e-Learning ModulesChaudhary Mahadeo Prasad College(A CONSTITUENT PG COLLEGE OF UNIVERSITY OF ALLAHABAD)E-Learning ModuleSubject: Botany(Study material for Post Graduate Students)M.Sc. IV SemCOURSE CODE: BOT 605Molecular Biology and Molecular techniquesUnit (V): Topic: Protein- Nucleic acid interaction analysisDeveloped byName: Dr. Neha PandeyDesignation: Assistant ProfessorDEPARTMENT OF BOTANYBotany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002Page 1
e-Learning ModulesProtein- Nucleic acid Interaction analysisTwo major techniques for detection of Protein-Nucleic acid interaction are:1) Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)2) Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)1) Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)What Is Chromatin Immunoprecipitation?Not only do proteins interact with one another, they can also interact with DNA. Chromatinimmunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a technique that determines whether a protein of interest interacts witha specific DNA sequence. This technique is often used to study the repertoire of sites on DNA that arebound by particular transcription factors or by histone proteins, and to look at the precise genomiclocations of various histone modifications (including acetylation, phosphorylation, or methylation).How Does ChIP Work?ChIP can be used to examine the presence of protein-DNA interaction at steady state, or to quantifychanges in interaction at specific phases of the cell cycle, or following a treatment of interest. Proteinand associated chromatin are temporarily cross-linked in live cells or tissues (using formaldehyde orBotany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002Page 2
e-Learning ModulesUV) and sheared using enzymatic digestion or sonication to yield 300-1000 bp fragments of DNA.The protein of interest, along with any associated DNA fragments, is immunoprecipitated from the celldebris using a specific antibody. The cross-link is then reversed and DNA fragments are purified. Theamount of eluted DNA can be assessed through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using primersflanking the genomic locus of interest. DNA amplification is an indication of enrichment in binding ofthe protein of interest.Modified ChIP TechniquesDNA fragments purified by ChIP can be utilized for a number of downstream analysis techniques.Furthermore, the basic ChIP protocol described above can be modified to answer additional biologicalquestions.ChIP-on-chip: Genome-wide analysis of protein binding sites using microarray analysis of purifiedDNA fragments.ChIP-Seq: Genome-wide analysis of protein binding sites using deep sequencing of purified DNAfragments.Native ChIP: Omits the cross-linking step and uses micrococcal nuclease digestion to cut DNA athistone linkers to examine the DNA target of histone modifying proteins.ChIP-exo: Addition of an exonuclease digestion step to obtain increased resolution of protein bindingsites, up to a single base pair.ChIA-PET (chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing): A technique that combinesthe principles of ChIP with chromosome conformation capture (3C) to detect long-range chromatininteractions mediated via a protein of interest.iChIP (indexing-first chromatin immunoprecipitation): A high-sensitivity technique that reduces thenumber of cells required for a ChIP experiment by initially barcoding total cellular chromatin.enChIP (engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation): A techniquewhich employs the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target specific genomic regions. A guide RNAcomplementary to the desired genomic region is expressed in combination with a tagged,enzymatically inactive Cas9 protein. ChIP is then performed using an antibody against the modifiedCas9. This technique can help evaluate cis- and trans-interacting chromosomal looping events.RIP-Chip/RIP-Seq: Similar techniques used to analyze protein-RNA interactions.Limitations of ChIPAs with all molecular biology techniques, ChIP is not without its own set of limitations. ChIP assaysoften yield low signals as compared with controls, leading to inconclusive data. The assay is limited toa resolution relative to the size of the DNA fragments generated following shearing, which makes itBotany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002Page 3
e-Learning Modulesdifficult to determine the exact binding site of a protein. While ChIP will infer the presence of aprotein at a given genomic locus, it cannot determine functional significance of the protein’s bindingat that DNA region. Cross-linking may additionally include proteins that transiently interact with DNAor DNA-binding proteins and have no functional significance. Similarly, DNA interactions of proteinswith short residence time (as little as several seconds for some transcription factors) may not be fullycaptured. Additionally, interacting proteins may mask the epitope of the protein of interest. Finally, theChIP technique is extremely dependent on the quality and specificity of the antibody employed andmay not discriminate between different DNA-binding protein isoforms.2) Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) Based Methods(Also known as gel shift assayorBand shift assayorGel mobility shiftorGel retardation assay)The interaction of proteins with DNA is central to the control of many cellular processesincluding DNA replication, recombination and repair, transcription, and viral assembly. Oneimportant technique for studying gene regulation and determining protein–DNA interactions isthe electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). An advantage of studying protein –DNAinteractions by an electrophoretic assay is the ability to resolve complexes of differentstoichiometry or conformation. Another major advantage is that the source of the DNAbinding protein may be a crude nuclear or whole cell extract, in vitro transcription product or apurified preparation. EMSA can be used qualitatively to identify sequence -specific, DNAbinding proteins (such as transcription factors) in crude lysates and, in conjunction withmutagenesis, to identify the important binding sequences within the upstream regulatoryregion of a given gene. EMSA can also be utilized quantitatively to measure thermodynamicand kinetic parameters.EMSA is extensively used to analyze nucleic acid–protein interactions. EMSA is based on theprinciple that DNA–protein complexes are larger and move slowly when subjected tonondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), compared to the unbound (free) DNAprobe. Since the rate of DNA migration is shifted or retarded when bound to protein, the assay is alsoreferred to as a gel shift or gel retardation assay. DNA probes used in EMSA are typically doublestranded oligonucleotides of 20–25 bp containing a response element and can be radio-, fluoro-, orhapten-labeled. The DNA and crude nuclear extract or recombinant TF are incubated together in abinding reaction and separated by PAGE. A supershift assay can be performed to specifically assertBotany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002Page 4
e-Learning Modulesthe DNA–protein interactions by using an antibody specific to the TF of interest. However, when thebinding factor is unknown, two-dimensional-EMSA (2D-EMSA) can be used to identify sequencespecific DNA-binding proteins in crude nuclear extracts. 2D-EMSA utilizes the resolving power ofSDS-PAGE to enable identification of proteins that, in a prior EMSA step, have altered mobility as aconsequence of binding a probe. After purifying the protein band (spot) from the gel, matrix-assistedlaser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is used to identify theprotein. This approach has been successfully employed for a bacterial lysate (Stead & McDowall,2007), but the technique is challenging in cases of low-abundance TFs in a complex nuclear extract.Introduction to the EMSA (gel shift) techniqueThe EMSA technique is based on the observation that protein–DNA complexes migrate more slowlythan free linear DNA fragments when subjected to non-denaturing polyacrylamide or agarose gelelectrophoresis. Because the rate of DNA migration is shifted or retarded when bound to protein, theassay is also referred to as a gel shift or gel retardation assay.The ability to resolve protein–DNA complexes depends largely upon the stability of the complexduring each step of the procedure. During electrophoresis, the protein–DNA complexes are quicklyresolved from free DNA, providing a "snapshot" of the equilibrium between bound and free DNA inthe original sample. The gel matrix provides a "caging" effect that helps to stabilize the interactioncomplexes: even if the components of the interaction complex dissociate, their localizedconcentrations remain high, promoting prompt reassociation. Additionally, the relatively low ionicstrength of the electrophoresis buffer helps to stabilize transient interactions, permitting even labilecomplexes to be resolved and analyzed by this method.Protein–DNA complexes formed on linear DNA fragments result in the characteristic retardedmobility in the gel. However, if circular DNA is used (e.g., mini-circles of 200–400 bp), the protein–DNA complex may actually migrate faster than the free DNA, similar to what is observed whensupercoiled DNA is compared to nicked or linear plasmid DNA during electrophoresis. Gel shiftassays are also good for resolving altered or bent DNA conformations that result from the binding ofcertain protein factors. Gel shift assays need not be limited to protein–DNA interactions. Protein–RNAand protein–peptide interactions have also been studied using the same electrophoretic principle.Botany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002Page 5
e-Learning ModulesOverview of the gel shift assay method. The gel shift assay consists of three key steps: (1) bindingreactions, (2) electrophoresis, (3) probe detection. The order of component addition for the bindingreaction is often critical. Completed binding reactions are best electrophoresed immediately topreserve potentially labile complexes for detection. This idealized example shows completeelimination of the protein–probe complex with the addition of a specific competitor or protein-specificantibody. However, only a reduction in intensity is observed rather than the complete elimination ofbands.Botany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002Page 6
Botany Department Chaudhary Mahadeo Prasad Degree College, Prayagraj-U.P. 211002 Page 3 UV) and sheared using enzymatic digestion or sonication to yield 300-1000 bp fragments of DNA. The protein of interest, along with any associated DNA fragments, is immunoprecipitated from the cell debris using a specific antibody. The cross-link is then .
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itation: Chaudhary R, Atamian HS (2017) Resistance-Gene-Mediated Defense Responses against Biotic Stresses in the Crop Model Plant Tomato. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 8: 404. doi: 10.4172/2157-7471.1000404 Page 3 of 11 Volume 8 Issue 4 1000404 J Plant Pathol Microbiol, an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7471 against Verticillium.
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