Choice of Lemoyne for the Work 84Gathering Documentation 86Lemoyne’s Documenti 87

ContentsviiThe “Biographical Memoirs”: The Lemoyne Stage 89The “Biographical Memoirs”: the Amadei-Ceria Stage 90Conclusion 91Appendix I 93Appendix II 105Chapter 7Don Bosco’s “Memoirs of the Oratory”and Bonetti’s “Storia dell’Oratorio” 127I. Don Bosco’s “Memoirs of the Oratory of Saint Francis de Sales” 128Origin and Publication of the “Memoirs” and Related Questions 128Don Bosco’s Agenda in the “Memoirs” and their Historical Character 140Educational Concern: The “Memoirs” as Narrative Prelude to the Treatise on the PreventiveSystem 149Conclusion 157II. John Bonetti’s “Storia dell’Oratorio” 158Father Bonetti’s “Storia” in Book Form and Its English Translation 159Table of Contents of John Bonetti’s “Storia dell’Oratorio” (Cinque Lustri) Englished asDon[St. John] Bosco’s Early Apostolate 159Chapter 8A Childhood of Promisein Times of Political Upheaval (1815-1824) 165Political Upheaval: Abortive Revolutions in Naples and Piedmont (1820-1821) 165Margaret Bosco and Family at the Little House of Becchi 168Appendix I 183Appendix II 194Chapter 9Trials of an Adolescent (1824-1830) 197The Trouble with Anthony 197Margaret’s Options 198John Bosco’s Period of Service as a Stable Boy (1827-1829) 199John’s Return from Moglia’s after the Feast of All Saints (November 3, 1829) 202Don Bosco’s Silence on His Period of Service away from Home 204Circumstances of John Bosco Meeting with Father John Calosso 205Division of the Bosco Estate (Late 1830) 208John Bosco’s Troubled Adolescence and the Calosso Experience 209Conclusion 213Appendices 215Extrait de la publication

viiiContentsChapter 10John Bosco at the School of Castelnuovoand the Revolutionary Movementsof the Early 1830 227John Bosco’s First Meeting with Seminarian Giuseppe Cafasso 227Joseph Bosco a Sharecropper 228The School Reform of King Charles Felix (1822) 229John Bosco at the School of Castelnuovo 231Significance of the Year at Castelnuovo 233John Bosco’s Summer Vacation at the Cascina Matta of Sussambrino 234Revolutions of 1830-1831 and the Progress of the Risorgimento in Italy 235Mazzini and Young Italy 237Appendices 238Chapter 11John Boscoat the Public Secondary School of Chieri(1831-1835) 245The City of Chieri in John Bosco’s Times 246The Secondary School in King Charles Felix’ Reform 250John Bosco at the Secondary School in Chieri (1831-1835) 255Appendix 268Chapter 12John Bosco’s Vocational Crisisand Discenment at Chieri (1834-1835) 291John Bosco’s Vocation Dream and Its Recurrence 291John Bosco’s Inner Struggle with Vocation Discernment as Described in the Memoirs ofthe Oratory 293Lemoyne’s Compiled Account of the First Crisis and Discernment 295Lemoyne’s Account of the Second Crisis and Discernment 297John Bosco’s Option for the Young 300Appendix 302Chapter 13The Seminaries of the Turin Archdioceseand John Bosco’s Decisionfor theSeminary of Chieri 311I. The Seminary of the Archdiocese of Turin 312The Seminary before the Napoleonic Period 312The Seminary of Turin (and of Bra) in the Napoleonic Period 314Seminary and Clergy Reform under Archbishop Chiaveroti 315Archbishop Chiaveroti’s Statutes for the Archdiocesan Seminary (1819) 316The Model of Priestly Formation in Archbishop Chiaveroti’s Reform 318Founding and Organization of the Chieri Seminary by Archbishop Chiaveroti 319Regulations of the Chieri Seminary by Archbishop Louis Fransoni 321The Seminaries of the Archdiocese of Turin in the 1840s and Thereafter 324Extrait de la publication

ContentsixII. John Bosco’s Decision to Enter the Seminary 325Historical Factors Affecting John Bosco’s Option for the Diocesan Seminary 325John Bosco’s Opting for Entering the Chieri Seminary as a Resident Seminarian 327Comment on the Non-Resident Seminary 329Taking the Clerical Habit 330Entrance into the Seminary 331Appendices 332Chapter 14John Bosco’s Seminary Formation 343Seminary Life 344Summer Vacations 345Louis Comollo’s Friendship and Untimely Death 347Father John Borel 349Studies 349John Bosco’s Readings in the Seminary 352John Bosco’s Experience of Louis Comollo and His Spirituality 355Don Bosco’s Biography of Louis Comollo 359Appendix 362Chapter 15Don Bosco’s Last Year at the Seminaryand First Priestly Ministry (18401841) 369I. John Bosco’s Last Year at the Seminary Priestly Ordination and FirstMasses 370Holy Orders: General Framework 370Tonsure and Minor Orders 371John Bosco Reads Fourth Theology during the Summer Vacations of 1840 373Subdiaconate and Diaconate 373Preparing for Priestly Ordination 375Spiritual Retreat, the Keepsake and the Nine Resolutions 376Priestly Ordination and “First Mass” 383Don Bosco’s Masses from Turin to Castelnuovo—a Pilgrimage 385Don Bosco’s Solemn Mass in His Home Parish of Castelnuovo 387II. Don Bosco’s First Priestly Ministry at Castelnuovo (June 10 - November 2,1841) 3891. Limited Ministry 3892. Anecdote: Don Bosco Thrown from his Horse 3913. Don Bosco Chooses the Pastoral Institute (Convitto) 391

xContentsChapter 16Theologicaland Ecclesiological Context 393Jansenism 394Probabilism, Probabiliorism, Equiprobabilism 403Conciliarism: History and Ecclesiology of Consiliarism in the Context of the Great Schism(1378-1417) 409Gallicanism 412Febronianism 415Josephinism 417Appendix 420Chapter 17History and Theological Orientationsof the “Pastoral Institute”—FatherCafasso’s Role 421Introduction 422Context: Trends in Theology and Ecclesiology 423The Jesuits and Their Activity in Turin 426The Amicizie (Friendship Associations) 427The Congregation of the Oblates of the Virgin Mary 428Projects for the Pastoral Institute 428The Pastoral Institute Established at St. Francis of Assisi 430Life and Spirit of the Pastoral Institute as Expressed in the Regulations 433Academic Activities at the Pastoral Institute 438Practical Pastoral Experiences of the Pastoral Institute Students 440The Pastoral Institute’s Survival and Growth: The Guala Rectorate (1817-1848) 441The Pastoral Institute’s Golden Period: The Cafasso Rectorate (1848-1860) 444The Pastoral Institute after Father Cafasso: Crisis in the Gastaldi Period (1860-1876) 446The Pastoral Institute’s Deepening Crisis and Closure 450Father Giuseppe Allamano and the New Pastoral Institute 450Conclusion 452Appendix I 454Appendix II 460Appendix III 466Chapter 18Don Bosco at the Pastoral Institute(1841-1844) 473Introduction 473Don Bosco at the Pastoral Institute: Survey of Years 1841-1844 474Framework 475Vocational Decision 476Don Bosco’s Experience with Father Cafasso as Teacher and Spiritual Director 479Don Bosco’s Conservative Political and Ecclesiological Formation 479Catholic Liberals 481Appendix 483

DON BOSCO: HISTORY AND SPIRITA Surveyof the Life and Work of Saint John Bosco (1815-1888)A Word to the ReaderThe chapters that make up this series of volumes are a survey of the lifeand times of St. John Bosco, framed and punctuated by the events thatbrought both the Western Church and the Western World into moderntimes.I call this survey, “Don Bosco, History and Spirit”—“History,” becauseDon Bosco’s life and work were played out in the context of the fatefulevents that created a new religious and political world, and thereby alsoshaped his thinking and action; “Spirit,” because through discernment, interpretation and acceptance he discovered the meaning of this new worldand courageously responded to its challenges: his vocation.These chapters were born, so to speak, in the classroom. The historicalmaterials were the burden of private reading as well as of the instructor’spresentation. But the “Spirit” in them emerged through fairly intensive critical reflection involving the collaboration of both instructor and students.For the present purpose the material had to undergo considerable revision and re-writing for greater readability, and a number of chapters had tobe expanded with Appendices. These contain biographical sketches of figures that were deemed relevant to the matter under treatment. They alsocontain texts that seemed necessary or useful for a better understanding ofthe topic under discussion.AcknowledgmentsThe presentation at many point is indebted, sometimes heavily, to thework of scholars, too numerous to mention, who have labored diligentlyand critically in the field of Salesian Studies, and other related fields. Tothem goes my grateful acknowledgment.To Father Aldo Giraudo, of the Don Bosco Studies Center at the SalesianPontifical University in Rome, go my most heartfelt thanks for his interestand support. He has devoted precious time and care to reading and editingthe material.

xiiDon Bosco: History and SpiritI gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Father Morand Wirth, ofthe Salesian Pontifical University in Rome, who patiently read my Englishtext.I owe a large debt of gratitude to Very Reverend Father Pascual ChávezVillanueva, Salesian Rector Major, Father Francesco Cereda, DepartmentHead for Formation, and to Father Luigi Zuffetti of the Mission Procure inTurin, for approving and supporting the project.Finally, I thank the Director and Staff of Don Bosco Hall for their support over the years.Arthur J. LentiInstitute of Salesian SpiritualityDon Bosco HallBerkeley, California (U.S.A.).Extrait de la publication

Vol. 1JOHN BOSCO’S FORMATIVE YEARSIN HISTORICAL CONTEXTThis first volume of the series, Don Bosco: History and Spirit, deals with the historical context and sources for a succinct description of the world into which JohnBosco was born, and in which he grew up and received his education and formation.Accordingly, the volume briefly describes the events of the of the Napoleonicperiod, of the Restoration in Italy and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, of therevolutionary movements that eventually led to the liberal revolution, the constitution and the unification of Italy.Then in this context, after a mention of archival Salesian sources and literature,on the basis of Don Bosco’s own Memoirs, we look in some detail at the stages ofJohn Bosco’s education and formation.This itinerary begins in the Little House of Becchi, where John Bosco receives hisinitial, but all-important, religious education and formation from his widowedmother. He then comes under the guidance of good priests-teachers for his primary schooling and education.There follows the significant decision for him to pursue his secondary studiesin the district city of Chieri, in the public school run by Church personnel in accordance with the school reform of the Restoration.After protracted and painful vocational discernment, acting on advice, he optsfor the seminary in preference to the novitiate. In the six years spent at the seminary in Chieri, though not free of trials and tribulation, John Bosco acquires a basic (though perhaps incomplete) theological formation in preparation for his ordination to the priesthood (1841).Again, acting on advice, Don Bosco declines good offers for priestly ministryand enrolls in the Pastoral Institute of Turin (Convitto ecclesiastico), where, under theguidance of Father Giuseppe Cafasso, he “truly learns to be a priest.” It is fromthis base that Don Bosco undertakes the work of the oratory in behalf of youngpeople at risk.[See detailed Syllabus heading each chapter].Extrait de la publication

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BASIC ENGLISH-LANGUAGE READING LISTI. Basic Books1. Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales from 1815 to 1855. The Autobiography ofSaint John Bosco, tr. by Daniel Lyons, SDB, with notes and commentary byEugenio Ceria, SDB, Lawrence Castelvecchi, SDB and Michael Mendl, SDB(New Rochelle, NY: Don Bosco Publications, 1989)—MO-En.—[for whichsee A. Lenti, “Memoirs of the Oratory of[.],” Journal of Salesian Studies 1:1(1990) 47-56. [Essay review correcting the many errata in the English edition].This is a translation (with a new introduction and a new set of notes) of SanGiovanni Bosco, Memorie dell’Oratorio di San Francesco di Sales dal 1815 al 1855, a curadi Eugenio Ceria. Torino: SEI, 1846. This, in turn, is a careful (though notstrictly critical) edition (with introduction and notes) of archival manuscripts—MO-Ce.The Istituto Storico Salesiano published a critical edition of the Don Bosco-Bertomanuscripts: Giovanni Bosco, Memorie dell’Oratorio di San Francesco di Sales dal 1815al 1855, Introduzione, note e testo critico a cura di Antonio da Silva Ferreira [Istituto Storico Salesiano - Roma. Fonti - Serie prima, 4] (Roma: LAS, 1991)—MO-daS.2. Giovanni Bonetti, Don Bosco’s Early Apostolate (London: Burns Oates andWashbourne, 1908); reprinted for the canonization as St. John Bosco’s Early Apostolate (London: Burns Oates and Washbourne, 1934)—Bonetti, Early Ap.This is a translation of Giovanni Bonetti, Cinque Lustri di Storia dell’Oratorio Salesiano fondato dal Sac. Don Giovanni Bosco, Torino: [Tipografia Salesiana], 1892 (published after Fr. Bonetti’s death under Fr. G.B. Francesia’s supervision). This, inturn, is an adaptation of [Giovanni Bonetti], “Storia dell’Oratorio di San Francesco di Sales,” published serially in Bollettino Salesiano from 1879 to 1886.3. Giovanni Battista Lemoyne, Angelo Amadei, and Eugenio Ceria, The BiographicalMemoirs of St. John Bosco, vol. I-XIX, ed. by Diego Borgatello, Michael Mendeland Vincent Giuliani (New Rochelle, NY: Salesiana Publishers, 1965-2003)—EBM.This is a translation and adaptation (with considerable condensations and omissions) of the first 16 volumes of the Italian Memorie Biografiche di San GiovanniBosco, 19 vol.: 1-9 (1898-1917) by Lemoyne); 10 (1939, by Amadei); 11-19(1930-1939, by Ceria)—IBM.4. Pietro Stella, Don Bosco: Life and Work, tr. by John Drury (New Rochelle, NY:Don Bosco Publications, 1985)—Stella, DB:LW—Id., Don Bosco: Religious Out-Extrait de la publication

xviBasic English-Language reading Listlook and Spirituality, tr. by John Drury (New Rochelle, NY: Salesiana Publishers,1996)—Stella, DB:RO&S.The above are a translation of the first and second volume of Pietro Stella, DonBosco nella storia della religiosità cattolica, 3 vol.: Vol. I: Vita e opere (2 ed.); Vol. II:Mentalità religiosa e spiritualità (2 ed.); Vol. III: La Canonizzazione (1888-1934) (Roma: LAS, 1979, 1981, 1988)—Stella, DB I-It, DB II-It and III.5. Morand Wirth, Don Bosco and the Salesians, tr. by David de Burgh. New Rochelle,NY: Don Bosco Publications, 1982)—Wirth I.This is a translation (with additions by David. de Burgh) of Morand Wirth, DonBosco et les Salésiens: Cent-cinquante ans d’histoire / Don Bosco e i Salesiani. Centocinquant’anni di Storia (Torino-Leumann: LDC, 1969), published simultaneously inFrench and Italian. [Original French, not yet Enlished].6. Morand Wirth, Don Bosco et la Famille Salésienne. Histoire et nouveaux défis (18152000) (Paris: Éditions Don Bosco, 2002)—Wirth II.This is a completely re-written, updated and expanded edition of the above.7. Francis Desramaut, Don Bosco en son temps (1815-1888) (Torino: Società EditriceInternazionale, 1996)—Desramaut, DB.This critical biography of Don Bosco, is the final editing of 9 large biographicalstudies (Études I-IX) published between 1988 and 1995, in Cahiers Salésiens, thejournal of the Groupe Lyonnais de Recherches Salésiennes (Salesian Studies Center inLyons, France), directed by Father Francis Desramaut.II. Articles1. Journal of Salesian Studies (Institute of Salesian Spirituality, Berkeley, CA).Many articles published therein are directly related to the topics of this survey.2. Don Bosco’s Place in History. Acts of the First International Congress of DonBosco Studies. Rome 1989. Ed. by Patrick Egan and Mario Midali (Roma: LAS,1993).A number of papers in this collection are directly related to topics of this survey.III. Historical Context—Political and Ecclesiastical (1789-1888)Roger Aubert et al., The Church in a Secularized Society. The Christian Centuries 5(New York: Paulist Press; London: Darton Longman and Todd, 1978) esp. PartI, 3-206.M.E. Barlen, Foundations of Modern Europe 1789-1871 (London: Bell & Hyman, 1968).Frank J. Coppa, Pope Pius IX: Crusader in a Secular Age (Boston: Twine, 1979).Extrait de la publication

Basic English-Language reading ListxviiChristopher Duggan, A Concise History of Italy (Cambridge University Press, 1994),esp. 87-170.E.E.Y. Hales, Pio Nono: a Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century(Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1962).Harry Hearder, Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento 1790-1870 (London-New York:Longman, 1983).Edgar Holt, The Making of Italy, 1815-1870 (New York: Atheneum, 1971).Kenneth Scott Latourette, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Background and

Don Bosco’s “Memoirs of the Oratory”and Bonetti’s “Storia dell’Ora-torio” 127 I. Don Bosco’s “Memoirs of the Oratory of Saint Francis de Sales” 128 Origin and Publication of the “Memoirs” and Related Questions 128 Don Bosco’s Agenda in the “Memoirs” and their Historical Character 140

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