Butler University Botanical StudiesVolume 7Article 2A Quarter Century of Botany at Butler UniversityJohn E. PolzyerFollow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.butler.edu/botanicalThe Butler University Botanical Studies journal was published by the Botany Department of ButlerUniversity, Indianapolis, Indiana, from 1929 to 1964. The scientific journal featured original papersprimarily on plant ecology, taxonomy, and microbiology.Recommended CitationPolzyer, John E. (1945) "A Quarter Century of Botany at Butler University," Butler University Botanical Studies: Vol. 7, Article 2.Available at: s1/2This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Digital Commons @ Butler University. It has been accepted for inclusion in Butler UniversityBotanical Studies by an authorized administrator of Digital Commons @ Butler University. For more information, please contact email@example.com.
Butler UniversityBotanical Studies(1929-1964)Edited byRay C. Friesner
The Butler University Botanical Studies journal was published by the Botany Department ofButler University, Indianapolis, Indiana, from 1929 to 1964. The scientific journal featuredoriginal papers primarily on plant ecology, taxonomy, and microbiology. The papers containvaluable historical studies, especially floristic surveys that document Indiana’s vegetation inpast decades. Authors were Butler faculty, current and former master’s degree students andundergraduates, and other Indiana botanists. The journal was started by Stanley Cain, notedconservation biologist, and edited through most of its years of production by Ray C. Friesner,Butler’s first botanist and founder of the department in 1919. The journal was distributed tolearned societies and libraries through exchange.During the years of the journal’s publication, the Butler University Botany Department had anactive program of research and student training. 201 bachelor’s degrees and 75 master’sdegrees in Botany were conferred during this period. Thirty-five of these graduates went on toearn doctorates at other institutions.The Botany Department attracted many notable faculty members and students. Distinguishedfaculty, in addition to Cain and Friesner , included John E. Potzger, a forest ecologist andpalynologist, Willard Nelson Clute, co-founder of the American Fern Society, Marion T. Hall,former director of the Morton Arboretum, C. Mervin Palmer, Rex Webster, and John Pelton.Some of the former undergraduate and master’s students who made active contributions tothe fields of botany and ecology include Dwight. W. Billings, Fay Kenoyer Daily, William A. Daily,Rexford Daudenmire, Francis Hueber, Frank McCormick, Scott McCoy, Robert Petty, Potzger,Helene Starcs, and Theodore Sperry. Cain, Daubenmire, Potzger, and Billings served asPresidents of the Ecological Society of America.Requests for use of materials, especially figures and tables for use in ecology text books, fromthe Butler University Botanical Studies continue to be granted. For more information, visitwww.butler.edu/herbarium.
A QUARTER CENTURYBUTLER UNIVERSITs.;;;. '2 . EP lKingdoms, inventions, masterarchitecture are born out of drelusive but they show the thingsdown the lapse of time. For, ijmake.:; reali ties.The Butler Botany Departmean elusive, tantalizingly uncertainwhich occupied his mind when thtures to his diploma which the"to him as tangible evidence of yeteaching profession in the fieldsevere in discipline of self, charglfor his science, Ray C. Friesnerteach zoology, and to promote ththis young Butler professorChatJ' "Like clocks, one wheAffairs by diligent laoit:r:c;;'C. c"8'" .:l-S.- The foundation dream becaat Butler was established. As thother dreams, dreams of a largeand with wider opportunities flonger plans and dreams. Newstructors. Then, new plans,multiplying files, expanding visiinterest in the state flora, a botaUniversity Botanical Studies.tie to bind alumni to the alma 111of individual research by the 1fire which welded "The ButlerIn September 1944 we paus of Botany at Butler, and to 100became realities. And as we reof a report, passing, so to speak"*A6,1944.report made to the guests
A QUARTER CENTURY OF BOTANY ATBUTLER UNIVERSITY*Kingcloms, inventions,architecture are born outelusive but they show thedown the lapse of time.makes reali ties.s'Vi.OJ 'c .OJ ,'. mastcrpieces in literature, art, music, anda f dreams. They nlay seem flimsy andthings which are closest to the heart farFor, building along the lines of dreams'The Dutler Botany Departmcnt was once upon a time just suchan elusive, tantalizingly ullcermill drcam of a young' Ph. D., a dreamwhich occupied his mind when the ink had barely dricd on the signa tures to his diploma which the Cnivel'sity of l'vIichigan had presentedto him as tangible evidence of years of intensive preparation for thetcaching profession in the field of botany. Excellently equipped,severe in discipline of self, charged with high voltage of enthusiasmfor his science, Ray C. Fricsner came to Old Butler at Irvington toteach zoology, alld to promote the cause of botany. It seems as if ofth(s young nutler pro.fessor Chapman wrote: 0«::r:iii. 0.E., ;;"0 5 -,.: -5-(''Like clocks, one wheel another one must dri vc,Affairs by diligent labour only thrive."The foundation dream became a reality, the Botany Departmentat Butler was established. As the years marched on, Dr. Friesner hadother dreams, dreams of a larger departmcnt, with greater efficicncyand with wieleI' opportunities for the students. These, too, arc nolonger plans ancl clreams. New courses, expanding classcs, new in structors. Then, new plans, other new coul'ses. new equipmcnt,multiplying files, expanding visions, a growing herbarium, mountinginterest in the state flora, a botanical garden, and finally the ButlerUniversity Botanical Studies. This publication provcd to be a magictie to bind alumni to the alma mater, a spark to fire, the latent powerof individual research by the majors i the department, a refinersfire which welded "The Butler Group."In September 1944 \-ve pause to pay tribute to a quarter centl11'yof Botany at Butler, and to look back a moment at the dreams whichbecame realities. And as we review them, garbed in the prosaic formof a report, passing, so to speak, as a chronological batallion, may they* A report made to the guests at the anniversary banquet on September6, 1944.5
remind us of the plans. the unflinching faith, and the lI1ces;:;ant laborwhich gave them life.Dr. Ray C. Friesner was born in Bremen, Ohio, the son of arailroad section foreman. T 1e limited income of the father necessi tated that the son himself provide largely the necessary means toacquire a higher cducation. This he did by sweeping the halls ofOhio \Vesleyan. He was an excellent janitor, and he was an honorstudent.After graduation from the Bremen high school he chose Ohio\Vesleyan for the init1al chapter in higher education. Here he cameunder the influence of the stimulating teaching of Dr. Claude O'Neal,who fired him with that love for botany which has persisted to thepresent day. For graduate study he selected the University of IVfichi gan, where he wOl'ked under direction of Dr. F. C. l\ ewcombe. In1919 i\'lichigan conferred upon him the doctor's degree. In the fall oflhe same year Dr. Friesner came to the Irvington campus of BntlerLJ niversity as assistant professor of botany, in the Department ofI:iology. A new Department of Botany was organized in the firstsemester of 1920.The course in general botany, with an enrollment of 43 students,launched his science at Butler. Expansion, however, was the planfrom the very start, and so eleven students could avail themselves al ready in the second semester of a course in trees. During the periodof maximum enrollment in the department of 1940-41, The BotanyDepartment had 304 students, with a total of 2,648 student credithams.New instmctors were added as enrollment mounted. Dr. StanleyA'. Cain became instructor in September 1924, Dr. C. M. Palmerjoined the faculty in September 1925. In 1928 Mr. Willard N. Clutec.ame to Butler, and the Botanical Garden was laid out. \VhenDr. Cain. in 1931, joined the faculty of Indiana University, the under signed became his successor in September 1932. Dr. George Fischerand !vI rs. Mabel Esten became members of the teaching staff fortemporary service while Dr. Cain was on leavc of absence. In 19321\ rrs. ;vIabel Esten became instructor in the Evening Division. IvI r.Scott l\1cCoy was an instructor in the summer session of 1939, 1940,ane! 1941. He also officiated as assistant curator of the herbariumfrom 1937 to 1942. In 1941 Dr. Charlotte Grant of Arsenal Techni cal High School joined the staff of the Evening Division instructors.Temporary positions 011 the staff were also held by i'diss Charlene6""',,:Coifing, lrs. Ina Stanley Fit7.\ndrews.COllrses offered in 1919 totatoday the Botany Department ofHutler had no herharium in 1919,of metal cases hOllsing over 70,Department sent out 39,220Asiatic llniversities and receivedthis collcction of higher plants1,000 packets of mosses.In 1929 Rutler "LTniversity nDr. Stanley A. Cain as editor.of 167 universities, scattereu 0\"reflected in the 164 books andby graduate student's alld Inhrollght expansion of thecurrent publications.Dl1r llg the first quarterDepartment no mcn and womnow hold an M. A., and 19 tteaching positions in colleges aship in the rescarch honor sociener has always heeded the adm"Gentlemen, remember that fiwas not neglected. The Rutlin part at least, with this diuncr's research interests havein recent years stress was pi(Solidago) of Korth Amenc( dendrology) . :vIajor pubiicthc monographs of golden.\s "watch dog" of Indiana taJliFlora of Indiana up-to-date.of Indiana, working whole!"grand old man of Indiana f1field collection Illlmbers haveResearch interests of ot:heverse and varied. Dr. C. l\Iealgae of Indiana. and 011signed has limited his taxono
llnd the Incessant (anor , Ohio, the son of aof the father necessi e necessary means to weeping the halls ofand he was an honor.chool he chose Ohiotion. Here he cameIf Dr. Claude O'Neal,I has persisted to theUniversity of :Hichi ewcombe. In egree. I n the fall ofbn campus of Butlerthe Department ofIrganized in the firstr· c.ment of 43 students, evel" was the planavail themselves al , During the period940-41. The Botany2,648 student credit,ounted. Dr. StanleyDr. C. }l. Palmerx. Willard X. CluteS laid ouL\Vheniversit)', the nncler Dr. George Fischerteaching staff forabsence. In 1932ing Division. Mr.,ion of 1939, 1940,. of the herbarium)i Arsenal Techni ivision instructors.by :'Iliss CharleneCoHing, :'Ifts. Ilia Stanley Fitzgerald. and Dr. brjorie :'IfcConaha,\nclrews.Courses oHered in 1919 totalled 15 credit hours (three COllrS(;s).today the Botany Department offers 107 credit hours (25 courses).Butler had no herbarium in 1919, now it possesses an impressive rowof meta! cases housing over 70,CXX) specimens of vascular plants. TheDepartmeut sent out 39,220 specimens to American, European, andAsiatic universities and received 23,220 in exchange. In addition tothis coltection of higher plants there are 1,700 sheets of algae, and1,000 packets of mosses.In 1929 Butler University Botanical Studies made its debut, withDr. Stanley A. Cain as editor. In normal times it reaches librariesof 167 universities, scattered over the globe. Activity in research isreflected in the 164 books and scientific papers contributed to dateby graduate students and members of the staff. The years alsobrought expansion of the Botany Library, which today receives 240current puhlications.Dur ng the first quarter century of Butler University BotanyDepartment 130 men and women majored in botany. Of these, 49now hold an M. A., and 19 the Ph. D. degrees. Eighteen occupyteaching positions in colleges and universities, and 18 hold member ship in the research honor society Sigma Xi. Even though Dr. Fries ner has always heeded the admonition of J lllius Sachs to his students,. Gentlemen, remember that first of all you are teachers," researchwas not neglected. The Butler Botanical Studies may be credited,in part at least, with this ef fort in the search, after truth. Dr. Fries ner's research interests have Ctlt across many fields -in botany, butin recent years stress was placed on the taxonomy of goldenrods(Solidago) of North America, and the growth phenomena in trees(dendrology). Major publications in the field of taxonomy werethe monographs of goldenrods of Indiana and of West Yirginia.As "watch dog" of Indiana taxonomic reports, and of keeping Deam'sFlora of Indiana up-to-elate, he has intensified his interest in plantsof Indiana, working wholeheartedly and co-operatively with the"grand old man of Indiana flora," Charles C. Deam. Dr. Friesner'sfield collection numbers have just rounded the 18,669 mark.Research interests of other members of the Department are di verse ancl varied. Dr. C. Mervin Palmer centers his attention on thealgae of Indiana, and on Lemanea of North America. The under signed has limited his taxonomic activities to the grasses of Indiana,7
and to the plants invoh'ecl in larger ecological surveys, and specialize in pollen analysis anel plant sociology studies.The smooth operation of the nutler Botany Department is almostautomatically controlled by a regular hattery of files and up-to-the minute records which any assistant can handle with ease. The scn-iceo tiered schools by the National Youth Administration of the F cderalC;overnment was a blessing to the department in the preparation ofextensive cross fjle bihliographies, and !I1ounting of herbariumspeCImens.Dr. J;riesner holds membership in ten scientific organizations,whose publications are annu '.lIy added to the eotany Lihrary. Heholds the honor position of" fellow" in A.A.A.S. and in both theI ndiana and Ohio Science ."\cademies. In 1936 he served IndianaAcademy of Science as president. \,yorking his way throl1g'h schooldid not eliminate him from the ranks of Phi Beta Kappa. l'hi KappaPhi. and Sigma Xi. His name appears in the I941 edition of Who's\\'ho in America. ami in 194.1 \Vho's \Vho in the \\'cstern Hemis phere.The outstanding characteristics of the department are withoutdoubt the harmonious co.operatiol1 0 f members of the sta ff and theperpetual rejuvenated interest in good teaching and student progress.tll which e\'en the research acti\'ities must contribute. In normaltimes the hotany majors are regular companions on collecting andbog--boring trips, as well as on excursions when data on ecological andsociological studies are collected. 1nto the 70,000 plants storrr! inthe I\utlcr Herbarium are woven the student years of our majors. 1tis not merely ,a valuable collection of plants; that herbarium madehotanists.,\nd so we stand today on the pr inenee of a silver anniversary,and pay tribute to labors of by-gone years, but the past holds interestalso in that it speeds the work of the future on its way. The planswhich lie on Dr. Friesner's desk just now are concerned with thework of the present and the future of Butler University as a whole.and of the Botany Department as an integral part of the university,assigned to him as a special charge.J. E.POTZGERButler 1927ECHOESThe anniversary activities culminated in a banquet served in theDutler Cafeteria, with Dr. C. M. Palmer as toastmaster. The high 8light of the evening' w of the Michigan Depalthe Pacific." Approxfrom other universitiDr. Paul \VeatherwaDorothy Parker ('32,
nd specialize ent is almostnd up-to-theThe servicef the f.' eclera!eparation 0 ff herhariumrganizations.ihrary. Hein both the"\'eel rndianaollgh school Phi Kappan of \Vho\ern IT cmis.arc withont if and theInt prog-ress.Tn normallecting andlogical andis stored inI.Tria] ors.tril1l11 madenni\·crsary.ds interestThe planstI with thes a whole.university.OTZGER927ed in thefThe high light of the evening was an address by Professor H. H. Bartlett, headof the Michigan Department of Botany. He spoke on "The Flora ofthe Pacific." Approximately 100 guests were in attendance. Visitorsfrom other universities were: Dr. Claude E. O'Neal, Ohio Wesleyan;Dr. Paul \Veatherwax, Indiana University; Dr. Theo. Just and Dr.Dorothy Parker ('32), Notre Dame University; Professor and Mrs.9
free! Loew, Huntington College: Dr. T. G. Yuncker and Dr. Esther\-L Whitney, DePauw UniYer!;ity; Mr. Ralph Kriebel and Dr. Alice\Vithrow ('29) Purdue University, Professor Esther Adams ('25),:'foberly Junior .College, :'·1 oberly, 1\·10.; Dr. and Mrs. Noe Higin botham ('35), Texas Agr. Expt. Station, Beaumont, Texas.J. E. P.A REPLY\,Vhatever measure of success there has been in the Botany De partment durillg these twenty-five years, it is certain that the chiefcontributing factor has heen the whole-hearted cooperation of thestaff. It has been a privile e to have our share of capable studentsand this, with devoted teaching, never fails to hring a reasonable de gree 0 f success. 1 should like. also, to express my sincere apprecia tion to the committee who so sllccessfully "perpetrated" the celebra tion, to all who had any part in it, to all former students, and to 111)'fellow botanists from other institutions who so generously gave oftheir time to participate i; this celebration.-RAY C. FHfES:o ER.A BIOLOGICAL SPEeTTHE GREAT SMOKYPARK'"BySTANLThe Univers'The present study of life-fnflora is based on the system ofdi ificulties im'olved in correlationdata with the natural occurrencelife-form system as a means of doThe theoretical basis was a fami1944) and may he expressed astheir capacity to endure differ·There is usually a correlation belife-form) of an organism and itphological basis for adaptation inin its successf ul existence, repre:;physiological integration of alli ollows, if these are general trut'of an area are a measure of theclimate. It remains only to findlations.Raunkiaer decided that thl'looked for in the seasonal c1imllconstantly warm-humid trapiCo'llin precipitation, temperature, IJdormancy forced npon a planttissues are the meristematic.provided embryonic growing tiun favorable period representreason that Raunkiaer selecteding buds as the principal basisRaunkiaer's life-form sysbbeen applied widely, if sporadi*A contribution (BotanicalN. Ser. No. 75) in recognition ofment of Buller "Cniversity.
1919 i\'lichigan conferred upon him the doctor's degree. In the fall of lhe same year Dr. Friesner came to the Irvington campus of Bntler LJ niversity as assistant professor of botany, in the Department of I:iology. A new Department of Botany was organized in the first semester of 1920. The course in general botany, with an enrollment of 43 students, launched his science at Butler. Expansion .
Biological Sciences OSU BI 201 General Botany BOT 1404 Biological Sciences OSU-OKC BI 201 General Botany BIOL 1404 1 Biological Sciences OSUIT-OKM BI 201 General Botany BIOL 1404 Biological Sciences OU BI 201 General Botany PBIO 1114 5 Biological Sciences RCC BI 201 General Botany BOT 1114 1 Biological Sciences RSC BI 201 General Botany BIOL 1215 1
Botany for degree students. Bryophytes 8th ed. S. Chand and Co. Ltd. Delhi. Schofield, W.B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology. Macmillan Publishing Co. London. Hussain, F. and I. Ilahi. 2004. A text book of Botany. Department of Botany, University of Peshawar. Journals / Periodicals: Pakistan Journal of Botany, International Journal of Phycology and Phycochemsitry, Bryology, Phycology. Title of .
I Introduction to Botany Introduction to Botany, its branches and scope. A brief history of Botany. Botany in Ancient India. Contributions of Indian Botanists – J. C. Bose, BirbalSahni, P. Maheshwari, B.G.L. Swamy, E. K. JanakiAmmal and M. S. Swaminathan. A brief study of historical developments of Kingdom system of classification.
Optional :- Botany o IFS Botany solved papers by Mamata Singh Paper I 1. Botany for Degree Students by A C Dutta 2. The Embryology of Angiosperms by Bhojwani and Bhatnagar 3. A textbook of Botany, vol- I,II & III --- Pandey and Trivedi / A textbook of Botany by Singh, Pandey and Jain 4. Textbook of Bacteria Fungi & Viruses by H.C. Dubey 5.
BOTANY Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) Theory Syllabus Effective from June 2018 . A Text Book of Botany Vol. 1 & 2. S.N. Pandey, P.S. Trivedi and Mishra., Vikas Publication House Pvt. Ltd. Botany for degree students, Algae, Botany for degree students Fungi, Padey,
2. Vasishtha, B.R. 1974 Botany for Degree students Vol I Algae 3. Vasishtha, B.R. 1974 Botany for Degree students Vol III Bryophya 4. Vasishtha, P.C. 1974 Botany for Degree students Vol IV Pteridophyta 5. Vasishtha, P.C. 1976 Botany for Degree students Vol V Gymnosperms 6. Bhatnagar, S.P.
departments that award degrees in botany, with the caveat that some institutions that had removed Botany from the name of their department could retain a botany degree. Even in 2004, with a few exceptions, only Research Universities had Botany departments. Of those surveyed in 2004, 41%
K-5 ELA Missouri Learning Standards: Grade-Level Expectations Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Spring 2016 . Reading 2 1 Develop and apply skills to the reading process. Grade K Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 A With assistance, develop and demonstrate reading skills in response to read-alouds by: a. predicting what might happen next in a text based on the .